Annual Monitoring of Reading Recovery: 2018 Data

This page presents data on state and state-integrated schools that offered Reading Recovery in 2017 and the students who received support from this intervention.

Summary

Acknowledgements

The Ministry of Education would like to thank all the Reading Recovery tutors, teachers, and principals who completed their annual returns. We greatly appreciate the time and effort that went into providing the information. We would also like to thank National Reading Recovery for their feedback on the annual data analysis.

Introduction

Reading Recovery is an early literacy intervention that aims to accelerate reading and writing progress by providing intensive, daily one-to-one literacy instruction to children who are falling behind their peers in reading and writing after one year at school.

Reading Recovery was developed by the late Dame Marie Clay, previously Professor of Education at the University of Auckland.

Reading Recovery was designed to achieve two outcomes:

  1. To accelerate the reading and writing achievement of six-year-old children who are identified as having made less-than-expected progress after one year of classroom-based literacy teaching.
  2. To identify the small number of students who will need continued additional specialist literacy support.

All state and state-integrated schools can apply for funding from the Ministry of Education to help with the costs associated with the implementation of Reading Recovery.

Reading Recovery data has been monitored and reported on annually by the Ministry of Education since 1984. The purpose of the Annual Monitoring of Reading Recovery report is to provide information about access to the intervention (i.e. schools that offered Reading Recovery) and to report on student outcomes and progress as a result of Reading Recovery.

For further information about Reading Recovery, contact The Ministry of Education.

Data Collection

Throughout the year, Reading Recovery teachers record student-level information on an electronic data collection system as students enter and exit the intervention. At the end of the year, when all individual student reports have been entered by the teacher(s), the principal of each Reading Recovery school is asked to confirm this information, as well as complete the end-of-year school report. These reports are submitted by state and state-integrated schools to the Ministry of Education.

School reports provide school-level information such as the number of students involved in Reading Recovery and the number of hours and teachers allocated to Reading Recovery for the year.

Individual student reports provide student-level information such as the ethnicity, gender and age of the student, the amount of time spent in Reading Recovery, outcome from Reading Recovery, and entry and exit scores on three assessment tools.

Please note that percentages reported in the analysis may not add to 100% due to rounding error. Further, counts may vary between tables when broken down by demographic variables, due to missing data for some students (e.g. the number of successfully discontinued students is slightly lower when broken down by gender), or some tables only reporting a subset of responses.

Key Findings

Reading Recovery Outcomes

Reading Recovery outcomes for students who exited the intervention in 2018 follow a similar pattern to previous years. Reading Recovery classifies students who are able to work effectively with their cohort without additional support, as successfully discontinued from the intervention. In 2018, 56% of students (n= 4,993) who entered the programme for the first time, were classed as successfully discontinued. Approximately three-quarters (74%) of students who exited Reading Recovery in 2018 (which includes 2017 students who were carried over to 2018) were successfully discontinued; the carried-over students completed their lesson series the following year. A further 17% of students were referred on for specialist support, 6% left their school before completing their series of lessons and 4% were unable to continue their lessons.

The majority of successfully discontinued students (92%) were reading texts at, or above, the Turquoise level of Ready to Read (the New Zealand Curriculum reading expectation for 'After two years at school') when they exited Reading Recovery. Sixty-five percent of these students had not yet completed two years of schooling when they finished their lesson series. These results should be interpreted with care, as classroom teachers will use a range of evidence (not just the text levels) when making judgements about student achievement in relation to New Zealand Curriculum reading expectations.

Data collected from the Burt Word Reading Test and the Writing Vocabulary Task provided additional evidence that successfully discontinued students were reading and writing within the average band of performance expected for their age group when they exited the intervention.

A greater proportion of girls, NZ European and Asian students, and students in higher decile schools successfully discontinued their series of lessons than boys, Māori and Pacific students, and students from lower decile schools. However, at least 67% of Māori and Pacific students, and 60% students from low decile schools were successfully discontinued their Reading Recovery lessons.

Consistent with long term trends, students who entered Reading Recovery for the first time in 2018 (74%) or were carried over from 2017 (73%), were more likely to be successfully discontinued compared with students who transferred from another school (42%).

Access to Reading Recovery

Based on reports submitted by schools, in 2018, Reading Recovery was delivered in 1,015 state and state-integrated schools, by 1,254 Reading Recovery teachers. Schools reported they had 425,664 Reading Recovery hours available to support 8,936 students, giving an average of 48 hours available per student. Note, these data are derived from reports submitted by schools.

In 2018, 55% of state and state-integrated schools with six-year-old students offered Reading Recovery. Sixty-three percent of the total 6-year-old population in state and state-integrated schools attended schools where Reading Recovery was offered. Eleven percent of all students attending state and state-integrated schools entered Reading Recovery in 2018.

From 2005 to 2012, the percentage of students with access to Reading Recovery (around 76%) and the percentage entering Reading Recovery (around 14%) were reasonably consistent. From 2013 to 2018, students' access to Reading Recovery has decreased by 13%, and the proportion of students entering Reading Recovery has decreased by 3%. Note that access to Reading Recovery is estimated using the information provided in end of year school reports from principals of schools that have offered Reading Recovery in the year concerned and student enrolment data from the Ministry of Education.

