Annual Monitoring of Reading Recovery: 2017 Data

This page presents data on state and state-integrated schools that offered Reading Recovery in 2017 and the students who received support from this intervention.

Summary

Acknowledgements

The Ministry of Education would like to thank all the Reading Recovery tutors, teachers, and principals who completed their annual returns. We greatly appreciate the time and effort that went into providing the information. We would also like to thank National Reading Recovery for their feedback on the annual data analysis.

Introduction

Reading Recovery is an early literacy intervention that aims to reduce reading and writing problems by providing intensive, daily one-to-one literacy instruction to children who are falling behind in reading and writing after one year at school.

Reading Recovery was developed by the late Dame Marie Clay, previously Professor of Education at the University of Auckland.

Reading Recovery was designed to achieve two outcomes:

  1. To accelerate the reading and writing achievement of six-year-old children who are identified as having made less-than-expected progress after one year of classroom-based literacy teaching.
  2. To identify the small number of students who will need continued additional specialist literacy support.

All state and state-integrated schools can apply for funding from the Ministry of Education to help with the costs associated with the implementation of Reading Recovery.

Reading Recovery data has been monitored and reported on annually by the Ministry of Education since 1984. The purpose of the Annual Monitoring of Reading Recovery report is to provide information about access to the intervention (ie, schools that offered Reading Recovery) and to report on student outcomes and progress as a result of Reading Recovery.

For further information about Reading Recovery, contact National Reading Recovery, Faculty of Education and Social Work, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92601, Symonds Street, Auckland 1150 or visit the Reading Recovery website www.readingrecovery.ac.nz

Data Collection

Throughout the year, Reading Recovery teachers record student-level information on an electronic data collection system as students enter and exit the intervention. At the end of the year, when all individual student reports have been entered by the teacher(s), the principal of each Reading Recovery school is asked to confirm this information, as well as complete the end-of-year school report. These reports are submitted by state and state-integrated schools to the Ministry of Education.

School reports provide school-level information such as the number of students involved in Reading Recovery and the number of hours and teachers allocated to Reading Recovery for the year.

Individual student reports provide student-level information such as the ethnicity, gender and age of the student, the amount of time spent in Reading Recovery, outcome from Reading Recovery, and entry and exit scores on three assessment tools.

Key Findings

Reading Recovery Outcomes

Reading Recovery outcomes for students who exited the intervention in 2017 follow a similar pattern to previous years. Approximately three-quarters (77%) of students who exited Reading Recovery were successfully discontinued from the intervention. A further 15% of students were referred on for specialist support; 5% left their school before completing their series of lessons and 3% were unable to continue their lessons.

The majority (92%) of successfully discontinued students were reading texts at, or above, the Turquoise level of Ready to Read (the New Zealand Curriculum Reading Standard for 'After two years at school') when they exited Reading Recovery - 67% of these students had not yet completed two years of schooling when they exited Reading Recovery. (These results should be interpreted with care as classroom teachers will use a range of evidence (not just the text levels) when making judgements about student achievement in relation to the Standards.)

Data collected from the Burt Word Reading Test and the Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) provided additional evidence that overall, successfully discontinued students were reading and writing within the average band of performance expected for their age group when they exited the intervention.

A greater proportion of girls, NZ European and Asian students, and students in higher decile schools successfully discontinued their series of lessons than boys, Māori and Pacific students, and students from lower decile schools. However, a majority of students (ie, at least 65%) in these latter groups did achieve the levels required to successfully discontinue their Reading Recovery lessons.

Consistent with the long term trend, a greater proportion of students who entered Reading Recovery for the first time in 2017 successfully discontinued (78%) than students who were carried over from 2016 (74%) and students who had transferred from another school (68%).

Access to Reading Recovery

In 2017 schools reported 1,298 Reading Recovery teachers in 1,059 schools had 452,359 hours available to support 9,463 students. The average number of hours potentially able to be delivered per student was 48 in 2017. (Note this data comes from the reports submitted by schools. Student reports were received from 1,069 schools for 9,399 students.)

In 2017, 55% of state and state-integrated schools with six-year-old students offered Reading Recovery. Sixty-five percent of the total 6-year-old population in state and state-integrated schools attended schools where Reading Recovery was offered. Eleven per cent of students attending state and state-integrated schools entered Reading Recovery in 2017. The percentage of students with access to Reading Recovery and the percentage entering Reading Recovery has been declining over the past decade.  Note that access to Reading Recovery is estimated using the information provided in end of year school reports from principals of schools that have offered Reading Recovery in the year concerned and student enrolment data from the Ministry of Education.

Page Index

Section 1: Schools and students involved in Reading Recovery in 2017


Table 1: Reading Recovery resources 2005 to 2017

The average number of Reading Recovery hours allocated per student is calculated from the number of students that schools counted as having participated in Reading Recovery, and the number of hours the schools had allocated for these students. Thus these averages are an estimate of the number of hours each student may have had available for lessons.

Note:

The average number of Reading Recovery hours allocated per student is calculated from the number of students that schools counted as having participated in Reading Recovery, and the number of hours the schools had allocated for these students. Thus these averages are an estimate of the number of hours each student may have had available for lessons.

