# Entering and leaving teaching (2004-2019)

The data on this page looks at teachers who move into or out of our schooling teacher workforce each year in state and state-integrated schools.

## Introduction

We calculate entry rates into the teacher workforce, and leaving rates out of the teacher workforce.

• Entry rates: look at those teachers who were not teaching in one year, and were teaching in the next
• Leaving rates: look at those teachers who were teaching in one year, and were not teaching in the next.

To calculate rates, these groups of teachers are taken as a percentage of the total size of the teacher workforce.

This page presents some high level trends, and makes data on entry and leaving rates available in spreadsheets, broken down by a range of variables.

## Current Trends

Figure 1: Teacher entry rates by schooling sector (2005-2019)

Figure 2: Teacher leaving rates by school sector (2005-2019)

## Build Your Own Table: Interactive Pivot Table for Teachers Entering and Leaving the Teacher Workforce (2004-2019)

This workbook allows you to create your tables by any combination of variables. Includes the option of displaying teacher entry and leaving statistics by teacher characteristics (such as age) and school characteristics (such as decile).

Please note: use of this spreadsheet requires MS Excel version 2007 or later.

## Entering the Teacher Workforce Time Series (2005-2019)

These workbooks provide statistics on teachers entering the teacher workforce (numbers and rates), broken down into a range of teacher demographics, school characteristics (such as decile), and regional type variables.

Numbers of teachers entering the workforce are supplied in the first workbook, and rates are supplied in the second.

## Leaving the Teacher Workforce Time Series (2004-2018)

These workbooks provide statistics on teachers leaving the teacher workforce (numbers and rates), broken down into a range of teacher demographics, school characteristics (such as decile), and regional type variables.

Numbers of teachers leaving the workforce are supplied in the first workbook, and rates are supplied in the second.

## How are entry and leaving rates calculated?

When measuring teacher entry and leaving rates we are considering our total pool of teachers and measuring whether teachers move into or out of this pool each year.

This pool of teachers we are considering includes both regular (permanent and fixed term) and day relief teachers, which means that teachers moving from regular positions to day relief and vice versa are not counted as entering or leaving, as they are moving within our pool of teachers.

When determining if a teacher enters or leaves the workforce, we look at consecutive years, and consider whether a teacher is teaching across both of those years or not. If they are teaching in the first year and not the second, they are considered to be leaving, and if they are teaching in the second year but not the first they are counted as entering.

Our leaving rate is calculated by taking the total number of regular teachers who leave the teacher workforce in a year and dividing that by the total number of regular teachers employed during the last year they were teaching, i.e.:

Our entry rate is calculated by taking the total number of regular teachers who enter the teacher workforce in a year and dividing that by the total number of regular teachers employed during the year they start teaching, i.e.:

Our entry rate includes both teachers who are new to teaching, and those who have taught previously. To be counted in entry statistics teachers need to be absent from teaching across a whole year, this means that our entry (and leaving) statistics pick up some teachers who may have taken a short break from teaching for something like parental leave.

Some teachers will work in more than one role across the year. For each year, these teachers are reported only once against the role in which they worked the most hours during the year. We call this their main role, and we measure their movements between these main roles from year to year.

Our entry data is reported one year ahead of out leaving data. For example we currently have teacher entry data available up to 2019 but leaving data is only available until 2018. This is because to measure leaving rates, we need to wait until the following year is completed before we know if a teacher has left or not. So 2019 leaving data is not yet available because we need to wait for 2020 to end (and for the 2020 data to be processed) before we know if our 2019 teachers were still teaching in 2020, to determine if 2019 teachers left or not.

## Data Dimensions Notes

The available dimensions are:

### Year

For teachers entering the workforce: This is the year that teachers are entering into the workforce. (i.e. the year they start teaching - either for the first time or after being away from the workforce for at least a year.)