Section Index
  1. Schools and students involved in Reading Recovery in 2018
  2. Students involved in Reading Recovery 2018
  3. Student outcomes from Reading Recovery in 2016
  4. Students' Learning Gains Reading Recovery, 2017
Table Index
  1. Reading Recovery resources 2005 to 2018
  2. Schools with Reading Recovery in 2018 by region
  3. Schools with Reading Recovery in 2018 by region - Māori students
  4. Schools with Reading Recovery in 2018 by region - Pacific students
  5. Students who entered Reading Recovery in 2018 by region
  6. Implementation of and access to Reading Recovery 2005-2018
  7. Students' and schools' involvement in Reading Recovery by grouped decile 2016 to 2018
  8. Involvement in Reading Recovery by school decile 2018
  9. Students' entry into Reading Recovery in 2018
  10. Number and proportion of New Zealand 6-year-olds in Reading Recovery by ethnicity and gender, 2018
  11. Proportion of New Zealand 6-year-olds in Reading Recovery by ethnicity and gender 2014 to 2018
  12. Students' Reading Recovery outcomes 2016 to 2018
  13. Exiting students' Reading Recovery outcomes in 2018
  14. Outcomes for students exiting Reading Recovery 2005 to 2018
  15. Reading Recovery outcome by entry status, 2018
  16. Reading Recovery outcome by gender, 2018
  17. Reading Recovery outcome by ethnicity, 2018
  18. Exiting students' Reading Recovery outcome by school decile, 2018
  19. Further support for students referred on, as reported by schools, 2018
  20. Reasons why students were unable to continue, 2018
  21. Proportion of exited students successfully discontinued and referred on by region 2018
  22. Average (mean) number of lessons and weeks in Reading Recovery for successfully discontinued and referred on students by entry status, 2018
  23. Average (mean) number of lessons and weeks in Reading Recovery by ethnicity and gender, 2018
  24. Average (mean) number of sessions and calendar weeks in Reading Recovery by school decile, 2018
  25. Average age of students, average Burt Word score and equivalent age bands, 2018
  26. Average age of students, average Writing Vocabulary Task score and equivalent age bands, 2018
  27. Shifts in reading and writing gains for successfully discontinued and referred on students by decile
  28. Shifts in reading and writing for successfully discontinued and referred on students by ethnicity, 2017
  29. Reading achievement for exiting students in relation to the New Zealand Curriculum expectations
Figure Index

Section 1: Schools and students involved in Reading Recovery in 2018

The number of Reading Recovery teachers, students in Reading Recovery, and the total number of available Reading Recovery hours, all peaked in 2012/2013, and have steadily decreased over time to the lowest point in 2018; all of which decreased by 19% from peak to 2018.

The teacher to student ratio has been stable (around 1:7) from 2005 to 2018. Yet, reading recovery hours per student and reading recovery hours per teacher have both been increasing over the years. Reading recovery hours per teacher have been increasing at a much higher rate.

Table 1: Reading Recovery resources 2005 to 2018
Year Number of  Reading Total Reading Number of Students in Average Teaching Time
Recovery Teachers Recovery Hours Reading Recovery (Hours) Per Student

Notes:

The average number of Reading Recovery hours allocated per student is calculated from the number of students that schools counted as having participated in Reading Recovery, and the number of hours the schools had allocated for these students. Thus these averages are an estimate of the number of hours each student may have had available for lessons.

2005 1,386 401,624 11,054 36.3
2006 1,396 425,907 10,757 39.6
2007 1,456 446,804 10,777 41.5
2008 1,437 468,682 10,774 43.5
2009 1,433 480,142 11,085 43.3
2010 1,450 482,148 11,040 43.7
2011 1,452 484,222 10,768 45.0
2012 1,542 507,436 11,202 45.3
2013 1,518 531,002 11,057 48.0
2014 1,446 502,217 10,876 46.2
2015 1,405 489,668 10,693 45.8
2016 1,344 478,023 10,178 47.0
2017 1,298 452,359 9,463 47.8
2018 1,254 425,664 8,936 47.6

From 2017 to 2018, the proportion of 6-year-old students who had access to Reading Recovery decreased by 2%, though the proportion of schools with 6-year-olds offering Reading Recovery held constant at 55%. Note that caution is required when looking at percentage changes between years in the regions with a low number of schools (ie, less than 35) with 6-year-old students.

Table 2: Schools with Reading Recovery in 2018 by region

Notes:

  1. Source: End of year school reports from schools offering Reading Recovery in 2018.
  2. Source: Ministry of Education, School roll returns at 1 July 2018.

Data includes state and state integrated schools with 6-year-olds on roll only and excludes Māori medium schools, and Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu or Te Kura (formerly The Correspondence School).

Local Body Region Schools that offered Reading Recovery1 Total schools with 6-year-olds2 6-year-olds' access to Reading Recovery
N 6-year-olds on rollN 6-year-olds on roll % of schools % of 6-year-olds
2018201720182017
Northland 47 1,406 109 2,459 43% 42% 57% 59%
Auckland 196 11,455 365 21,721 54% 54% 53% 55%
Waikato 101 3,679 234 6,403 43% 42% 57% 57%
Bay of Plenty 58 2,913 102 4,176 57% 48% 70% 68%
Gisborne 17 532 36 697 47% 35% 76% 57%
Hawkes Bay 44 1,409 85 2,380 52% 49% 59% 61%
Taranaki 50 1,195 74 1,699 68% 66% 70% 70%
Manawatu-Wanganui 52 1,386 145 3,145 36% 38% 44% 49%
Wellington 131 5,003 178 6,295 74% 72% 79% 81%
Tasman 21 565 28 624 75% 76% 91% 91%
Nelson 12 618 14 635 86% 100% 97% 100%
Marlborough 14 454 24 568 58% 54% 80% 77%
West Coast 14 254 30 353 47% 54% 72% 73%
Canterbury3 145 5,374 222 7,249 65% 70% 74% 81%
Otago 67 1,914 115 2,496 58% 56% 77% 70%
Southland 46 1,136 69 1,346 67% 65% 84% 82%
Total 1,015 39,293 1,830 62,246 55% 55% 63% 65%

In 2018, 61% of Māori 6-year-old students had access to reading recovery, 2% higher than in 2017. The proportion of schools with 6-year-old Māori students did not change between 2017 and 2018. Māori 6-year-old students have slightly lower levels of access to Reading Recovery (2% less), compared to the overall rate of access, at 63%. Note that caution is required when looking at percentage changes between years in the regions with a low number of schools (ie, less than 35) with 6-year-old Māori students.

Table 3: Schools with Reading Recovery in 2018 by region - Māori students

Notes:

  1. Source: End of year school reports from schools offering Reading Recovery in 2018.
  2. Source: Ministry of Education, School roll returns at 1 July 2018.
  3. Chathams Islands' data are included with Canterbury.