Year Number of  Reading
Recovery Teachers
Total Reading
Recovery Hours
Number of Students in
Reading Recovery
Average Teaching Time
(Hours) Per Student
2005 1,386 401,624 11,054 36.3
2006 1,396 425,907 10,757 39.6
2007 1,456 446,804 10,777 41.5
2008 1,437 468,682 10,774 43.5
2009 1,433 480,142 11,085 43.3
2010 1,450 482,148 11,040 43.7
2011 1,452 484,222 10,768 45.0
2012 1,542 507,436 11,202 45.3
2013 1,518 531,002 11,057 48.0
2014 1,446 502,217 10,876 46.2
2015 1,405 489,668 10,693 45.8
2016 1,344 478,023 10,178 47.0
2017 1,298 452,359 9,463 47.8


Table 2: Schools with Reading Recovery in 2017 by region

Between 2017 and 2016, most regions experienced a decrease in the percentage of 6-year-olds with access to Reading Recovery and in the percentage of schools offering Reading Recovery. Note that caution is required when looking at percentage changes between years in the regions with a low number of schools (ie, less than 35) with 6-year-old students.

Notes:
  1. Source: End of year school reports from schools offering Reading Recovery in 2017.
  2. Source: Ministry of Education, School roll returns at 1 July 2017.
  3. Chathams Islands' data are included with Canterbury.

Data includes state and state integrated schools with 6-year-olds on roll only and excludes Te Kura/the Correspondence School.

Local Body Region Schools that offered Reading Recovery1 Total schools with 6-year-olds2 6-year-olds' access to Reading Recovery
N 6-year-olds
on roll
N 6-year-olds
on roll
% of schools % of 6-year-olds
2017 2016 2017 2016
Northland 51 1,552 122 2,608 42% 47% 59% 67%
Auckland 204 11,960 375 21,587 54% 57% 55% 58%
Waikato 106 3,769 250 6,611 42% 48% 57% 63%
Bay of Plenty 59 3,023 124 4,445 48% 56% 68% 77%
Gisborne 15 451 43 787 35% 33% 57% 55%
Hawkes Bay 46 1,477 93 2,437 49% 52% 61% 67%
Taranaki 48 1,184 73 1,683 66% 70% 70% 78%
Manawatu-Wanganui 60 1,633 157 3,317 38% 40% 49% 54%
Wellington 133 5,244 185 6,479 72% 75% 81% 82%
Tasman 22 577 29 634 76% 76% 91% 91%
Nelson 13 604 13 604 100% 100% 100% 100%
Marlborough 14 448 26 579 54% 58% 77% 85%
West Coast 15 252 28 344 54% 52% 73% 76%
Canterbury3 160 5,993 228 7,379 70% 72% 81% 83%
Otago 66 1,810 118 2,576 56% 68% 70% 84%
Southland 44 1,109 68 1,352 65% 60% 82% 81%
Total 1,056 41,086 1,932 63,422 55% 58% 65% 69%


Table 3: Schools with Reading Recovery in 2017 by region - Māori students

The main change between 2017 and 2016 in the access of Māori 6-year-olds to Reading Recovery is seen in Otago, with the decrease in the percentage of schools with Māori 6-year-olds offering Reading Recovery and the decrease in the percentage of Māori 6-year-olds with access to Reading Recovery. Note that caution is required when looking at percentage changes between years in the regions with a low number of schools (ie, less than 35) with 6-year-old Māori students.

Notes:
  1. Source: End of year school reports from schools offering Reading Recovery in 2017.
  2. Source: Ministry of Education, School roll returns at 1 July 2017.
  3. Chathams Islands' data are included with Canterbury.

Data includes state and state integrated schools with 6-year-olds on roll only and excludes Te Kura/the Correspondence School.

Local Body Region  Schools with 6-year-old
Māori  students that
offered Reading Recovery1
Total schools
with 6-year-old
Māori students2
6-year-old Māori students'
access to Reading Recovery
N Māori 6-year-olds on roll N Māori 6-year-olds on roll % of schools % of Māori
6-year-olds
2017 2016 2017 2016
Northland  50 771 116 1,407 43% 47% 55% 63%
Auckland  193 1,989 349 3,730 55% 57% 53% 57%
Waikato  100 1,173 233 2,471 43% 50% 47% 53%
Bay of Plenty  59 1,085 122 1,946 48% 56% 56% 65%
Gisborne  15 299 40 525 38% 34% 57% 55%
Hawkes Bay  46 623 90 1,052 51% 55% 59% 68%
Taranaki  44 330 64 502 69% 74% 66% 72%
Manawatu-Wanganui  59 590 140 1,178 42% 41% 50% 53%
Wellington  128 1,062 172 1,441 74% 75% 74% 73%
Tasman  20 82 25 93 80% 80% 88% 86%
Nelson  13 100 13 100 100% 100% 100% 100%
Marlborough  12 106 22 138 55% 63% 77% 85%
West Coast  14 56 22 71 64% 59% 79% 74%
Canterbury3  147 968 195 1,180 75% 76% 82% 80%
Otago  53 241 83 352 64% 74% 68% 85%
Southland  42 243 59 310 71% 67% 78% 81%
Total 995 9,718 1,745 16,496 57% 60% 59% 63%


Table 4: Schools with Reading Recovery in 2017 by region - Pacific students

Half of the 16 regions have a low number of schools (ie, less than 35) with 6-year-old Pacific students, requiring caution when looking at percentage changes between years. Overall, though, access for Pacific students has declined, as it has for all 6-year-olds.

