Ngā Haeata o Aotearoa 2019

Publication Details

The Ngā Haeata o Aotearoa reporting in 2019 is made up of two reports based on available indicators: Ngā Haeata o Aotearoa: Ka Hikitia 2019 Report and Ngā Haeata o Aotearoa: Tau Mai Te Reo 2019 Report.

Ka Hikitia (the Māori Education Strategy) sets out how we will work with education services to achieve system shifts in education and support Māori learners and their whānau, hapū and iwi to achieve excellent and equitable outcomes; and provides an organising framework for the actions we will take.

Tau Mai Te Reo (the Māori Language in Education Strategy) sets out the goals we are seeking to achieve and provides a framework for coordinating our programmes and services that support Māori language in education for all learners. Tau Mai Te Reo is a companion to Ka Hikitia.

These two strategies have been adapted from Ka Hikitia 2013 and Tau Mai Te Reo 2013 and were refreshed in 2019 following a series of wānanga with Māori and reflect enduring themes in Māori education.

The Ngā Haeata o Aotearoa: Ka Hikitia Report provides a national picture of how well the education system is performing for Māori learners and their whānau against the five outcome domains of Ka Hikitia. The Ngā Haeata o Aotearoa: Tau Mai Te Reo Report provides a national picture of how well the education system is supporting Māori Language in Education against the three areas of the Tau Mai approach.

Author(s): Saila Cowles, Evidence Synthesis and Reporting, Ministry of Education.

Date Published: July 2020

Māori Education: A Summary Overview

Creating an education system which expects and supports young Māori to engage and to achieve success as Māori is the shared vision of this Government, iwi leaders, education providers and the whānau Māori.  Realising this vision will benefit individual young Māori, their whānau and communities, and New Zealand as a whole.

Ka Hikitia is a cross-agency strategy for the education sector. It sets out how we will work with education services to achieve system shifts in education and support Māori learners and their whānau, hapū and iwi to achieve excellent and equitable outcomes; and provides an organising framework for the actions we will take. Ka Hikitia identifies five outcome domains to support and monitor progress.

Below is a summary of the key findings for each outcome domain.

Te Whanau

The key outcome for Te Whanau is Education provision responds to learners within the context of their whānau.

Measures for this outcome domain are:

  • Māori learners have high levels of attendance and participation in our education services
  • Māori whānau have regular and positive engagements with our education services

The available indicators are:

  • Māori enrolments/attendances in early learning services
  • Proportion of Māori learners attending school regularly
  • Rate of Māori learners receiving an early learning exemption
  • Proportion of Māori learners who remained in school until age 17 or above
  • Proportion of Māori school leavers enrolled in tertiary education

Data limitations: The above indicators relate to the first measure. We currently do not have any indicators that can measure Māori whānau engagement with our education services.

In 2019, the majority of Māori enrolments/attendances were for Education and Care services (57%), 16% of Māori enrolments/attendances were for Te Kōhanga Reo, 13% were for kindergartens, 6% of were for home-based services and 3% were for Playcentres. Māori children accounted for 94% of enrolments at Te Kōhanga Reo.

Attendance is an indicator of how engaged learners and their whānau are with their school. Between 2011 and 2019, the proportion of Māori learners attending school regularly (more than 90% of the time) dropped from 56% in 2011 to 44% in 2019.

Māori learners were more likely to apply for an early leaving exemption. In 2018, 667 (out of 673) early leaving exemptions were approved, of which 330 were Māori. Early leaving exemptions were granted at a rate of 24.5 for every 1,000 Māori learners compared to 11.2 for all learners.

From 2009-2018, the proportion of Māori learners remaining in school until age 17 increased by 4 percentage points for Māori in Māori medium education and 8 percentage points for Māori in English medium education. Māori in Māori medium education were more likely to stay in school until 17 than Māori in English medium education, however both of these proportions remain lower than for all learners. Retention rates were higher for Māori females than Māori males, independent of medium.