Data includes state and state integrated schools with 6-year-olds on roll only and excludes Māori medium schools, and Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu or Te Kura (formerly The Correspondence School).

Local Body Region Schools with 6-year-old  Māori  students that  offered Reading Recovery1 Total schools  with 6-year-old  Māori students2 6-year-old Māori students'  access to Reading Recovery
N Māori 6-year-olds on rollN Māori 6-year-olds on roll % of schools % of Māori  6-year-olds
2018201720182017
Northland 47 647 108 1,293 44% 43% 50% 55%
Auckland 184 1,931 341 3,575 54% 55% 54% 53%
Waikato 94 1,100 216 2,165 44% 43% 51% 47%
Bay of Plenty 58 1,063 102 1,694 57% 48% 63% 56%
Gisborne 17 329 35 439 49% 38% 75% 57%
Hawkes Bay 43 572 82 959 52% 51% 60% 59%
Taranaki 48 332 66 499 73% 69% 67% 66%
Manawatu-Wanganui 50 493 134 1,048 37% 42% 47% 50%
Wellington 124 1,030 164 1,323 76% 74% 78% 74%
Tasman 16 90 20 97 80% 80% 93% 88%
Nelson 12 114 13 115 92% 100% 99% 100%
Marlborough 13 114 23 140 57% 55% 81% 77%
West Coast 12 55 21 69 57% 64% 80% 79%
Canterbury3 129 789 190 1,092 68% 75% 72% 82%
Otago 63 320 100 397 63% 64% 81% 68%
Southland 38 234 54 278 70% 71% 84% 78%
Total 948 9,213 1,669 15,183 57% 57% 61% 59%

Most regions have a low number of schools (i.e. less than 35) with 6-year-old Pacific students, requiring caution when looking at percentage changes between years. Pacific students had a lower rate of access to Reading Recovery in 2018, 4% lower than in 2017, but equal to the overall rate of access to Reading Recovery.

Table 4: Schools with Reading Recovery in 2018 by region - Pacific students

Notes:

  1. Source: End of year school reports from schools offering Reading Recovery in 2018.
  2. Source: Ministry of Education, School roll returns at 1 July 2018.
  3. Chathams Islands' data are included with Canterbury.

Data includes state and state integrated schools with 6-year-olds on roll only and excludes Māori medium schools, and Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu or Te Kura (formerly The Correspondence School).

Local Body Region Schools with 6-year-old Pacific students that offered Reading Recovery1 Total schools with 6-year-old Pacific students2 6-year-old Pacific students' access to Reading Recovery
N Pacific 6-year-olds on rollN Pacific 6-year-olds on roll % of schools Pacific % of 6-year-olds
2018201720182017
Northland 18 43 35 69 51% 44% 62% 56%
Auckland 178 2,604 314 4,400 57% 58% 59% 62%
Waikato 56 194 102 299 55% 50% 65% 60%
Bay of Plenty 29 91 46 126 63% 70% 72% 84%
Gisborne 5 12 6 13 83% 100% 92% 100%
Hawkes Bay 22 84 38 140 58% 69% 60% 74%
Taranaki 15 22 21 35 71% 78% 63% 74%
Manawatu-Wanganui 26 74 53 160 49% 52% 46% 54%
Wellington 105 509 138 621 76% 81% 82% 88%
Tasman 9 12 10 13 90% 70% 92% 83%
Nelson 10 18 12 20 83% 100% 90% 100%
Marlborough 8 20 10 28 80% 85% 71% 83%
West Coast 2 2 4 4 50% 38% 50% 38%
Canterbury3 82 275 108 372 76% 82% 74% 89%
Otago 37 88 46 103 80% 70% 85% 80%
Southland 19 40 21 42 90% 83% 95% 93%
Total 621 4,088 964 6,445 64% 66% 63% 67%

Eleven percent of 6-year-old students enrolled in state and state-integrated schools entered Reading Recovery in 2018, identical to 2017. In 2018, Southland had the highest rate of student entry into Reading Recovery (20%); Auckland, Waikato and Manawatu-Whanganui all had the lowest entry rates (8-9%).

Table 5: Students who entered Reading Recovery in 2018 by region

Notes:

  1. Data includes state and state integrated schools with 6-year-olds on roll only and excludes Māori medium schools, and Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu or Te Kura (formerly The Correspondence School).
  2. Source: End of year school reports from schools offering Reading Recovery in 2018.
  3. Chathams Islands' data are included with Canterbury.
Local Body Region Total 6-year old school population1 6-year olds who entered Reading Recovery2 % of total 6-year olds who entered Reading Recovery
201820172016
Northland 2,459 312 13% 13% 13%
Auckland 21,633 1,788 8% 9% 10%
Waikato 6,386 578 9% 9% 11%
Bay of Plenty 4,158 418 10% 11% 12%
Gisborne 697 119 17% 13% 16%
Hawkes Bay 2,379 293 12% 11% 13%
Taranaki 1,699 318 19% 19% 18%
Manawatu-Wanganui 3,145 282 9% 9% 12%
Wellington 6,290 805 13% 13% 14%
Tasman 624 121 19% 17% 17%
Nelson 633 77 12% 14% 15%
Marlborough 568 67 12% 17% 13%
West Coast 353 60 17% 20% 16%
Canterbury3 7,225 779 11% 11% 11%
Otago 2,493 364 15% 13% 15%
Southland 1,344 270 20% 19% 17%
Total 62,086 6,651 11% 11% 12%

Access to, and uptake of, Reading Recovery was relatively constant from 2005 to 2012. During this period, an average of 76% of 6-year-olds had access to Reading Recovery, and an average of 66% of schools offered Reading Recovery. From 2013 to 2018, access to Reading Recovery has been steadily decreasing. Students’ access decreased by 13% over this period, and the proportion of schools offering Reading Recovery decreased by 10%. The proportion of students entering Reading Recovery has shown a similar trend since 2013, but with a smaller 3% decrease, from 14% to 11%.