Notes:
  1. Source: End of year school reports from schools offering Reading Recovery in 2017.
  2. Source: Ministry of Education, School roll returns at 1 July 2017.

Data includes state and state integrated schools with 6-year-olds on roll only and excludes Te Kura/the Correspondence School.

Local Body Region  Schools with 6-year-old Pacific students that offered Reading Recovery1 Total schools with 6-year-old Pacific students2 6-year-old Pacific students' access to Reading Recovery
N Pacific 6-year-olds on roll N Pacific 6-year-olds on roll % of schools Pacific % of 6-year-olds
2017 2016 2017 2016
Northland  16 41 36 73 44% 65% 56% 69%
Auckland  184 2,807 318 4,543 58% 60% 62% 66%
Waikato  48 163 96 271 50% 64% 60% 69%
Bay of Plenty  32 109 46 130 70% 81% 84% 87%
Gisborne  6 21 6 21 100% 67% 100% 87%
Hawkes Bay  22 84 32 113 69% 60% 74% 70%
Taranaki  14 20 18 27 78% 72% 74% 68%
Manawatu-Wanganui  29 88 56 163 52% 53% 54% 66%
Wellington  111 541 137 616 81% 85% 88% 91%
Tasman  7 15 10 18 70% 91% 83% 93%
Nelson  10 17 10 17 100% 100% 100% 100%
Marlborough  11 25 13 30 85% 92% 83% 94%
West Coast  3 3 8 8 38% 100% 38% 100%
Canterbury  100 336 122 377 82% 81% 89% 85%
Otago  31 82 44 102 70% 86% 80% 92%
Southland 15 40 18 43 83% 77% 93% 88%
Total 639 4,392 970 6,552 66% 70% 67% 71%


Table 5: Students who entered Reading Recovery in 2017 by region

Eleven per cent of 6-year-old students enrolled in state and state-integrated schools entered Reading Recovery in 2017.  In 2017, the West Coast region had the highest rate of student entry into Reading Recovery (20%); Auckland, Waikato and Manawatu-Whanganui all had the lowest entry rate (9%).

Notes:
  1. Data includes state and state integrated schools with 6-year-olds on roll only and excludes Te Kura/the Correspondence School.
  2. Source: End of year school reports fro,m schools offering Reading Recovery in 2017.
Local Body Region Total 6-year old school population1 6-year olds who entered Reading Recovery2 % of total 6-year olds who entered Reading Recovery
2017 2016 2015
Northland 2,608 341 13% 13% 13%
Auckland 21,587 1,942 9% 10% 11%
Waikato 6,611 607 9% 11% 12%
Bay of Plenty 4,445 479 11% 12% 11%
Gisborne 787 104 13% 16% 16%
Hawkes Bay 2,437 276 11% 13% 15%
Taranaki 1,683 316 19% 18% 17%
Manawatu-Whanganui 3,317 306 9% 12% 11%
Wellington 6,479 837 13% 14% 15%
Tasman 634 110 17% 17% 14%
Nelson 604 86 14% 15% 12%
Marlborough 579 100 17% 13% 16%
West Coast 344 68 20% 16% 21%
Canterbury 7,379 843 11% 11% 12%
Otago 2,576 337 13% 15% 14%
Southland 1,352 259 19% 17% 19%
Total 63,422 7,011 11% 12% 12%


Table 6: Implementation of and access to Reading Recovery 2005-2017

Table 6 lists the gradual decline in the level of access to Reading Recovery at both the school level (from 67% to 55% over the period shown) and student level (78% to 65%) over the last decade or so; also - but less markedly - in the percentage of 6-year-old students entering Reading Recovery (this has ranged from 15% to 11% over the period shown). These figures are shown in Figure 1.

Year % of 6-year-olds with access to Reading Recovery % of schools with 6 year olds offering Reading Recovery % of 6-year-olds who entered Reading Recovery
2005 78% 67% 15%
2006 76% 65% 14%
2007 76% 67% 14%
2008 76% 66% 14%
2009 77% 67% 15%
2010 75% 66% 15%
2011 75% 64% 14%
2012 75% 64% 14%
2013 76% 65% 14%
2014 73% 62% 13%
2015 72% 60% 12%
2016 69% 58% 12%
2017 65% 55% 11%

Figure 1: 6-Year-Olds access to Reading Recovery 2005-2017

Figure 1


Table 7: Students' and schools' involvement in Reading Recovery by grouped decile 2015 to 2017

As has been observed over a number of years in the Reading Recovery monitoring data, while students attending decile1 to 3 schools have lower levels of access to Reading Recovery, where Reading Recovery is offered in decile1 to 3 schools, a larger proportion of students enter the intervention compared to students in higher decile schools.


