Māori participation in tertiary education: 2004 Publications
This latest in a series of fact sheets on Māori in tertiary education provides information about student loans among Māori students. In addition, an earlier fact sheet on Māori participation in tertiary education is now updated with 2004 enrolment data.
Author(s): Ministry of Education
Date Published: August 2005
In 2004, the growth in Māori student numbers in tertiary education slowed, with only a 3% increase from 2003. The total EFTS consumed by Māori students fell slightly compared to 2003, indicating increased take up of part-time/part-year study.
Figure 1: Māori Students and EFTS in Formal Tertiary Education 1994-2004
Māori participation rates have only increased slightly since 2002. However, non-Māori participation rates have continued to rise at sub-degree level.
Figure 2: Māori and Non-Māori Age-Standardised Participation Rates in Formal Tertiary Education 1994-2004
Māori participation rates in sub-degree qualifications continue to exceed those of non-Māori. However, non-Māori rates are continuing to increase at this level. At bachelors level, Māori participation rates have levelled off just below those of non-Māori. At postgraduate level, Māori rates continue to rise but are still below those of non-Māori.
Figure 3: Māori Students in Tertiary Education by Qualification 1994-2004
From 2003 to 2004, there was a decrease in Māori enrolments in level 4 certificates and diplomas. Enrolments in postgraduate degrees continued to increase, with a 9% increase in honours/postgraduate certificates and diplomas.
Figure 4: Māori Students in Formal Tertiary Education by Qualification Level 1994-2004
While nearly two-thirds of Māori students were enrolled in level 1-3 certificates in 2004, enrolments at this level accounted for less than half of the EFTS consumed by Māori students. This reflects that many of these qualifications require less than a year's study.
|Level 1-3 Certificate||61,885||65.5%||24,066||45.7%|
|Level 4 Certificate||15,325||16.2%||9,495||18.0%|
|Level 5-6 Diploma||10,832||11.0%||6,309||12.0%|
|Level 7 Bachelors||15,257||16.1%||11,245||21.3%|
|Level 8 Honors1||1,345||1.4%||693||1.3%|
|Level 9 Masters||1,094||1.2%||642||1.2%|
|Level 10 Doctorate||259||0.3%||220||0.4%|
In 2004, there was a decline in Māori students at wānanga, accompanied by a continued increase in students at institutes of technology and polytechnics (ITPs). Student numbers at private training establishments (PTEs) increased after a period of decline. Numbers at universities remained steady.
Figure 5: Māori Students in Formal Tertiary Education by Subsector 1994-2004
While nearly 40% of Māori students were enrolled in ITPs, they accounted for only a quarter of the EFTS consumed by Māori students. This indicates more part-time/part-year study at ITPs.
|Institutes of Techonology & Polytechnics||36,579||39%||13,751||26%|
|Colleges of Education||1,777||2%||1,151||2%|
|Private Training Establishments||19,094||20%||8,880||17%|
Field of Study
The largest fields of study for Māori students in 2004 were mixed field programmes, society and culture and management and commerce.
There were notable increases in enrolments in management and commerce and health in 2004.
Figure 6: Māori Students in Formal Tertiary Education by Qualification Field of Study 1994-2004
While 30% of Māori students were enrolled in mixed-field programmes in 2004, enrolments in this field accounted for only 16% of EFTS consumed by Māori students. Again, this reflects that many of these qualifications require less than a year's study.
|Qualification Field of Study||Students||EFTS|
|Mixed Field Programmes||27,965||30%||8,611||16%|
|Society & Culture||23,165||25%||16,432||31%|
|Management & Commerce||18,541||20%||7,949||15%|
|Agriculture, Environmental & Related Studies||7,019||7%||3,904||7%|
|Engineering & Related Technologies||4,108||4%||3,191||6%|
|Food, Hospitality & Personal Services||4,033||4%||1,830||3%|
|Architecture & Building||2,711||3%||1,597||3%|
|Natural & Physical Sciences||1,575||2%||1,004||2%|
Gender and Age
In 2004, 64% of Maori students were women. However, the number of Maori men increased by 5% from 2003 to 2004, compared with only 2% growth for Maori women.
Figure 7: Māori Students in Formal Tertiary Education by Gender 1994-2004
The growth in Māori enrolments over the last few years has been mostly in those aged 25 and over. From 2003 to 2004, the main growth was in those aged 40 and over.
Figure 8: Māori Students in Formal Tertiary Education by Age Group 1994-2004
Most of the participation by Maori aged 25 and over tends to be in sub-degree qualifications.
Figure 9: Māori Students in Formal Tertiary Education by Qualification Level and Age 2004
- Data before 1999 excludes private training establishments and other tertiary education providers.
- Data relates to domestic students enrolled at any time during the year with a tertiary education provider in formal qualifications of greater than 0.03 EFTS.
- Data excludes all non-formal learning and formal learning through on-job industry training and private training establishments which neither received tuition subsidies nor were approved for student loans and/or allowances.
- Students who studied at more than one qualification level, or in more than one subsector or more than one field of study have been counted in each level, subsector or field of study.
- Participation rate is the percentage of the population aged 15 and over who were enrolled at any time during the year. These rates have been adjusted to correct for the differing age distribution of each group over time.