Teacher Census 2004

Publication Details

In September 2004 the Ministry of Education undertook a survey of all teachers in state and state integrated schools. The Ministry would like to thank teachers who participated in the 2004 Teacher Census. The information collected by the Teacher Census provides valuable input into planning and policy development of issues affecting the teaching profession.

Author(s): Demographic and Statistical Analysis, Ministry of Education.

Date Published: June 2005

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Summary

Response Rate and Sample Error

In total 43,759 teachers took part in the 2004 Teacher Census, a response rate of 91 percent of teachers who were teaching in the week of the census.

Table 1: Response Rate by School Type
Note:
  1. *Includes restricted composite
School Type Response Rate
Primary 92%
Composite* 83%
Secondary 89%
Special 90%
Total 91%


The teacher response rate was very high across all school types.  

Ethnicity

Across all school sectors 79 percent of teachers identify as European/Pakeha, 10 percent as being Māori, 2 percent as being Pasifika and 2 percent identify as being Asian.

Table 2: Proportion of Teachers by School Type and Ethnicity
Note:
  1. *Includes Restricted Composite.
School Type Ethnicity
Māori European
/Pakeha
Pasifika Asian Other Total
Primary 11% 80% 3% 2% 5% 100%
Secondary 8% 79% 2% 3% 7% 100%
Composite* 23% 65% 3% 2% 6% 100%
Special 6% 79% 1% 4% 10% 100%
Total 10% 79% 2% 2% 6% 100%

Gender

While most teachers at primary schools are female, the gender split is more even at secondary schools.

Table 3: Proportion of Teachers by Gender and School Type
Note:
  1. *Includes Restricted Composite.
School Type Female Male
Primary 82% 18%
Composite* 69% 31%
Secondary 58% 42%
Special 83% 17%
Total 73% 27%

Teachers by Age

Over half of teachers (58 percent) are aged between 40 and 59 years. The distribution across age groups is very similar for female and male teachers.

Figure 1: Proportion of Teachers by Gender and Age

Image of Figure 1: Proportion of Teachers by Gender and Age.

Designation

The 2004 Teacher Census asked teachers to indicate their current designation. The questionnaire allowed respondents to give more than one designation if appropriate. If this occurred then the highest designation was chosen for reporting purposes.

For 5 percent of respondents principal was their highest designation, 8 percent senior management (associate principal, deputy principal and assistant principal designations), 29 percent middle management (head of department, assistant head of department) and 55 percent teacher (including special needs teachers).

Table 4: Proportion of Teachers by Highest Designation and Gender
Highest Designation Female Male
Principal 3% 11%
Senior Management 8% 8%
Middle Management 26% 37%
Teacher 61% 41%
Other 2% 3%
Total 100% 100%


Males are more likely to be working as a principal than females (11 percent of male respondents highest designation is principal compared with only 3 percent of females). However, males and female respondents are equally likely to be working at the senior management level (associate principal/deputy principal/assistant principal level).

Table 5: Proportion of Teachers by Age Grouping and Highest Designation
Age Grouping Principal Senior Management Middle Management Teacher Other Total
Under 30 0% 1% 18% 79% 1% 100%
30-39 2% 6% 30% 60% 2% 100%
40-49 6% 9% 30% 52% 2% 100%
50-59 9% 12% 33% 43% 2% 100%
60 plus 7% 10% 29% 50% 4% 100%
Total 5% 8% 29% 55% 2% 100%


Teachers aged 50-59 years are more likely to be in a principal, senior or middle management position than any other age grouping.

Highest Teaching Qualification

Nearly two thirds of teachers (64 percent) reported holding at least a degree as their teaching qualification, and a third reported holding a certificate or diploma as their highest teaching qualification. When looking at highest teaching qualification broken down by school type we see that a higher proportion of secondary school teachers (75 percent), than teachers from any other school types, hold at least a degree as their highest teaching qualification.

