2013 Survey of Income, Expenditure and Fees of Early Childhood Education Providers

Publication Details

This report presents results from the 2013 Survey of Income, Expenditure and Fees (SIEF) at ECE Services. This survey collected information on the costs, income, assets and liabilities, fees and voluntary work and is comparable to the 2011 SIEF. The cost drivers surveys were also carried out in 2005, 2006 and 2008.

Author(s): Julia Arnold, Evidence, Data and Knowledge, Ministry of Education.

Date Published: November 2015

Executive Summary

What are the average costs of providing ECE services? How have costs changed from 2011 to 2013?

The average cost of providing early childhood education (ECE) services ranged from $5.80 per child hour for playcentres to $10.20 per child hour for education and care services. Between 2011 and 2013 costs increased for kindergartens, education and care services and home-based networks. The cost of providing care to children aged zero to one year olds was between 10-20% higher than the cost of providing care to children two to five year olds.

Table 1: Average cost per child hour of ECE per child hour
Note:
  1. An asterisk* means the change is statistically significant; we are 95% confident that the change between 2011 and 2013 average is real, and not by chance.
Service Type 2011 2013   Change   
2011-2013
Average
Cost
Margin
of error
Average
Cost
Margin
of error
Education and Care $9.20 $0.15 $10.20 $0.40 11%*
Kindergarten $9.10 $0.10 $9.70 $0.05 6%*
Home-based $8.10 $0.20 $8.90 $0.15 9%*
Playcentre $5.70 $0.25 $5.80 $0.20 1%
Kōhanga Reo n/a n/a $7.40 $0.05 n/a

What are the main costs for services? How do they vary across different types of services, and how have they changed since 2011?

Teacher salaries made up around two-thirds of costs for kindergartens and education and care services. This was even higher for kōhanga reo, where 72% of costs were salary costs. For home-based services salaries for both co-ordinators and educators were 78% of costs. Playcentre teacher salary costs were only 15% of expenditure because these services use a lot of volunteer labour, 72% of costs were operational costs, including association levies, which amounted to a third of playcentre costs.

Table 2: Distribution of ECE costs
Service Type Teacher Salaries Other Staff Costs Ongoing Property Costs Other Operational Costs
Education and Care 65% 12% 12% 12%
Kindergarten 69% 11% 8% 13%
Home-based 78% 11% 2% 9%
Playcentre 15% 3% 9% 72%
Kōhanga Reo 72% 0% 8% 20%

What proportion of costs is covered by Ministry of Education's entitlement subsidy? Do funding subsidies still cover average costs for 20 Hours ECE?

20 Hours ECE covers average costs for all service types except playcentre, where it covers about 80% of costs. The zero to one year olds universal subsidies cover between 60-110% of average costs, depending on service type. The two to five year old subsidy which applies to children or hours not covered by 20 Hours ECE, covers between 40% and 75% of costs.

What is the average income of ECE services, how does it vary across the sector, and how has it changed since 2011?

The average income of services ranged from $6.15 per child hour for playcentres to $10.60 per child hour for education and care services. Income has increased between 2011 and 2013 for kindergartens and education and care services. On average, income was higher than costs for all service types, though the gap between costs and income had decreased between 2011 and 2013.

Table 3: Average income per child hour of ECE per child hour
Service Type 2011 2013   Change  
2011-2013
Average
Income
Margin
of Error
Average
Income
Margin
of Error
Education and Care $10.15 $0.15 $10.60 $0.15 6%*
Kindergarten $9.95 $0.10 $10.10 $0.05 2%*
Home-based $8.75 $0.20 $8.95 $0.15 2%
Playcentre $6.15 $0.25 $6.15 $0.10 0%
Kōhanga Reo n/a n/a $7.50 $0.05 n/a

How much of ECE is publicly funded and how much is funded privately through households and community sources?

All service types get the majority of their funding from the government. This ranges from home-based with 58% of funding from the government to kōhanga reo with 93% of funding from the government and has not changed from 2011. Most other income comes from parents, though for playcentres 17% of income comes from other sources (such as private grants and fundraising) compared to 6% of income from parents.

Table 4: Distribution of income sources
Service Type Government Parents Other
Education and Care 75% 22% 3%
Kindergartens 90% 4% 5%
Home-based 58% 42% <1%
Playcentres 77% 6% 17%
Kōhanga Reo 93% 4% 3%

 
Across all service types, for every dollar that families pay in fees, the government provides $4.80. These numbers are based on income by source data from the survey and are weighted by the number of services in each service type. These figures are based on a sample, and are an estimate only.

What are the average fees, how do these vary across the sector, and how have they changed since 2011?

Average fees for education and care and home-based services were similar at $5.50 to $5.55 for two to five year olds and $5.60 to $5.80 for zero to one year olds. For education and care services this was 4-5% higher than in 2011. Kindergarten fees were on average $3.60, for children not enrolled in 20 Hours ECE.  Playcentre fees were much lower at an average of $0.50 per hour.

Table 5: Average fees per hour by service type and age of child
Service Type 2011 2013
Zero to One years old Two to Five years old Zero to One years old Two to Five years old
Education and Care $5.55 $5.25 $5.80 $5.50
Kindergarten N/A $3.15 N/A $3.60
Home-based $5.75 $5.75 $5.60 $5.55
Playcentre $0.35 $0.45 $0.45 $0.50

Footnotes

  1. "Costs" refers to operational expenditure only and excludes the costs of capital.
  2. "Child Hours" refer to both funded and unfunded child hours.
  3. An asterisk* means the change is statistically significant; we are 95% confidence that the change between 2011 and 2013 average is real and not by chance.
  4. Excluding children receiving 20 Hours ECE funding subsidy.

Contact Us

Education Data Requests
If you have any questions about education data then please contact us at:
Email: Requests EDK
Phone: +64 4 463 8065