Table 6: Implementation of and access to Reading Recovery 2005-2018
Year % of 6-year-olds with access to Reading Recovery % of schools with 6 year olds offering Reading Recovery % of 6-year-olds who entered Reading Recovery
2005 78% 67% 15%
2006 76% 65% 14%
2007 76% 67% 14%
2008 76% 66% 14%
2009 77% 67% 15%
2010 75% 66% 15%
2011 75% 64% 14%
2012 75% 64% 14%
2013 76% 65% 14%
2014 73% 62% 13%
2015 72% 60% 12%
2016 69% 58% 12%
2017 65% 55% 11%
2018 63% 55% 11%

Figure 1: 6-Year-Olds access to Reading Recovery 2005-2018

Consistent with trends in previous years, students in higher deciles (8 to 10) have greater access to Reading Recovery than students in lower deciles (1 to 3). However, a higher proportion of students enter Reading Recovery in lower deciles (13%) than in higher deciles (9%).

Table 7: Students' and schools' involvement in Reading Recovery by grouped decile 2016 to 2018
 201820172016
1 to 3 4 to 7 8 to 10 1 to 3 4 to 7 8 to 10 1 to 3 4 to 7 8 to 10
% of schools that implemented Reading Recovery 50% 55% 60% 47% 55% 62% 51% 59% 64%
% of students attending schools where Reading Recovery is offered 57% 67% 64% 60% 67% 66% 65% 70% 71%
% of students who entered Reading Recovery 13% 11% 9% 13% 12% 9% 15% 12% 10%

Comparable to previous years, in 2018 lower decile schools had a greater average number of Reading Recovery teachers allocated per student.

Table 8: Involvement in Reading Recovery by school decile 2018
Decile Proportion of students who entered Reading Recovery (%) Average Reading Recovery hours allocated per student Number of teachers delivering the intervention

Notes:

The average Reading Recovery hours allocated per student is calculated from the number of students that schools counted as having participated in Reading Recovery, and the number of hours the schools had allocated for these students. Thus these averages are an estimate of the number of hours each student may have had available for lessons.

1 13% 54.3 113
2 13% 49.1 108
3 13% 46.5 109
4 13% 45.3 114
5 11% 46.3 211
6 11% 49.1 108
7 9% 46.9 115
8 9% 46.5 112
9 10% 45.6 126
10 8% 46.3 138

Section 2: Students involved in Reading Recovery 2018

Table 9 shows the proportion of students who entered Reading Recovery for the first time, were carried over from 2017, or arrived from another school, at the beginning of 2018.  While some students transferred to another school at some point during 2018, only the type of entry into Reading Recovery at the beginning of the year is included, to avoid double counting. The proportions are similar to those reported over the past several years.

Table 9: Students' entry into Reading Recovery in 2018
Students Entry into Reading Recovery Number of Students Proportion of Students (%)
Entered for the first time 6,651 74%
Carried over from 2017 2,232 25%
Arrived from another school 52 1%
Total 8,935 100%

Fifty-nine percent of students in Reading Recovery were boys (n=5,306). As a proportion of the total 6-year-old population, 17% of boys, and 12% girls took part in Reading Recovery in 2018. Consistent with previous years, in 2018 a greater proportion of Māori and Pacific students were involved in Reading Recovery than NZ European and Asian students.

Table 10: Number and proportion of New Zealand 6-year-olds in Reading Recovery by ethnicity and gender, 2018
EthnicityBoysGirls
6-year-olds in Population In Reading Recovery 6-year-olds in Population In Reading Recovery
NN%NN%
NZ Maori 7,761 1,628 21% 7,422 1,149 15%
Pasifika 3,287 697 21% 3,158 496 16%
NZ European 14,988 2,346 16% 14,258 1,522 11%
Asian 4,591 343 7% 4,465 261 6%
Other 1,133 292 26% 1,023 187 18%
Total 31,760 5,306 17% 30,326 3,615 12%

Overall, the proportions of both boys and girls from all ethnic groups entering Reading Recovery has declined over the past five years. The largest decline was for Pacific boys, a decrease of 9%, from 2014 to 2018.

Table 11: Proportion of New Zealand 6-year-olds in Reading Recovery by ethnicity and gender 2014 to 2018
Ethnicity20182017201620152014
BoysGirlsBoysGirlsBoysGirlsBoysGirlsBoysGirls
Māori 21% 15% 21% 15% 22% 16% 24% 17% 25% 18%
Pacific 21% 16% 24% 16% 27% 18% 30% 19% 30% 19%
NZ European 16% 11% 16% 10% 17% 11% 19% 11% 20% 12%
Asian 7% 6% 8% 6% 10% 6% 11% 7% 10% 6%

Section 3: Student outcomes from Reading Recovery in 2016

At the end of the year, students involved in Reading Recovery are categorised under one of five outcomes: Successfully discontinued - the student is able to work effectively with their cohort without additional support; Carried over - the student is unable to complete their series of lessons in the current year and has had their lesson series continued into the following year; Referred on - the student has not reached the expected level and further specialist or long-term literacy support is required; Left the school - the student leaves the school before completing their series of lessons (and may or may not have continued at their new school); or, Unable to continue - the student leaves the intervention before completing their support for various reasons.

Consistent with previous years, 56% of students are successfully discontinued from Reading Recovery, while 24% of students are carried over into the following year and 13% are referred for specialist help or long-term literacy support.

Table 12: Students' Reading Recovery outcomes 2016 to 2018
Type of Outcome201820172016
N%%%
Student successfully discontinued lessons 4,993 56% 57% 57%
Student's series of lessons carried over to 2018 2,151 24% 25% 24%
Student referred for specialist help or long-term literacy support 1,121 13% 11% 11%
Student left the school before completion 380 4% 4% 5%
Student unable to continue 269 3% 2% 3%
Missing data 22 0% 0% 0%
Total 8,936 100% 100% 100%

For students exiting Reading Recovery in 2018, 74% are successfully discontinued, with 17% referred for specialist help or long-term literacy support.