201720162015
1 to 34 to 78 to 101 to 34 to 78 to 101 to 34 to 78 to 10
% of schools that
implemented Reading Recovery
47%55%62%51%59%64%53%63%65%
% of students attending schools
where Reading Recovery is offered
60%67%66%65%70%71%68%74%72%
% of students who
entered Reading Recovery
13%12%9%15%12%10%16%13%10%


Table 8: Involvement in Reading Recovery by school decile 2017

As in previous years, in 2017 lower decile schools had a greater average number of Reading Recovery teachers allocated per student.

Note:
  1. The average Reading Recovery hours allocated per student is calculated from the number of students that schools counted as having participated in Reading Recovery, and the number of hours the schools had allocated for these students. Thus these averages are an estimate of the number of hours each student may have had available for lessons.
Decile Proportion of students who entered Reading Recovery (%) Average Reading Recovery hours allocated per student1 Number of teachers delivering the intervention
1 13% 50.6 132
2 12% 49.7 114
3 13% 55.7 126
4 12% 47.8 120
5 11% 47.7 121
6 13% 45.9 109
7 11% 44.5 122
8 10% 44.9 120
9 10% 45.9 133
10 8% 44.3 200

Section 2: Students involved in Reading Recovery 2017

Table 9: Students' entry into Reading Recovery in 2017

Table 9 lists students' first method of entry in Reading Recovery for the 2017 year. Some students who were carried over from 2016, or who entered Reading Recovery for the first time in 2017 transferred to another school at some point during 2017. To avoid double counting, only the first method of entry into Reading Recovery is included. Percentages are similar to those reported over the past several years.

Students Entry into Reading Recovery Number of Students Proportion of Students
Entered for the first time 7,017 75%
Carried over from 2016 2,230 24%
Arrived from another school 150 2%
Total 9,397 100%


Table 10: Number and proportion of New Zealand 6-year-olds in Reading Recovery by ethnicity and gender, 2017

Sixty percent of all 6-year-olds in Reading Recovery in 2017 were boys (n=5,673). Out of the total 6-year-old population, 17% per cent of boys and 12% of girls were involved in Reading Recovery in 2017). Consistent with the long standing trend, in 2017 a greater proportion of Māori and Pacific students were involved in Reading Recovery than NZ European and Asian students.

Ethnicity Boys Girls
6-year-olds in Population In Reading Recovery 6-year-olds in Population In Reading Recovery
N N % N N %
Māori 8,531 1,776 21% 7,965 1,200 15%
Pacific 3,371 809 24% 3,181 507 16%
NZ European 15,354 2,496 16% 14,831 1,548 10%
Asian 4,256 337 8% 3,981 246 6%
Other 1,009 255 25% 943 206 22%
Total 32,521 5,673 17% 30,901 3,707 12%


Table 11: Proportion of New Zealand 6-year-olds in Reading Recovery by ethnicity and gender 2013 to 2017

In general, the proportions of both boys and girls from all ethnic groups entering Reading Recovery has declined over the past five years.

Ethnicity20172016201520142013
BoysGirlsBoysGirlsBoysGirlsBoysGirlsBoysGirls
Māori21%15%22%16%24%17%25%18%28%18%
Pacific24%16%27%18%30%19%30%19%33%20%
NZ European16%10%17%11%19%11%20%12%21%12%
Asian8%6%10%6%11%7%10%6%10%7%

Section 3: Student outcomes from Reading Recovery in 2016

At the end of the year, students involved in Reading Recovery are assigned one of five outcomes: Successfully discontinued - the student is able to work effectively with their cohort without additional support; Carried over - the student is unable to complete their series of lessons in the current year and has had their lesson series continued into the following year; Referred on - the student has not reached the expected level and further specialist or long-term literacy support is required; Left the school - the student leaves the school before completing their series of lessons (and may or may not have continued at their new school); Unable to continue - the student leaves the intervention before completing their support for various reasons.

Table 12: Students' Reading Recovery outcomes 2015 to 2017

Outcomes for all students in 2017 remain consistent with long term trends.

Type of Outcome 2017 2016 2015
N % % %
Student successfully discontinued lessons 5,373 57% 57% 59%
Student's series of lessons carried over to 2018 2,361 25% 24% 24%
Student referred for specialist help or long-term literacy support 1,077 11% 11% 10%
Student left the school before completion 379 4% 5% 4%
Student unable to continue 192 2% 3% 2%
Missing data 17 0% 0% 0%
Total 9,399 100% 100% 100%


Table 13: Exiting students' Reading Recovery outcomes in 2017

Outcomes for students exiting in 2017 remain consistent with long term trends.

Type of Outcome N %
Student successfully discontinued lessons 5,373 77%
Student referred for specialist help or long-term literacy support 1,077 15%
Student left the school before completion 3795%
Student unable to continue 1923%
Total7,021100%


Table 14: Outcomes for students exiting Reading Recovery 2005 to 2017

Outcomes over time (2005 to 2017) have been broadly consistent.