 Table 6: Proportion of Teachers by Highest Teaching Qualification and School Type
Note:
  1. *Includes Restricted Composite.
School Type  No qualification Certificate/ Diploma Degree or higher Other qualification Total
Primary 0% 42% 57% 1% 100%
Composite* 4% 34% 59% 2% 100%
Secondary 4% 19% 75% 3% 100%
Special 2% 36% 60% 2% 100%
Total 2% 33% 64% 2% 100%

Teachers aged under 30 years are most likely (86 percent) to have a degree or higher as their highest teaching qualification. Whereas teachers aged 60 plus are most likely to have a certificate or diploma as their highest teaching qualification.

Table 7: Proportion of Teachers by Highest Teaching Qualification and Age Grouping
Age Grouping No Qualification Certificate/ Diploma Degree or Higher Other Qualification Total
Under 30 2% 9% 86% 3% 100%
30-39 2% 24% 72% 3% 100%
40-49 2% 34% 63% 2% 100%
50-59 2% 45% 52% 1% 100%
60 plus 3% 56% 39% 1% 100%
Total 2% 33% 64% 2% 100%

Other Tertiary Qualifications

Overall just under half (45 percent) of all teachers hold tertiary qualifications other than their teaching qualifications. Secondary school teachers are more likely to hold qualifications other than their teaching qualifications than teachers at other school types. Nearly three quarters of teachers at secondary schools hold qualifications other than their teaching qualifications.

Table 8: Proportion of Teachers with other Tertiary Qualifications by School Type
Note:
  1. *Includes Restricted Composite.
School Type Hold other qualifications Do not hold other qualifications Total
Primary 25% 75% 100%
Composite* 49% 51% 100%
Secondary 74% 26% 100%
Special 33% 67% 100%
Total 45% 55% 100%


Teachers aged 30-39 years are most likely to have non-teaching tertiary qualifications compared with other age groups.

Table 9: Proportion of Teachers with other Tertiary Qualifications by Age Grouping
Age Grouping Hold other
Qualifications
Do not hold
other Qualifications
Total
Under 30 46% 54% 100%
30-39 51% 49% 100%
40-49 45% 55% 100%
50-59 42% 58% 100%
60 plus 37% 63% 100%
Total 45% 55% 100%


Teachers in middle management positions are most likely to have non-teaching tertiary qualifications. More than half of those in middle management have non-teaching tertiary qualifications.

Table 10: Proportion of Teachers with other Tertiary Qualifications by Highest Designation
Highest Designation Hold other
Qualifications
Do not hold
other Qualifications
Total
Principal 30% 70% 100%
Senior Management 32% 68% 100%
Middle Management 55% 45% 100%
Teacher 43% 57% 100%
Other 51% 49% 100%
Total 45% 55% 100%

Current Study towards a Teaching Qualification

Overall, 11 percent of all teachers reported working towards a teaching qualification. Pasifika teachers (21 percent) followed by Māori teachers (16 percent) are more likely to be working towards a teaching qualification than other ethnic groups.border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">

Table 11: Proportion of Teachers working towards a Teaching Qualification by Ethnicity
Ethnicity Currently studying towards
a teaching qualification
Not currently studying towards
a teaching qualification
Total
Māori 16% 84% 100%
European/Pakeha 11% 89% 100%
Pasifika 21% 79% 100%
Asian 10% 90% 100%
Other 11% 89% 100%
Total 11% 89% 100%


Secondary school teachers are least likely to be working towards a teaching qualification.

Table 12: Proportion of Teachers working towards a Teaching Qualification by School Type
Note:
  1. *Includes Restricted Composite.
School Type Currently studying towards a teaching qualification Not currently studying towards a teaching qualification Total
Primary 14% 86% 100%
Composite* 11% 89% 100%
Secondary 7% 93% 100%
Special 13% 87% 100%
Total 11% 89% 100%


Teachers aged less than 30 years and teachers over 60 years are less likely to be working towards a teaching qualification.

Table 13: Proportion of Teachers working towards a Teaching Qualification by Age Grouping
Age Grouping Working towards a
teaching qualification
Not working towards
a teaching qualification
Total
Under 30 7% 93% 100%
30-39 12% 88% 100%
40-49 15% 85% 100%
50-59 11% 89% 100%
60 plus 5% 95% 100%
Total 11% 89% 100%


Nearly double the proportion of principals and those in senior management reported that they were working towards a teaching qualification compared to those in middle management and classroom teachers.