Table 13: Exiting students' Reading Recovery outcomes in 2018
Type of OutcomeN%
Student successfully discontinued lessons 4,993 74%
Student referred for specialist help or long-term literacy support 1,121 17%
Student left the school before completion 380 6%
Student unable to continue 269 4%
Total 6,763 100%

Table 14 and Figure 2 show that the percentage of students whose series of lessons are successfully discontinued demonstrate a downward trend from since the peak of 82% in 2011, decreasing by 8%, to 74% in 2018. The decrease appears to be partially offset by an increase in referrals to specialist services of 5% over the same period.

Table 14: Outcomes for students exiting Reading Recovery 2005 to 2018
Year Successfully  Discontinued (%) Referred On  (%) Left the School  Before Completion  (%) Unable to Continue  (%) Total  (%)
2005 79% 11% 7% 2% 100%
2006 79% 12% 7% 2% 100%
2007 78% 12% 8% 2% 100%
2008 78% 13% 7% 2% 100%
2009 78% 13% 7% 2% 100%
2010 80% 13% 5% 2% 100%
2011 82% 12% 5% 1% 100%
2012 81% 12% 5% 2% 100%
2013 79% 13% 5% 3% 100%
2014 79% 13% 5% 3% 100%
2015 78% 14% 6% 3% 100%
2016 75% 14% 7% 4% 100%
2017 77% 15% 5% 3% 100%
2018 74% 17% 6% 4% 100%

Figure 2: Outcomes for students exiting Reading Recovery, 2005 to 2018

Consistent with previous years, a greater proportion of students who entered Reading Recovery for the first time in 2018 were successfully discontinued (74%) than students who were carried over from 2017 (73%). Students who transferred were about 30% less likely to successfully discontinue Reading Recovery (42%) than students entering the intervention in the calendar year.

Table 15: Reading Recovery outcome by entry status, 2018

Notes:

Table based on students' initial entry type, and final outcome from Reading Recovery (where more than one school was attended during the year).

Outcome Entered for the First Time Carried Over from 2017 Arrived from Another School Total Count
N%N%N%N%
Successfully discontinued 3,334 74% 1,623 73% 36 42% 4,993 73%
Referred on 665 15% 445 20% 11 13% 1,121 16%
Left the school before completion 268 6% 112 5% 2 2% 382 6%
Not able to continue 220 5% 47 2% 36 42% 303 4%
Total 4,487 100% 2,227 100% 85 100% 6,799 100%

A higher proportion of girls (78%) had their lesson series discontinued in 2018 than boys (71%), consistent with previous years. A higher proportion of boys were referred on, compared with girls.

Table 16: Reading Recovery outcome by gender, 2018
OutcomeGirlsBoysTotal
N%N%N%
Successfully discontinued 2,118 78% 2,875 71% 4,993 74%
Referred on 354 13% 767 19% 1,121 17%
Left the school before completion 158 6% 222 6% 380 6%
Not able to continue 100 4% 169 4% 269 4%
Total 2,730 100% 4,033 100% 6,763 100%

A higher proportion of NZ European (78%) and Asian students (81%) successfully discontinued their series of lessons in 2018 than Māori (67%) and Pacific students (71%), consistent with previous years.

Table 17: Reading Recovery outcome by ethnicity, 2018
Outcome NZ MāoriPacific NZ EuropeanAsianOtherTotal
N%N%N%N%N%N%
Successfully discontinued 1,409 67% 640 71% 2,284 78% 363 81% 291 80% 4,987 74%
Referred on 387 18% 172 19% 450 15% 58 13% 51 14% 1,118 17%
Left the school before completion 185 9% 60 7% 103 3% 17 4% 15 4% 380 6%
Not able to continue 111 5% 31 3% 108 4% 12 3% 7 2% 269 4%
Total 2,092 100% 903 100% 2,945 100% 450 100% 364 100% 6,754 100%

Consistent with previous years, in 2018 a higher proportion of students from decile 8 to 10 schools (80%) were successfully discontinued from Reading Recovery, compared with decile 1 to 3 schools (68%).

Table 18: Exiting students' Reading Recovery outcome by school decile, 2018
School Decile Successfully discontinued Referred On Left the School Before Completion Not Able to  ContinueTotal
N%N%N%N%N%
1 467 60% 168 22% 83 11% 59 8% 777 100%
2 465 70% 108 16% 63 10% 27 4% 663 100%
3 504 73% 121 17% 47 7% 21 3% 693 100%
4 473 69% 137 20% 42 6% 31 5% 683 100%
5 480 73% 98 15% 36 5% 41 6% 655 100%
6 422 77% 87 16% 22 4% 18 3% 549 100%
7 493 78% 105 17% 22 3% 16 3% 636 100%
8 511 80% 89 14% 16 3% 23 4% 639 100%
9 564 80% 99 14% 25 4% 19 3% 707 100%
10 614 81% 109 14% 24 3% 14 2% 761 100%

In 2018, 1,121 students were referred on from Reading Recovery for specialist help or long-term literacy support; this group representing 17% of students in Reading Recovery. Students were most commonly referred to Resource Teachers of Literacy (60%). A further 22% of students were referred to Resource Teachers Learning and Behaviour (RTLB). These trends are consistent with previous years.

Table 19: Further support for students referred on, as reported by schools, 2018
Type of SupportN%
Resource Teachers of Literacy 667 60%
Resource Teachers: Learning & Behaviour 245 22%
Other Learning Support programmes 196 17%
Other within School and External Support 13 1%
Total 1,121 100%

Two-hundred and sixty-nine students were unable to continue with Reading Recovery for a variety of reasons. The two most common, were schools not offering Reading Recovery in 2019 (33%), and teacher-related reasons (31%).

Table 20: Reasons why students were unable to continue, 2018
ReasonN%
Duration in programme 2 1%
Funding related 23 9%
Other  10 4%
Parental request 6 2%
Poor progress 2 1%
School not offering in 2019 89 33%
Student's absence 25 9%
Student's behaviour 7 3%
Student's health 13 5%
Student moved 9 3%
Teacher related 83 31%
Total 269 100%

Regional rates of students successfully discontinued ranged from 85% in Otago to 63% in Manawatu-Wanganui. Rates of referral for further support ranged from 23% in Tasman, to 10% in Taranaki.