For teachers leaving the workforce: This is the year that teachers are leaving from. (i.e. the last year they taught in - either to permanently leave or to go on a break from teaching in the following year.)

### Teacher: Experience

This allows us to separate our teachers who are entering the teacher workforce into those who are new to our teacher workforce and those who are returning to it after a break from teaching.

New: teachers who have never worked as a teacher in a state or state integrated school in New Zealand before (this includes both new domestic initial teacher education graduates and teachers entering from overseas).

Returning: teachers who have worked as a teacher in a state or state integrated school in New Zealand before, but were not in the teacher workforce in the previous year.

### Teacher: Ethnic Group

The Ministry uses Statistics New Zealand's definition of ethnicity: ethnicity is the ethnic group or groups that people identify with or feel they belong to. Ethnicity is a measure of cultural affiliation, as opposed to race, ancestry, nationality or citizenship.

Total response ethnicity is used here. This means that teachers can identify with up to 3 different ethnic groups, and have been counted in each ethnic group they belong to and once in "Total" Ethnic Group.

### Teacher: Age 5yr Group

The age of the teacher, in five year age-groups. Age is calculated as at 1 July for each year.

### Teacher: Age 10yr Group

The age of the teacher, in ten year age-groups. Age is calculated as at 1 July for each year.

### Teacher: Gender

The gender of the teacher.

### Teacher: Employment Type

The type of contract a teacher is on - Fixed Term or Permanent.

### Teacher: Full/Part Time

The type of contract a teacher is on - Full Time or Part Time.

### School: Gender

The gender of the students that a school caters for, for example, co-educational, or single sex.

### School: Decile

The decile assigned to the school the teacher left from. Students from low socio-economic communities face more barriers to learning than students from high socio-economic communities. Schools that draw their roll from these low socio-economic communities are given greater funding to combat these barriers. The mechanism used to calculate and allocate this additional funding is most often known as school deciles.

Schools are assigned a socio-economic score based on five census derived socio-economic factors. Decile 1 schools are the 10% of schools with the greatest proportion of students from the most socio-economically deprived areas.  Decile 10 schools are the 10% of schools with the greatest proportion of students from the least socio-economically deprived areas.

### School: Decile Grouped

School decile grouped into Low (Decile 1-3), Medium (Decile 4-7), and High (Decile 8-10).

### School: Sector

Teachers are grouped into the primary or secondary sector depending on the type of the school they work in.  The primary sector includes all primary schools, intermediates and special schools. The secondary sector includes all secondary schools and composite schools (including Te Kura, the correspondence school).

### School: Māori Medium Level

The Māori Medium status of the school:

• Māori Medium: All students are taught the curriculum in Māori for at least 51 percent of the time
• English Medium: No students are taught the curriculum in Māori for at least 51 percent of the time
• English and Māori medium: Some students are taught the curriculum in Māori for at least 51 percent of the time

### School: Urban/Rural

A grouping based on the size and nature of the area of the school where the employee works their main teaching role for the year.  These groupings are based on Statistics New Zealand definitions:

• Main urban areas are very large urban areas centred on a city or major urban centre. Main urban areas have a minimum population of 30,000.
• Secondary urban areas have a population between 10,000 and 29,999 and are centred on the larger regional centres.
• Minor urban areas are urbanised settlements (outside main and secondary urban areas), centred around smaller towns with a population between 1,000 and 9,999.
• Rural: Those living in rural settlements or townships, also includes areas with a population between 300 and 999.

### Region: Regional Council

The Regional Council linked to the school where the teacher is employed. Regional council boundaries are defined by Statistics New Zealand.

### Region: Education Region

The Education Region linked to the school where the teacher is employed.  These are ten administrative regions created by the Ministry of Education and aligned with the Ministry's ten local offices. The Correspondence School is defined as a separate boundary.

### Region: Territorial Authority

The territorial authority area linked to the school where the teacher is employed. Territorial authority boundaries are defined by Statistics New Zealand.