Table 14: Proportion of Teachers working towards a Teaching Qualification by Highest Designation
Highest Designation Working towards a
teaching qualification
Not working towards
a teaching qualification
Total
Principal 19% 81% 100%
Senior Management 19% 81% 100%
Middle Management 11% 89% 100%
Teacher 10% 90% 100%
Total 11% 89% 100%

Professional Development

Across all ethnic groups, 90 percent of teachers reported that they had undertaken professional development in the 12 months prior to the September 2004 Teacher Census.

A slightly higher proportion of teachers at primary schools and special schools undertook professional development in the 12 months prior to the September 2004 Teacher Census, than teachers at secondary and composite schools.

Table 15: Proportion of Teachers who undertook Professional Development by School Type
Note:
  1. *Includes Restricted Composite
School Type Undertook professional
development
Did not undertake
professional development
Total
Primary 93% 7% 100%
Composite* 89% 11% 100%
Secondary 87% 13% 100%
Special 92% 8% 100%
Total 90% 10% 100%

*includes Restricted Composite


In comparison to other age groups, a slightly lower proportion of teachers aged 60 plus (82 percent) reported undertaking professional development in the 12 months prior to the September 2004 Teacher Census.>

Table 16: Proportion of Teachers who undertook Professional Development by Age Grouping
Age Grouping Undertook
professional development
Did not undertake
professional development
Total
Under 30 91% 9% 100%
30-39 89% 11% 100%
40-49 91% 9% 100%
50-59 91% 9% 100%
60 plus 82% 18% 100%
Total 90% 10% 100%


Senior management (98 percent) followed by principals (96 percent) were most likely to have undertaken professional development in the 12 months prior to the September 2004 Teacher Census.

Table 17: Proportion of Teachers who undertook Professional Development by Highest Designation
Highest Designation Undertook
professional development
Did not undertake
professional development
Total
Principal 96% 4% 100%
Senior Management 98% 2% 100%
Middle Management 94% 6% 100%
Teacher 88% 12% 100%
Total 90% 10% 100%

Initial Teaching Qualifications from New Zealand or Overseas

Overall, the majority (89 percent) of teachers gained their initial teaching qualification in New Zealand. Asian teachers however, are just as likely to have received their initial teacher qualifications overseas as they are to have received them in New Zealand.

Table 18: Proportion of Teachers who gained their Initial Teaching Qualifications in New Zealand or in another country, by Ethnicity
Ethnicity Initial teaching qualifications gained in NZ Initial teaching qualifications gained in a country other than NZ Total
Māori 100% 0% 100%
European/Pakeha 91% 9% 100%
Pasifika 80% 20% 100%
Asian 50% 50% 100%
Other 54% 46% 100%
Total 89% 11% 100%


A slightly higher proportion of primary teachers received their initial teacher training in New Zealand rather than another country, compared to teachers from other school types.

Nearly a quarter of teachers at special schools received their initial teacher training in a country other than New Zealand.

Table 19: Proportion of Teachers who received their Initial Teaching Qualifications in New Zealand or in another country, by School Type
Note:
  1. *Includes Restricted Composite
School Type Initial teaching qualifications gained in NZ Initial teaching qualifications gained in a country other than NZ Total
Primary 92% 8% 100%
Composite* 87% 13% 100%
Secondary 84% 16% 100%
Special 77% 23% 100%
Total 89% 11% 100%


Principals and senior management are most likely to have received their initial teaching qualification in New Zealand.

Table 20: Proportion of Teachers who received their Initial Teaching Qualifications in New Zealand or in another country, by Highest Designation
Highest Designation Initial teaching qualifications gained in NZ Initial teaching qualifications gained in a country other than NZ Total
Principal 96% 4% 100%
Senior Management 93% 7% 100%
Middle Management 87% 13% 100%
Teacher 88% 12% 100%
Other 89% 11% 100%
Total 89% 11% 100%

Teaching Outside New Zealand

More than a quarter (28 percent) of all teachers, have taught outside New Zealand. Asian teachers (62 percent) are most likely to have taught outside New Zealand , followed by Pasifika teachers (39 percent).