Table 21: Proportion of exited students successfully discontinued and referred on by region 2018

Notes:

  1. Chathams Islands' data are included with Canterbury.
Local Body Region Students Successfully Discontinued From Reading Recovery Students Referred On Students Left the School Before Completion Students Not Able to ContinueTotal
2018201720182017201820172018201720182017
N%%N%%N%%N%%NN
Northland 197 64% 64% 63 20% 22% 23 7% 11% 26 8% 0% 309 331
Auckland 1,275 70% 73% 374 20% 18% 143 8% 6% 37 2% 0% 1,829 1,939
Waikato 410 68% 74% 107 18% 15% 37 6% 7% 49 8% 0% 603 642
Bay of Plenty 341 76% 79% 56 13% 12% 30 7% 7% 20 4% 0% 447 456
Gisborne 75 68% 63% 20 18% 31% 12 11% 3% 4 4% 0% 111 95
Hawkes Bay 220 75% 75% 39 13% 15% 13 4% 4% 23 8% 0% 295 273
Taranaki 274 85% 88% 32 10% 5% 12 4% 5% 6 2% 0% 324 310
Manawatu-Wanganui 190 63% 72% 44 15% 11% 25 8% 10% 42 14% 0% 301 305
Wellington 656 81% 80% 112 14% 14% 23 3% 4% 19 2% 0% 810 850
Tasman 82 75% 83% 25 23% 15% 2 2% 3% 0 0% 0% 109 117
Nelson 59 77% 73% 13 17% 19% 3 4% 6% 2 3% 0% 77 95
Marlborough 54 71% 86% 14 18% 7% 4 5% 4% 4 5% 0% 76 91
West Coast 42 75% 78% 8 14% 16% 4 7% 6% 2 4% 0% 56 69
Canterbury1 575 75% 79% 144 19% 17% 29 4% 3% 21 3% 0% 769 862
Otago 322 85% 85% 40 11% 12% 10 3% 2% 7 2% 0% 379 326
Southland 221 82% 85% 30 11% 10% 10 4% 4% 7 3% 0% 268 249
Total 4,993 74% 77% 1,121 17% 15% 380 6% 5% 269 4% 0% 6,763 7,010

On average, students who were referred on, attended more half-hour lessons (83.9 sessions) than students who were successfully discontinued from Reading Recovery (78.9 sessions).

Table 22: Average (mean) number of lessons and weeks in Reading Recovery for successfully discontinued and referred on students by entry status, 2018

Notes:

Table based on students' initial entry type, and final outcome from Reading Recovery (where more than one school was attended during the year). Excludes data from students with missing information about their entry into Reading Recovery.

Entry Status Successfully Discontinued Referred On
N Mean Number ofN Mean Number of
30 Minute Sessions Calendar Weeks 30 Minute Sessions Calendar Weeks
Entered for the first time 3,334 73.4 18.2 665 80.3 21.1
Carried over from 2017 1,623 89.9 22.4 445 89.2 23.0
Arrived from another school 36 92.7 23.6 11 82.8 21.9
Total 4,993 78.9 19.6 1,121 83.9 21.8

Overall, boys completed a slightly greater number of 30-minute sessions than girls. On average, successfully discontinued boys completed an additional 2.5 sessions than girls, and referred on boys completed 1.7 more sessions than girls.

Table 23: Average (mean) number of lessons and weeks in Reading Recovery by ethnicity and gender, 2018
Ethnicity Successfully Discontinued Referred On
Mean Number of  30 Minute Sessions Mean Number of  Calendar Weeks Mean Number of  30 Minute Sessions Mean Number of Calendar Weeks
BoysGirlsBoysGirlsBoysGirlsBoysGirls
NZ Maori 81.2 80.6 20.4 20.5 82.6 76.9 21.9 21.3
Pasifika 81.4 79.6 20.5 20.6 84.7 88.1 23.0 23.5
NZ European 78.9 74.9 19.3 18.3 84.8 85.0 21.4 21.8
Asian 78.7 74.9 19.5 18.2 89.3 83.8 21.9 20.6
Total 79.9 77.4 19.8 19.3 84.2 82.5 21.9 21.8

Overall, Decile 1 to 3 schools completed a greater mean number of 30-minute Reading Recovery sessions (81 sessions) than Decile 8 to 10 schools (78 sessions).

Table 24: Average (mean) number of sessions and calendar weeks in Reading Recovery by school decile, 2018
School Decile Successfully Discontinued Referred On
Mean Number of 30 Minute Sessions Mean Number of  Calendar Weeks Mean Number of  30 minute sessions Mean Number of Calendar Weeks
1 82.0 21.1 84.5 23.0
2 81.8 20.9 84.7 22.5
3 80.0 19.7 80.6 21.4
4 78.6 19.5 83.8 22.0
5 78.1 19.5 80.0 21.1
6 79.1 19.6 81.9 21.0
7 77.1 18.8 84.7 21.7
8 76.7 18.9 82.5 21.3
9 76.3 18.6 89.1 22.2
10 80.2 19.5 86.4 21.4
Total 78.9 19.6 83.9 21.8

Section 4: Students' Learning Gains Reading Recovery, 2017

Shift in instructional text Levels over the course of Reading Recovery

Successfully discontinued students typically start Reading Recovery with higher average (mean) levels across the range of measures used and make more progress during the intervention than students who are referred on (Figures 3 to 8). For students who moved schools during the year, instructional text levels at entry are based on those from their initial school, and exit levels taken from the school they moved to.

Figures 3 and 4 present instructional text levels at entry to and exit from Reading Recovery for successfully discontinued and referred on students. The equivalent colours of the Ready to Read colour wheel are noted underneath the horizontal axes.

Figure 3 shows that the majority of successfully discontinued students (94%) entered the intervention reading texts ranging from level 1 (Magenta 1) to level 11 (Blue 3). On exit, almost all successfully discontinued students were reading texts at or above level 15 (Orange 1) - most of these students (99.7% of those exiting) were reading texts at or above the Turquoise level of Ready to Read.