The proportion of Māori school leavers going on to tertiary education within a year of leaving school declined from 53% of the 2009 leavers to 50% of the 2017 leavers This decline is most obvious for Māori in Māori medium education (a high of 64% in 2012 to 51% in 2017), which is now similar to Māori in English medium education (50% in 2017).

Te Tangata

The key outcome for Te Tangata is Māori are free from racism, discrimination and stigma in education.

Measures for this outcome domain are:

  • Māori learners and whānau feel a strong sense of belonging in our education system and are free from racism

The available indicators are:

  • Proportion of Māori 15-year-olds who reported feeling like they belong at school
  • Proportion of Māori 15-year-olds who reported experiencing bullying behaviours at school
  • Proportion of Māori 15-year-olds who reported feeling emotionally supported by their teacher
  • Proportion of Māori 15-year-olds who reported feeling safe at school
  • Rate of Māori learners receiving stand-downs, suspensions, exclusions, and expulsions

The sense of belonging among Māori 15-year-olds in school is falling (from 87% in 2000 to 63% in 2018). In the past decade or so, a higher proportion of Māori 15-year-olds reported feeling like an outsider, awkward or out of place, or lonely at school. Conversely, a lower proportion reported feeling like they belong at school, were able to make friends easily, or that other students liked them.

In 2018, Māori 15-year-olds were more likely to report experiencing bullying behaviours from other students compared to the national average.

In 2018, approximately one-quarter of Māori 15-year-olds did not agree with feeling emotionally supported by their teacher or feeling safe at school.

Stand-downs, suspensions, exclusions (applied to learners under 16 years old) and expulsions (applied to learners aged 16 years old and above) are measures of a school’s response to particular behaviours. The rates of stand-downs, suspensions, exclusions and expulsions continue to be higher for Māori learners, in particular Māori boys, compared to the rates for all learners. Between 2009 and 2018, suspension, exclusion and expulsion rates have decreased for Māori learners, with rates now lower than 10 per 1,000 Māori learners in 2018. Māori boys continue have higher rates of suspension, exclusion and expulsion than Māori girls. In contrast, the stand-down rates for Māori learners have been increasing since 2015.

Te Kanorautanga

The key outcome for Te Kanorautanga is Māori are diverse and need to be understood in the context of their diverse aspirations and lived experiences.

Measures for this outcome domain are:

  • Māori are diverse and need to be understood in the context of their diverse aspirations and lived experiences
  • Māori learners are achieving excellent and equitable education outcomes

The available indicators are:

  • Proportion of Māori 15-year-olds reaching minimum level of proficiency in reading
  • Proportion of Māori school leavers with NCEA Level 2 or above
  • Proportion of Māori school leavers with NCEA Level 3 or University Entrance
  • Proportion of Māori enrolments in tertiary education
  • Proportion of Māori completions in tertiary education
  • Proportion of teachers in school who are of Māori ethnicity
  • Proportion of early learning teachers who are of Māori ethnicity

Only 70% of Māori 15-year olds reached the PISA minimum level of proficiency in reading in 2018. As with all groups of learners, the achievement of Māori learners is diverse, with Māori represented at both the lower and higher ends of achievement. However, the lower reading score for Māori 15-year-olds overall points to the different experience and outcomes that Māori 15 year olds have within the education system. Note: this data does not include Māori medium.

In 2018, the proportion of Māori who left school with NCEA Level 2 and above was 20% higher than in 2009. Māori in Māori medium education continue to have higher rates of attainment compared to Māori in English medium.

The proportion of Māori school leavers with NCEA Level 3 or UE has increased significantly over the past 10 years. Māori school leavers in Māori medium education continue to have higher rates of attainment compared to the rates for Māori schools leavers in English medium education and for all learners. In 2018, the proportion of Māori school leavers in Māori medium education that attained NCEA Level 3 or above was 59% compared to 34% for Māori school leavers in English medium education and 54% for all school leavers.

Between 2010 and 2019, the proportion of Māori enrolled in higher level tertiary courses have increased but still remain lower than the national averages. In 2019, 26% of Māori learners were enrolled in Bachelors, Graduate Certificates or Diplomas (compared to 40% of all learners enrolled that year), while 7% of Māori learners were enrolled in Honours, Masters or Doctorates (compared to 14% of all learners enrolled that year).