Year Successfully
Discontinued
Referred On Left the School
Before Completion
Unable to Continue Total
2005 79% 11% 7% 2% 100%
2006 79% 12% 7% 2% 100%
2007 78% 12% 8% 2% 100%
2008 78% 13% 7% 2% 100%
2009 78% 13% 7% 2% 100%
2010 80% 13% 5% 2% 100%
2011 82% 12% 5% 1% 100%
2012 81% 12% 5% 2% 100%
2013 79% 13% 5% 3% 100%
2014 79% 13% 5% 3% 100%
2015 78% 14% 6% 3% 100%
2016 75% 14% 7% 4% 100%
2017 77% 15% 5% 3% 100%

Figure 2: Outcomes for students exiting Reading Recovery, 2005 to 2017

Figure 2: Outcomes for students exiting Reading Recovery, 2005 to 2017


Table 15: Exiting students' Reading Recovery outcome by entry status, 2017

Consistent with the long term trend, a greater proportion of students who entered Reading Recovery for the first time in 2017 were successfully discontinued from Reading Recovery (78%) than students who were carried over from 2016 (74%) and students who had transferred from another school (68%).

Outcome Entered for the First Time Carried Over from 2016 Arrived from Another School Total Count
N % N % N % N%
Successfully discontinued 3,640 78% 1,647 74% 86 68% 5,373 77%
Referred on 625 13% 416 19% 36 29% 1,077 15%
Left the school before completion 254 5% 122 5% 3 2% 379 5%
Not able to continue 149 3% 42 2% 1 1% 192 3%
Total 4,668 100% 2,227 100% 126 100% 7,021 100%


Table 16: Exiting students' Reading Recovery outcome by gender, 2017

A higher proportion of girls (80%) successfully discontinued their series of lessons in 2017 than boys (74%) - a result that has been observed over many years.

Outcome Girls Boys Total
N % N % N %
Successfully discontinued 2,241 80% 3,132 74% 5,373 77%
Referred on 345 12% 732 17% 1,077 15%
Left the school before completion 157 6% 222 5% 379 5%
Not able to continue 69 2% 123 3% 192 3%
Total 2,812 100% 4,209 100% 7,021 100%


Table 17: Exiting students' Reading Recovery outcome by ethnicity, 2017

A higher proportion of NZ European and Asian students successfully discontinued their series of lessons in 2017 than Māori and Pacific students. This pattern of results has been observed over many years.

Outcome NZ Māori Pacific NZ European Asian Other Total
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Successfully discontinued 1,568 71% 700 72% 2,451 80% 363 82% 285 82% 5,367 77%
Referred on 375 17% 185 19% 438 14% 39 9% 40 12% 1,077 15%
Left the school before completion 182 8% 63 6% 100 3% 22 5% 11 3% 378 5%
Not able to continue 79 4% 29 3% 56 2% 17 4% 11 3% 192 3%
Total 2,204 100% 977 100% 3,045 100% 441 100% 347 100% 7,014 100%


Table 18: Exiting students' Reading Recovery outcome by school decile, 2017

As with previous years, in 2017 a higher proportion of students from higher decile schools were successfully discontinued from Reading Recovery.

School DecileSuccessfully discontinuedReferred OnLeft the School Before CompletionNot Able to  ContinueTotal
N%N%N%N%N%
152865%15619%8611%375%807100%
250172%11316%558%274%696100%
353873%13218%456%274%742100%
449573%12919%375%203%681100%
549679%8013%376%173%630100%
645980%8014%214%112%571100%
759383%8211%284%132%716100%
855179%9814%294%172%695100%
957982%9513%223%132%709100%
1062982%10814%192%71%763100%
Total5,36977%1,07315%3795%1893%7,010100%


Table 19: Further support for students referred on, as reported by schools, 2017

In 2017, 1,077 students were referred on from Reading Recovery for specialist help or long-term literacy support. As shown in Table 19, students were most commonly referred to Resource Teachers of Literacy (62%). A further 22% of students were referred to Resource Teachers Learning and Behaviour (RTLB).

Type of Support N %
Resource Teachers of Literacy 666 62%
Resource Teachers: Learning & Behaviour 241 22%
Other Learning Support programmes161 15%
Other within School and External Support9 1%
Total 1,077100%


Table 20: Reasons why students were unable to continue, 2017

The two key reasons for students being unable to continue with Reading Recovery were related to teachers being unavailable (for a variety of reasons) or schools not offering Reading Recovery in 2018.

ReasonN%
Teacher related5428%
School not offering in 20185026%
Student's absence2413%
Other179%
Student's behaviour126%
Parental request95%
Funding related84%
Student's health74%
Poor progress63%
Student moved32%
Duration in programme21%
Total 192100%


Table 21: Proportion of exited students successfully discontinued and referred on by region 2017

Regional rates of successfully discontinued students ranged from 88% in Taranaki to 63% in Gisborne. Regional rates of students referred on for further support ranged from 31% in Gisborne to 5% in Taranaki.