Figure 3: Instructional text levels at entry and exit for successfully discontinued students, 2018

Note: Magenta: 1-2, Red: 3:5, Yellow: 6:8, Blue: 9-11, Green: 12:14 | Year 1 expectation (Age 6) | Orange: 15:16, Turquoise: 17:18, Purple: 19:20, Gold: 21:22, Above Gold: 23:30

In comparison, Figure 4 shows that 98% of referred on students entered Reading Recovery reading texts at or below level 8 (Yellow 3), with the majority (89%) entering the intervention reading texts between level 1 (Magenta 1) and level 5 (Red 3). Referred on students were reading texts from a wider range of levels when they exited Reading Recovery compared to successfully discontinued students exiting. Eighty-seven per cent of referred on students were reading texts between level 6 (Yellow 1) and level 16 (Orange 2) when they ended their Reading Recovery lessons. These figures were almost identical to the previous year.

Figure 4: Instructional text levels at entry and exit for referred on students, 2018

Note: Magenta: 1-2, Red: 3:5, Yellow: 6:8, Blue: 9-11, Green: 12:14, Orange: 15:16, Turquoise: 17:18, Purple: 19:20, Gold: 21:22, Above Gold: 23:30

Shift in Burt Word scores over the course of Reading Recovery, 2018

Figure 5 shows that most successfully discontinued students (86%) entered Reading Recovery with a Burt Word reading score of 20 or below, and almost all (98%) students exited the intervention with a Burt score of 21 or higher.

Figure 5: Burt Word Reading scores at entry and exit for successfully discontinued students, 2018

Notes:

  1. Burt score 0-19 = No equivalent age bands available, 20-21: ages 5.10 to 6.05, 22-33: ages 6.00 to 7.05, 34-45: ages 7.00 to 8.05.
  2. Band "1-2" also includes 0 values

Figure 6 shows that the majority (91%) of referred on students entered Reading Recovery with a Burt Word score of 10 or less (below the 5.10–6.04 age band). At exit, the majority of referred on students (90%) exited Reading Recovery with a Burt Word score between 7 (below the 5.10–6.04 age band) and 28 (equivalent age band 6.06–7.00 years). These scores are nearly identical to the previous year.

Figure 6: Burt Word Reading scores at entry and exit for referred on students, 2018

Notes:

  1. Burt score 0-19 = No equivalent age bands available, 20-21: ages 5.10 to 6.05, 22-33: ages 6.00 to 7.05, 34-45: ages 7.00 to 8.05.
  2. Band "1-2" also includes 0 values

Successfully discontinued students had an average Burt Word score of 29.1 when they exited the intervention. The equivalent age band for a level of 29 is 6.07-7.01 years/months. The average age for successfully discontinued students at exit was 7 years, showing that on average, these students obtained Burt Word Reading Test scores close to the expected level for their age group.

Referred on students exited Reading Recovery with an average Burt Word score of 16.3. The equivalent age band for a score of 16 is less than 5 years 10 months. The average age of referred on students at the time of exit from Reading Recovery was 7 years. While referred on students, on average, improved on the Burt Word test scores over the course of the Reading Recovery intervention, students obtained scores below the expected level for their age group.

Table 25: Average age of students, average Burt Word score and equivalent age bands, 2018

Notes:

Where students moved schools, entry scores are taken from the first school, and exit scores from the second school.

*A small proportion of students did not have correct date of birth information and could not be included in the calculation of average age. Thus, this figure is the best estimate of the average age of students as they entered and exited the intervention.

  At Entry to Reading Recovery Upon Exit from Reading Recovery
Average Age* Average  Burt  score Equivalent  Age Band Average Age* Average Burt  score Equivalent  Age Band
Successfully discontinued, n=4,997 6.4 12.6 Less than 5.10 yrs 7.0 29.1 6.07-7.01
Referred on, n=1,122 6.4 5.6 Less than 5.10 yrs 7.0 16.3 Less than 5.10 yrs
Writing Vocabulary Task levels at entry and exit

The majority (87%) of students who were successfully discontinued had Writing Vocabulary Task levels between 5 and 39 when they started their lessons; when they exited Reading Recovery, most (88%) had levels between 45 and 74 (Figure 7).

Figure 7: Writing Vocabulary Task levels at entry and exit for successfully discontinued students, 2018

Most referred on students (89%) had Writing Vocabulary Task levels between 0 and 19 when they started their lessons; when they exited most (81%) had levels between 10 and 49 (Figure 8).

Figure 8: Writing Vocabulary Task levels at entry and exit for referred on students, 2018

Successfully discontinued students exited Reading Recovery with an average Writing Vocabulary Task score of 59.3. This level falls into the 6th stanine, which is above the mean for the 6.51–7.00 years age group. These data show that on average, successfully discontinued students tended to exit the intervention with Writing Vocabulary Task at levels that were above, or close to, the average level for their age group.

Referred on students exited Reading Recovery with an average Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) level of 29.6. This level falls into the 3rd stanine, which is below the mean for the 6.51–7.00 years age group. This result shows that on average, referred on students exited the intervention with Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) levels that were below the average level for their age group.

Table 26: Average age of students, average Writing Vocabulary Task score and equivalent age bands, 2018

Notes:

Where students moved schools, entry scores are taken from the first school, and exit scores from the second school.

*A small proportion of students did not have correct date of birth information and could not be included in the calculation of average age. Thus, this figure is the best estimate of the average age of students as they entered and exited the intervention.

** Stanines are a method of standardising test scores using a nine-point scale (with a mean of five and a standard deviation of two). In this method, test scores are ranked and assigned to a stanine according to the percentile they fall into.

