Retention of students in senior secondary schools
What We Have Found
In 2013, 82.6% of students remained at school to their 17th birthday. Retention rates have been gradually increasing since 2009 but differences remain between girls and boys, and Māori and non-Māori.
Date Updated: July 2014
Percentage of students staying on at school to age 17.
Why This Is Important
Completion of upper secondary education is associated with a range of economic and social benefits both in New Zealand and across the OECD. Retention to senior secondary schooling is linked to higher levels of skills and knowledge required for participation in our increasingly knowledge-based society and the wider global community (OECD, 2013).
According to Norton et al. (2000) the risk of unemployment for those with no school qualifications or only Year 11 qualifications is higher than for those with Year 12 or Year 13 qualifications. The positive effect of each additional year of schooling on incomes has been estimated to range from 5 to 10%.
Lashlie (2005) found that one of the factors important for successful school leaving for boys was merely staying at school until the end of the Year 13. This is because it takes boys longer to achieve a high level of maturity and self-management than girls, and that boys' schools in particular can "hold boys steady while the chaos of adolescence sorts itself". Simply keeping boys at school (by making school relevant) until they have decided what they want their next step in life to be can reduce the chances of a boy "arriving at a prison gate".
How We Are Going
In 2013, 82.6% of students stayed at school to the age of 17. There has been a 3.4 percentage point increase in this number since 2009 (79.1%) and there has been a 0.3 percentage point increase since 2012 (82.3%).
Female students (85.1%) were more likely to remain at school until age 17 than their male counterparts (80.1%).
Figure 1: Percentage of school leavers aged 17 or above (2009 to 2013)
In 2013, Māori students had the lowest proportion of students remaining at school to age 17 (67.9%). This compares with a retention rate of 81.3% for Pasifika and 85.1% for European/Pākehā. Asian students had the highest retention rate (93.9%).
Pasifika students displayed the greatest increase in the proportion remaining at school to 17 from 2012, with a 0.8 percentage point increase. This increase was slightly higher than for Asian students, who had 0.6 percentage point increase from 2012. Māori and European/Pākehā were almost unchanged on the previous year with 0.1 percentage point increases respectively.
Māori students displayed the largest improvement in the proportion of students remaining at school until age 17 since 2009 with a 5.5 percentage point increase. This was followed by European/Pākehā who saw a 3.7 percentage point increase while Pasifika saw a 2.4 percentage point increase.
The gap in retention between Māori and non-Māori has closed by 2.2 percentage points since 2009.
Figure 2: Percentage of school leavers aged 17 or older by ethnic group (2003 to 2013)
Girls are more likely to stay at school until 17 than boys (85.1% compared to 80.1%). The proportion of females and males staying at school has remained unchanged since 2012 with females showing no change (85.1%) while males have seen a slight increase of 0.5 percentage points. The size of this gender gap has decreased in 2013, from 5.8 percentage points in 2009 to 5.0 percentage points in 2013. This difference between 2012 and 2013 is because of an increase in the proportion of 17-year-old boys remaining at school. There was almost no change in the proportion of girls staying on over the same period.
Figure 3: Percentage of school leavers aged 17 or older by gender (2009 to 2013)
There is a clear correlation between decile (the socio-economic mix of the school the student attended) and the percentage of school leavers aged 17 or above. Schools in the lowest quintile (deciles 1 and 2) draw their students from communities with the highest degree of socio-economic disadvantage. In 2013, 91.9% of students from schools in the highest decile (deciles 9 and 10) remained at school until the age of 17. This was 20.2 percentage points higher than schools in the lowest two deciles (71.7%).
Figure 4: Percentage of school leavers aged 17 or older by quintile and ethnicity (2013)
There is a large variation in the percentage of students remaining at school until age 17 amongst schools within each decile. While, on average, lower decile schools have poorer retention rates than higher decile schools, some decile 1 and 2 schools have higher retention rates than many of the decile 9 and 10 schools.
Figure 5: Percentage of school leavers who were retained at school aged 17 and above, by school decile (2013)
Evidence about what works for this indicator can be found in:
- Hutmacher, W. (2001). Introduction. In W. Hutmacher, D. Cochrane, N. Bottani (Eds). In Pursuit of Equity in Education: Using International Indicators to Compare Equity Policies. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- Lashlie, C. (2005). He'll Be OK: Growing Gorgeous Boys Into Good Men. Auckland: Harper Collins.
- Norton, P.,Sanderson, K., Booth, T., & Stroombergen, A. (2000). A literature review of the effect of school resourcing on educational outcomes. Report to the Ministry of Education. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
- OECD (2001). Schooling for tomorrow: What schools for the future? Paris: OECD.
- OECD (2013). Education at a glance 2013. Paris: OECD.
The Ministry of Education has established an Iterative Best Evidence Synthesis Programme to systematically identify, evaluate, analyse, synthesise and make accessible, relevant evidence linked to a range of learner outcomes. Please visit BES (Iterative Best Evidence Synthesis) Programme
to find out more.
- Alton-Lee, A. (2003). Quality Teaching for Diverse Students in Schooling: Best Evidence Synthesis. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
- Effective Pedagogy in Pāngarau/Mathematics: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
Further statistics related to school leavers are available on the statistics pages on Education Counts:
- School Leavers Statistics. Education Counts website.
Where To Find Out More
For more publication-related information, please email the: Information Officer Mailbox