The majority of Māori learners who go on to tertiary study work towards a Level 3-7 certificate or diploma. Twenty-one of Māori who completed a qualification in 2018 completed a Level 1-2 Certificate (compared to 13% of all learners completing that year), 65% of Māori completed a Level 3-7 Certificate or Diploma (compared to 53% of all learners completing that year), 11% of Māori completed a Bachelor, Graduate Certificate or Diploma (compared to 24 of all learners completing that year), and 6% of Māori completed an Honours, Masters or Doctorate (compared to 13% of all learners completing that year).

The proportion of Māori teachers in the workforce has been increasing but is still not representative of the Māori student population. In 2019, 12% of the teaching workforce was Māori, an increase from 9% in 2004. In comparison, Māori learners make up 25% of all learners.

The proportion of Māori teachers in early learning services is not representative of the proportion of Māori enrolments/attendances (24%).

Te Kuakiritanga

The key outcome for Te Kuakiritanga is Identity, language and culture matter for Māori learners

Measures for this outcome domain are:

  • Māori learners and whānau tell us they see and feel their identity, language and culture on a daily basis in our education services

Data limitations: There is very little national level data around this type of information. At present the only types of information we have around this is participation in Māori language and NCEA standards. We need to grow our evidence base in this area.

The available indicators are:

  • Proportion of Māori learners enrolled in Māori medium education
  • Proportion of Māori learners enrolled schools with high levels of te reo Māori
  • Proportion Māori learners attaining Māori culture and identity NCEA standards

In 2019, 21% of Māori enrolments/attendances in early learning services were in Māori medium education. In schooling, 13% of Māori in primary and 6% of Māori in secondary were in Māori medium education.

In 2019, there were more Māori enrolments/attendances in early learning services and Māori learners in primary education mid-level use of te reo Māori.

Māori in Māori medium education are more likely to participate in and attain standards that reflect Māori culture, identity and language than Māori in English medium education.

Te Rangatiratanga

The key outcome for Te Rangatiratanga is Māori exercise their authority and agency in education

Measures for this outcome domain are:

  • Whānau, hapū, iwi and Māori are participating in and making decisions about the education of Māori learners.

The available indicators are:

  • Māori representation on the Board of Trustees

In 2019, 40% of schools had proportional Māori representation on the Board of Trustees

Māori Language in Education: A Summary Overview

The Māori language is a taonga of iwi and Māori and an integral part of our national identity as New Zealanders. It is important to give practical effect to Te Tiriti o Waitangi through Māori language in education. Our education system is one of the best mechanisms available for growing the Māori language in terms of breadth (the number of learners with Māori language skills) and depth (the number of learners with very high levels of Māori language proficiency and use).

Tau Mai Te Reo is a cross-agency strategy for the education sector. It sets out the goals we are seeking to achieve and provides a framework for coordinating our programmes and services that support Māori language in education for all learners. Tau Mai Te Reo is a companion to Ka Hikitia.

Below is a summary of the key findings for each area that make up the Tau Mai approach.

Mihi Mai Te Reo

Our education services will support learners to value and acquire and use Māori language words, phrases and other forms (for example, waiata and haka) that are used on a regular basis in New Zealand Society.

The key outcome for Mihi Mai is more learners will participate in all levels of Māori language in education.

Measure:

  • Increased participation in different forms of Māori language in education

The available indicators are:

  • Early Learning services by percentage of time te reo Māori is spoken
  • Enrolments/attendances in Early Learning services by percentage of time te reo Māori is spoken
  • Participation in Māori language in education at school
  • Participation in Māori language in education at school by Māori language level

Since 2014, there has been a net increase of 607 Early Learning services. The largest increase was in the number of Early Learning services speaking te reo Māori 12-20% of the time, which increased by 241; followed by services speaking te reo Māori 1-11% of the time (191) and services speaking te reo Māori 21-50% of the time (155). There was an increase of only 2 services speaking te reo Māori 81-100% of the time. Between 2018 and 2019, enrolments in full immersion services (81-100%) decreased by 123. Enrolments in services where te reo Māori is spoken 51-80% of the time doubled between 2014 and 2019.