Table 21: Proportion of Teachers who have worked as a Teacher outside New Zealand by Ethnicity
Ethnicity Have taught outside NZ Have not taught outside NZ Total
Māori 10% 90% 100%
European/Pakeha 27% 73% 100%
Pasifika 39% 61% 100%
Asian 62% 38% 100%
Other 55% 45% 100%
Total 28% 72% 100%


Whilst around a quarter of primary school and composite school teachers have taught outside New Zealand, approximately a third of secondary school and special school teachers have taught outside New Zealand.

Table 22: Proportion of Teachers who have worked as a Teacher outside New Zealand by School Type
Note:
  1. *Includes Restricted Composite.
School Type Have taught outside NZ Have not taught outside NZ Total
Primary 25% 75% 100%
Composite* 27% 73% 100%
Secondary 33% 67% 100%
Special 36% 64% 100%
Total 28% 72% 100%


Teachers aged less than 30 years are least likely to have taught outside New Zealand. Just under a fifth of teachers in this age group reported having taught outside New Zealand compared to closer to a third of teachers across the other age groups.

Table 23: Proportion of Teachers who have worked as a Teacher Outside New Zealand by Age Grouping
Age Grouping Have taught outside NZ Have not taught outside NZ Total
Under 30 17% 83% 100%
30-39 34% 66% 100%
40-49 27% 73% 100%
50-59 30% 70% 100%
60 plus 36% 64% 100%
Total 28% 72% 100%

Teaching the Curriculum in Māori or a Pasifika Language

The 2004 Teacher Census asked teachers to indicate whether they had taught the curriculum in Māori or a Pasifika language. Around 4,400 teachers indicated that they had taught students in Māori and around 400 teachers indicated that they had taught students in a Pasifika language. Of those teaching in a Pasifika language, nearly three quarters indicated that they taught in Samoan.

Teacher Registration

The majority (98 percent) of teachers are registered teachers.

Table 24: Proportion of Teachers by Registration Status by School Type
Note:
  1. *Includes Restricted Composite.
School Type  Registered Not registered but have Limited Authority to Teach None of these Total
Primary 99% 1% 0% 100%
Composite* 94% 5% 1% 100%
Secondary 96% 4% 1% 100%
Special 96% 2% 2% 100%
Total 98% 2% 1% 100%

Labour Market Interest

3,659 teachers (8 percent of all respondents) indicated they had applied for job outside the state teaching sector. This is comparable with the loss rate data collected by the Ministry of Education (10 percent between 2003 and 2004). Of those who indicated that they had applied for a job outside the state teaching sector more than half indicated that they had applied for a teaching job at a New Zealand independent school, and just over a third indicated that they had applied for a non-teaching job in New Zealand.

Secondary School Level Teachers by Teaching Subject Area

In the 2004 Teacher Census secondary school teachers were asked what subjects they taught. 16,863 respondents indicated that they taught at the secondary level (years 9-13) and specified their teaching subjects.

Nearly a quarter of teachers teaching secondary level students indicated that they taught English, followed by mathematics, social sciences, and science.

Table 25: Secondary School Level Teachers by Subject Area
Subject Area Number %
Arts 2464 15
Commerce 923 5
English incl. ESOL 4129 24
Health and Physical Well-Being 2858 17
Languages 1295 8
Maths 3231 19
Science 3002 18
Social Sciences 3130 19
Technology 2756 16
Other 2918 17


Of those 16,863 respondents who indicated that they taught at the secondary level (years 9-13) and specified their teaching subjects:

  • 35 percent taught one subject,
  • 35 percent taught two subjects,
  • 17 percent taught three subjects,
  • 7 percent taught four subjects,
  • the remaining 6 percent indicated that they taught more than four subjects.

In the 2004 Teacher Census, teachers were asked if they had delivered the curriculum in either Māori or a Pasifika language in the 5 most recent days that they had taught.

Percentages don't add up to 100% because teachers could be teaching in more than one subject area.

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