Local Body RegionStudents Successfully Discontinued From Reading RecoveryStudents Referred OnStudents Left the School Before CompletionStudents Not Able to ContinueTotal
2017201620172016201720162017201620172016
N%%N%%N%%N%%NN
Northland 21364%68%7422%20%3611%7%804%331329
Auckland 1,40773%72%35118%17%1176%8%6403%19392,108
Waikato 47874%73%9915%12%467%7%1908%642759
Bay of Plenty 36279%78%5512%8%307%8%906%456520
Gisborne 6063%64%2931%19%33%9%308%95128
Hawkes Bay 20575%71%4015%16%114%9%1704%273343
Taranaki 27488%82%165%8%165%6%403%310327
Manawatu-Wanganui 21972%72%3311%13%2910%9%2406%305364
Wellington 68380%79%11714%14%324%5%1802%850910
Tasman 9783%84%1715%8%33%7%001%11789
Nelson 6973%81%1819%11%66%8%200%9590
Marlborough 7886%78%67%19%44%3%300%9177
West Coast 5478%78%1116%15%46%6%001%69813
Canterbury 68179%79%14317%15%253%6%1300%86285
Otago 27885%80%3912%14%72%4%202%326364
Southland 21185%84%2510%7%104%7%302%249256
Total5,36977%75%1,07315%14%3795%7%18904%70107,562


Table 22: Average (mean) number of lessons and weeks in Reading Recovery for successfully discontinued and referred on students by entry status, 2017

On average, referred on students attended more half-hour lessons than students who were successfully discontinued from Reading Recovery.

Note:

Table based on students' initial entry type, and final outcome from Reading Recovery (where more than one school was attended during the year). Excludes data from students with missing information about their entry into Reading Recovery.

Entry Status Successfully Discontinued Referred On
N Mean Number of N Mean Number of
30 Minute Sessions Calendar Weeks 30 Minute Sessions Calendar Weeks
Entered for the first time 3,640 74.5 18.3 625 80.6 20.8
Carried over from 2016 1,647 89.1 22.2 416 91.6 23.5
Arrived from another school 86 82.7 20.7 36 88.8 23.4
Total5,37379.119.51,07785.221.9


Table 23: Average (mean) number of lessons and weeks in Reading Recovery by ethnicity and gender, 2017

The average (mean) number of lessons received by various groups of students are shown in Table 23 and Table 24.

Ethnicity Successfully Discontinued Referred On
Mean Number of
30 Minute Sessions
Mean Number of
Calendar Weeks
Mean Number of
30 Minute Sessions
Mean Number of
Calendar Weeks
Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
NZ Māori 80.6 79.5 20.320.1 80.579.5 21.4 21.6
Pacific 82.8 79.9 20.9 20.283.5 85.9 21.7 23.0
NZ European 79.7 76.7 19.3 18.790.1 86.6 22.2 21.9
Asian 77.5 74.3 19.0 18.0 86.983.2 21.4 20.2
Total 80.377.819.819.385.583.521.821.9


Table 24: Average (mean) number of sessions and calendar weeks in Reading Recovery by school decile, 2017
School
Decile
Successfully Discontinued Referred On
Mean Number of
30 Minute Sessions
Mean Number of
Calendar Weeks
Mean Number of
30 minute sessions
Mean Number of
Calendar Weeks
1 80.4 20.8 79.4 22.1
2 80.4 20.4 86.2 22.8
3 81.5 20.3 81.4 21.6
4 80.2 20.0 84.3 21.5
5 78.9 19.4 84.0 20.9
6 80.6 19.5 85.0 21.1
7 76.5 18.7 88.6 22.9
8 76.3 18.7 90.4 22.2
9 77.1 18.6 88.7 21.9
10 80.0 19.3 88.2 21.7
Total79.119.585.121.9

Section 4: Students' Learning Gains Reading Recovery, 2017

Shift in instructional text Levels over the course of Reading Recovery

Successfully discontinued students typically start Reading Recovery with higher average (mean) levels across the range of measures used and make more progress during the intervention than students who are referred on (Figures 3 to 8). Figures 3 and 4 present instructional text levels at entry to and exit from Reading Recovery for successfully discontinued and referred on students. The equivalent colours of the Ready to Read colour wheel are stated on the horizontal axes. The majority of successfully discontinued students (94%) entered the intervention reading texts ranging from level 1 (Magenta 1) to level 11 (Blue 3). On exit, almost all successfully discontinued students were reading texts at or above level 15 (Orange 1) - most of these students (92% of those exiting) were reading texts at or above the Turquoise level of Ready to Read. In comparison, 98% of referred on students entered Reading Recovery reading texts at or below level 8 (Yellow 3), with the majority (89%) entering the intervention reading texts between level 1 (Magenta 1) and level 5 (Red 3). Referred on students were reading texts from a wider range of levels when they exited Reading Recovery compared to successfully discontinued students exiting. Eighty-six per cent of referred on students were reading texts between level 6 (Yellow 1) and level 16 (Orange 2) when they ended their Reading Recovery lessons.