More learners are participating in all levels of Māori language in education at school. Between 2010 and 2019, the number of Māori learners in Māori language in education grew by 27%, from 67,193 Māori learners in 2010 to 85,444 learners in 2019. The number of all learners participating in Māori language in education grew by 35% from 149,056 learners in 2010 to 201,299 learners in 2019. The largest increase has been in Māori language in English medium education.

95% of learners at primary school participated in some form of Māori language learning at school. From 2010-2019, there was a 6 percentage point increase in the proportion of learners at primary participating in Māori language learning at school (Levels 3-5) and a 7 percentage point decrease in the proportion of learners doing Taha Māori. The proportion of learners in Māori medium at primary stayed the same. Learners in secondary education were less likely to participate in Māori language learning, with only 17% of learners in 2019 that participated in some form of Māori language learning.

Kōrero Mai Te Reo

Our education services will provide Māori language to support learners to develop the ability and confidence to talk about a range of things in the Māori language.

The key outcome for Kōrero Mai is Learners in Māori language in education will increase their proficiency and use of the Māori language.

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Measure: Achievement of Māori language results by learners

The available indicators are:

  • Participation in Māori standards at NCEA Level 1 or above
  • Achievement in Māori standards at NCEA Level 1 or above

Learners in Māori medium education are more likely to participate in standards related to Māori culture, language and identity than learners in English medium education. 78% of learners in Māori medium education who left school in 2018 had participated in Māori culture and identity standards (compared to 3% of all learners in English medium education) while 88% of learners in Māori medium education participated in te reo Māori/Rangitira Māori standards (compared to 4% of learners in English medium education).

Tau Mai Te reo

Our education services will ensure learners can access Māori Medium education services in order to develop high levels of Māori language proficiency and use.

The key outcome for Tau Mai is Learners in Māori language in education will achieve excellent education outcomes.

Measures:

  • Ensure learners can access Māori medium education
  • Excellent education outcomes for learners in Māori medium

The available indicators are:

  • Number of Māori medium Early Learning services
  • Number of schools with Māori medium learners
  • Number of learners participating in Māori medium education
  • Number of enrolments in te reo Māori qualifications
  • Number of completions in te reo Māori qualifications
  • Number of enrolments in Māori medium Initial Teacher Education
  • Number of completions in Māori medium Initial Teacher Education

Between 2010 and 2019, the number of Early learning services where te reo Māori is spoken at least 51% of the time has increased but the percentage share of these services has been gradually decreasing since 2014.

Between 2010 and 2019 the percentage of schools with Māori medium learners has remained stable throughout at 11%.In 2019, 290 schools catered to Māori medium learners, up from 278 in 2018.

The number of learners participating in Māori medium education increased between 2010 and 2019. The biggest increase is at the primary level. In 2019 there were 3,957 more learners participating in Māori medium education in primary schooling than in 2010. At the secondary level, this number increased by 1,207 from 2010-2019. However, the number of enrolments/attendances in Early Learning has remained relatively stable.

More learners are choosing to study towards a tertiary qualification in te reo Māori. Since 2009, there has been a 16% increase in the number of Māori enrolments and a 24% increase overall. In 2018 there were 14,800 enrolments in total, and 8,725 of these were Māori enrolments. The pattern for those completing qualifications is similar to that of enrolments. Completion rates continue to rise. In 2018, the number of total completions was 9,070, and 5,140 of these were Māori completions.

There has been a decrease in the number of enrolments in Māori medium initial teacher education (ITE), from a high of 695 enrolments in 2016 to 620 in 2019. The number of students completing Māori medium ITE qualifications has also decreased, with the largest decrease between 2017 and 2018, when completions fell by 30. Most learners study towards a primary teaching qualification, with enrolments in Māori medium primary ITE making up 94% of enrolments and the remaining 6% for Early Learning. There are limited secondary Māori medium ITE provisions, and we currently have no data for this.

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