  At Entry to Reading Recovery Upon Exit from Reading Recovery
Average Stanine  Group for  6.01-6.50  YearsAverage Stanine**  Group for  6.51-7.00  Years
Age* Writing Vocabulary  TaskAge* Writing Vocabulary  Task
Successfully discontinued, n=4,997 6.4 21.2 Stanine 3 7 59.3 Stanine 6
Referred on, n=1,122 6.4 9.2 Stanine 2 7 29.6 Stanine 3

Table 27 shows that successfully discontinued students from lower decile schools tend to enter Reading Recovery with slightly lower reading and writing levels than students from higher decile schools. Yet, these students tend to exit Reading Recovery at a similar level regardless of school decile, there are relatively larger gains for students in lower decile schools. Students referred on show more variable gains across decile.

Table 27: Shifts in reading and writing gains for successfully discontinued and referred on students by decile
Decile Instructional Text levels Burt Word Reading test Writing Vocabulary Task
EntryExitGainEntryExitGainEntryExitGain
Successfully Discontinued Students
1 5.1 18.1 13.0 10.3 29.4 19.1 17.9 59.1 41.2
2 5.3 18.2 12.9 10.7 28.8 18.1 18.7 58.6 39.9
3 5.8 18.3 12.5 11.9 29.4 17.5 19.7 60.1 40.4
4 6.1 18.2 12.1 12.1 29.1 17.0 20.5 59.3 38.8
5 6.3 18.1 11.8 12.1 29.0 16.9 20.2 58.6 38.4
6 6.5 18.2 11.7 12.3 28.9 16.6 21.7 59.0 37.3
7 6.7 18.2 11.5 13.7 28.9 15.2 23.7 59.2 35.5
8 7.1 18.5 11.4 14.1 29.3 15.2 23.1 60.2 37.1
9 6.8 18.6 11.8 14.2 29.1 14.9 23.2 59.8 36.6
10 6.7 18.4 11.7 13.4 29.4 16.0 22.2 59.3 37.1
Overall Average 6.3 18.3 12.0 12.6 29.1 16.5 21.2 59.3 38.1
Referred on Students
1 2.4 10.2 7.8 4.6 15.6 11.0 7.0 28.3 21.3
2 2.4 10.7 8.3 4.2 15.1 10.9 7.4 27.2 19.8
3 2.7 10.7 8.0 5.1 15.6 10.5 8.8 27.5 18.7
4 2.9 10.4 7.5 5.2 16.3 11.1 9.1 29.6 20.5
5 3.2 10.3 7.1 5.1 14.7 9.6 8.5 27.8 19.3
6 3.0 10.4 7.4 5.2 14.9 9.7 9.5 30.1 20.6
7 3.7 11.8 8.1 6.9 17.8 10.9 12.1 33.2 21.1
8 3.5 11.5 8.0 6.0 16.5 10.5 9.9 28.5 18.6
9 3.4 11.7 8.3 6.5 17.7 11.2 10.1 31.3 21.2
10 3.7 12.1 8.4 7.1 18.3 11.2 11.3 32.9 21.6
Overall Average 3.0 10.9 7.9 5.6 16.3 10.7 9.2 29.6 20.4

Entry and exit levels in the three assessments were similar amongst successfully discontinued students of all ethnicities. Gains for referred on students showed greater variability.

Table 28: Shifts in reading and writing for successfully discontinued and referred on students by ethnicity, 2017
Ethnicity Instructional Text levels Burt Word Reading test Writing Vocabulary Task
EntryExitGainEntryExitGainEntryExitGain
Successfully Discontinued Students
NZ Maori 5.9 18.1 12.2 11.3 28.9 17.6 20.1 58.9 38.8
Pasifika 5.4 18.3 12.9 11.8 29.9 18.1 19.5 60.3 40.8
NZ European 6.8 18.3 11.5 13.3 28.8 15.5 22.0 58.9 36.9
Asian 5.9 18.6 12.7 14.2 30.7 16.5 22.9 62.0 39.1
Other 6.1 18.3 12.2 13.0 29.8 16.8 21.5 59.7 38.2
Overall Average 6.3 18.3 12.0 12.6 29.1 16.5 21.2 59.3 38.1
Referred on Students
NZ Maori 2.7 10.3 7.6 4.8 15.3 10.5 8.4 28.6 20.2
Pasifika 2.6 10.7 8.1 4.9 16.8 11.9 8.0 29.8 21.8
NZ European 3.4 11.3 7.9 6.2 16.4 10.2 10.5 29.9 19.4
Asian 3.0 11.3 8.3 6.8 18.8 12.0 9.4 30.3 20.9
Other 3.0 12.0 9.0 6.1 17.8 11.7 9.1 33.0 23.9
Overall Average 3.0 10.9 7.9 5.6 16.3 10.7 9.2 29.6 20.4

Table 29 shows the proportion of students who were reading at the level specified by the New Zealand Curriculum reading expectation for 'After two years at school' (Turquoise level of Ready to Read), across Reading Recovery outcome. After the Reading Recovery intervention, 92%, or 4,569 students, were reading at or above the Turquoise level of Ready to Read. Approximately two-thirds of successfully discontinued students (65%), had not yet completed 2 years of schooling when they exited Reading Recovery. Forty-three percent of referred on students (n=485) were reading at or above the Green level, but not yet at the Turquoise level.

Table 29: Reading achievement for exiting students in relation to the New Zealand Curriculum expectations
Ready to Read Levels Successfully  Discontinued Referred On Left the School  Before Completion Not Able  to ContinueTotal
N%N%N%N%N%
Not yet reading at the Green level of Ready to Read 1 0% 599 53% 265 70% 158 59% 1,023 15%
Reading at or above the Green level, but not yet at the Turquoise level 423 8% 485 43% 107 28% 104 39% 1,119 17%
Reading at or above the Turquoise level of Ready to Read 4,569 92% 37 3% 8 2% 7 3% 4,621 68%
Total 4,993 100% 1,121 100% 380 100% 269 100% 6,763 100%

References

  • Clay, M.M. (2013). An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement (3rd Edition). Auckland: Pearson.
  • Gilmore, A., Croft, C., & Reid, N. (1981). Burt Word Reading Text: New Zealand Revision. New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Wellington

Contact Us

Education Data Requests
If you have any questions about education data then please contact us at:
Email:      Requests EDK
Phone:    +64 4 463 8065