Figure 3: Instructional text levels at entry and exit for successfully discontinued students, 2017

Figure 3: Instructional text levels at entry and exit for successfully discontinued students, 2017


Figure 4: Instructional text levels at entry and exit for referred on students, 2017

Figure 4: Instructional text levels at entry and exit for referred on students, 2017


Most successfully discontinued students (86%) entered Reading Recovery with a Burt Word reading scorel of 20 or below and almost all (98%) students exited the intervention with a Burt score of 21 or higher. The majority (88%) of referred on students entered Reading Recovery with a raw Burt Word score of 10 or less (below the 5.10–6.04 age band). At exit, the majority (92%) of referred on students exited Reading Recovery with a Burt Word score between 7 (below the 5.10–6.04 age band) and 28 (equivalent age band 6.06–7.00 years).


Figure 5: Burt Word Reading scores at entry and exit for successfully discontinued students

Figure 5: Burt Word Reading levels at entry and exit for successfully discontinued students


Figure 6: Burt Word Reading scores at entry and exit for referred on students

Figure 6: Burt Word Reading levels at entry and exit for referred on students


Shift in Burt Word scores over the course of Reading Recovery, 2017

Successfully discontinued students had an average Burt Word score of 29 when they exited the intervention. The equivalent age band for a level of 29 is 6.07-7.01 years/months. Given that the average chronological age for successfully discontinued students at exit was 6 years 11 months, this result provides additional evidence that, on average, successfully discontinued students obtained Burt Word Reading Test scores at the expected level for their age group when they exited the intervention. Referred on students exited Reading Recovery with an average Burt Word score of 16 . The equivalent age band for a score of 16 is less than 5 years 10 months. The average age of referred on students at the time of exit from Reading Recovery was 7 years. Thus, while many referred on students made gains in relation to the Burt Word test over the course of their Reading Recovery lessons, the aggregated results for this group of students suggest that on average, students obtained Burt Word Reading Test scores below the expected level for their age group when they exited the intervention.

Table 25: Average age of students, average Burt Word score and equivalent age bands
Note:

*A small proportion of students did not have correct date of birth information and could not be included in the calculation of average age. Thus, this figure is the best estimate of the average age of students as they entered and exited the intervention.


At Entry to Reading Recovery Upon Exit from Reading Recovery
Average Age* Average
Burt
score
Equivalent
Age Band
Average Age* Average
Burt
score
Equivalent
Age Band
Successfully discontinued
n=5,332
6 yrs 5 mths 12.8 Less than 5.10 yrs 6 yrs 11 mths 29.2 6.07–7.01 yrs
Referred on
n=984
6 yrs 5 mths 6 Less than 5.10 yrs 7 yrs 16.4 Less than 5.10 yrs
Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) over the course of Reading Recovery

The majority (88%) of students who were successfully discontinued had Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) levels between 5 and 39 when they started their lessons; when they exited Reading Recovery, most (87%) had levels between 45 and 74 (Figure 7). Most referred on students (89%) had Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) levels between 1 and 19 when they started their lessons; when they exited most (83%) had levels between 10 and 49 (Figure 8).


Figure 7: Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) levels at entry and exit for successfully discontinued students, 2017

Figure 7: Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) levels at entry and exit for successfully discontinued students, 2017


Figure 8: Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) levels at entry and exit for referred on students, 2017

Figure 8: Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) levels at entry and exit for referred on students, 2017


Table 26: Average age of students, average Writing Vocabulary Task score and equivalent age bands, 2017

Successfully discontinued students exited Reading Recovery with an average Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) level of 60. This level falls into the 6th stanine, which is above the mean for the 6.51–7.00 years age group. This data shows that on average, successfully discontinued students tended to exit the intervention with Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) levels that were above, or close to, the average level for their age group. Referred on students exited Reading Recovery with an average Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) level of 30. This level falls into the 3rd stanine, which is below the mean for the 6.51–7.00 years age group. This result shows that on average, referred on students exited the intervention with Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) levels that were below the average level for their age group.

Notes:

*A small proportion of students did not have correct date of birth information and could not be included in the calculation of average age. Thus, this figure is the best estimate of the average age of students as they entered and exited the intervention.

** Stanines are a method of standardising test scores using a nine-point scale (with a mean of five and a standard deviation of two). In this method, test scores are ranked and assigned to a stanine according to the percentile they fall into.


At Entry to Reading Recovery Upon Exit from Reading Recovery
Average Stanine
Group for
6.01-6.50
Years
Average Stanine**
Group for
6.51-7.00
Years
 Age* Writing
Vocabulary
Task (Clay)
Score
Age* Writing
Vocabulary
Task (Clay)
Score
Successfully discontinued
n=5,371
6 yrs 5 mths 21.7 Stanine 3 6 yrs 11 mths 59.9 Stanine 6
Referred on
n=1,063
6 yrs 5 mths 9.9 Stanine 2 7 yrs 30.4 Stanine 3


Table 27: Shifts in reading and writing gains for successfully discontinued and referred on students by decile

Students from lower decile schools tend to enter the intervention with slightly lower reading and writing levels than students from higher decile schools, however, successfully discontinued students tend to exit Reading Recovery at a similar level regardless of school decile.

 Decile Instructional Text levels Burt Word Reading test Writing Vocabulary (Clay)
Entry Exit Gain Entry Exit Gain Entry Exit Gain
Successfully Discontinued Students
1 5.2 18.1 12.9 10.4 29.5 19.1 18.5 59.9 41.4
2 5.7 18.3 12.6 11.0 29.1 18.1 19.9 59.6 39.8
3 5.8 18.3 12.5 11.7 29.4 17.7 19.4 60.2 40.9
4 6.1 18.2 12.1 12.4 28.8 16.3 21.9 59.7 37.8
5 6.5 18.2 11.7 12.9 29.5 16.5 21.6 59.1 37.4
6 6.6 18.3 11.8 12.9 29.1 16.3 21.7 59.8 38.2
7 6.7 18.2 11.5 13.4 28.8 15.4 23.1 60.1 37.0
8 7.2 18.5 11.3 14.4 29.2 14.8 23.7 59.8 36.1
9 7.0 18.5 11.5 13.9 29.2 15.3 24.0 59.3 35.3
10 6.5 18.5 12.0 13.9 29.4 15.6 22.3 61.0 38.7
Overall Average 6.3 18.3 12.0 12.7 29.2 16.5 21.7 59.9 38.2
Referred on Students
1 2.4 9.9 7.5 4.3 14.1 9.8 7.5 25.8 18.3
2 2.7 11.4 8.7 4.2 15.2 11.1 8.1 29.0 20.8
3 2.7 10.2 7.5 4.6 15.0 10.4 8.4 28.9 20.5
4 2.4 10.0 7.6 5.3 14.3 9.0 9.6 28.5 18.9
5 3.1 11.0 7.9 6.2 15.9 9.7 11.0 30.4 19.4
6 2.9 11.0 8.1 5.1 16.0 10.9 10.4 32.2 21.8
7 3.1 12.3 9.2 6.1 17.3 11.3 10.7 33.1 22.4
8 3.5 12.0 8.4 7.3 17.9 10.7 12.5 33.0 20.5
9 3.4 11.6 8.1 7.0 17.6 10.6 12.1 34.7 22.5
10 3.1 11.1 8.0 5.9 16.3 10.3 9.9 31.7 21.8
Overall Average 2.9 10.9 8.0 5.5 15.8 10.3 9.8 30.3 20.5


Table 28: Shifts in reading and writing for successfully discontinued and referred on students by ethnicity, 2017

Entry and exit levels in the three assessments were similar amongst successfully discontinued students of various ethnicities; and similar amongst the referred on students of various ethnicities.

Ethnicity Instructional Text levels Burt Word Reading test Writing Vocabulary (Clay)
Entry Exit Gain Entry Exit Gain Entry Exit Gain
Successfully Discontinued Students
NZ Māori 6.0 18.2 12.2 11.5 29.2 17.7 20.4 59.6 39.2
Pacific 5.5 18.4 12.8 12.0 29.9 17.9 20.3 60.9 40.6
NZ European 6.8 18.3 11.5 13.3 28.7 15.4 22.4 59.4 37.0
Asian 6.1 18.4 12.3 14.3 30.1 15.8 23.5 61.7 38.3
Other 6.5 18.6 12.1 14.4 30.2 15.8 23.4 60.7 37.3
Overall Average 6.3 18.3 12.0 12.7 29.2 16.4 21.7 59.9 38.2
Referred on Students
NZ Māori 2.7 10.4 7.7 4.8 14.7 9.9 8.8 28.5 19.7
Pacific 2.5 10.3 7.8 4.5 15.3 10.8 8.5 29.9 21.3
NZ European 3.2 11.6 8.3 6.3 16.7 10.4 11.1 31.9 20.7
Asian 2.5 11.0 8.5 6.3 17.3 11.0 8.3 30.5 22.3
Other 3.0 11.5 8.5 6.0 16.1 10.2 10.5 29.9 19.4
Overall Average 2.9 10.9 8.0 5.5 15.8 10.3 9.7 30.2 20.5


Table 29: Reading achievement for exiting students in relation to the New Zealand Curriculum Reading Standards, 2017

Table 29 shows the proportion of students who were reading at the level specified by the New Zealand Curriculum Reading Standard for 'After two years at school' (Turquoise level of Ready to Read), disaggregated by Reading Recovery outcome. (Approximately two thirds of successfully discontinued students - 67% - had not yet completed 2 years of schooling when they exited Reading Recovery.)

Ready to Read Levels Successfully
Discontinued
Referred On Left the School
 Before Completion
Not Able
to Continue
Total
N % N % N % N % N %
Not yet reading at the Green level of Ready to Read  2 0% 553 51% 243 64% 96 50% 894 13%
Reading at or above the Green level, but not yet at the Turquoise level 423 8% 469 44% 114 30% 86 45% 1,092 16%
Reading at or above the Turquoise level of Ready to Read  4,948 92% 55 5% 22 6% 10 5% 5,035 72%
Total 5,373 100% 1,077 100% 379 100% 192 100% 7,021 100%

References

  • Clay, M.M. (2013). An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement (3rd Edition). Auckland: Pearson.
  • Gilmore, A., Croft, C., & Reid, N. (1981). Burt Word Reading Text: New Zealand Revision. New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Wellington

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