Background Papers: Māori-medium Initial Teacher Education Outcomes (2012)

Publication Details

This introduction examines the broad issues underpinning these two papers. The global context of education for Indigenous peoples is described, followed by the local context in Aotearoa New Zealand for Māori-medium education. The project scope and methodology for the present papers completes this introduction.

Author(s): Katoa Limited. Report Commissioned for the Ministry of Education.

Date Published: November 2012

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Executive Summary

Background

The right of Indigenous people to education in their own language is upheld in many international declarations and conventions, including the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. For Māori the Treaty of Waitangi also upholds this right (Ministry of Education, 2009). Māori-medium education is a key contributor to the success of Māori students, with the Ministry of Education committed to improving the performance of the education sector as a whole for Māori and supporting Māori students to achieve as Māori.

Teachers play a pivotal role in the education system and a range of work is currently underway to improve the quality of Initial Teacher Education (ITE), and to strengthen systems designed to mentor and nurture new teachers in the workplace. As part of this work Katoa Ltd has been contracted by the Ministry of Education (the Ministry) to develop two background papers related to Māori-medium ITE outcomes:

  • Graduate profile, and
  • Effective practicum and induction experiences

Each background paper has been developed through an iterative process involving the review of selected literature, visits and conversations with stakeholders (including Māori-medium teachers and leaders), and consultation with an expert review panel. The six key principles of Kaupapa Māori have guided the structure of each paper:

  1. Tino Rangatiratanga – The principle of self-determination
  2. Taonga Tuku Iho – The principle of cultural aspiration
  3. Ako Māori – the principle of culturally preferred pedagogy
  4. Kia Piki Ake i Ngā Raruraru o te Kāinga – the principle of socio-economic mediation
  5. Whānau – the principle of extended family structure
  6. Kaupapa – the principle of collective philosophy

Graduate Profile

A Graduate Profile is a comprehensive role description that guides student and employer expectations of what a course of study will deliver in terms of graduating students' knowledge, expertise and disposition.

Tino Rangatiratanga

A Māori-medium ITE graduate should be prepared to lead teaching practices that are valued within Māori-medium education. In order to do so they need to have knowledge about, and commitment to, Māori self-determination. This requires knowledge of mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge), as well as knowledge of local, national and global politics. Leadership in this sense is also about their commitment to being lifelong learners.

Taonga Tuku Iho: The principle of cultural aspiration

Māori-medium education is driven by its own epistemology that includes an understanding of place, landscapes, spirituality, ceremony and belonging. Those graduating from Māori-medium ITE should understand their own identity, language and culture, as well as being open to Māori knowledge and expertise and the role that culture plays in education. A central driver of Māori cultural aspirations is te reo Māori (the Māori language), and graduates need to be proficient in the language.

Ako Māori: the principle of culturally preferred pedagogy

A Māori-medium ITE graduate should understand and be able to put into practice in the classroom a Māori culturally preferred pedagogy. This includes reciprocal learning and the critical engagement with knowledge. It is also about teaching strategies that enable students to learn by using all their senses to absorb and understand knowledge. Other expertise graduates require includes: second language teaching competency, curriculum knowledge, digital fluency, and the practice skills required to set up and manage a classroom of learners.

Kia Piki Ake i Ngā Raruraru o te Kāinga: the principle of socio-economic mediation

Māori-medium ITE graduates need the ability to confront deep-seated and deficit-based assumptions about Māori student learning and success. This will enable them to analyse, and play a role in helping ameliorate the educational barriers faced by students, whānau and their community.

Whānau: the principle of extended family structure

A Māori-medium ITE graduate needs to be able to establish a learning context for Māori learners and their whānau that they can relate to and see themselves in. An ability to build caring and respectful relationships with students, whānau, community, hapū and Iwi is essential to the respectful encouragement of these people to be part of a Māori-medium education setting.

Kaupapa: the principle of collective philosophy

The kaupapa of Māori-medium education needs to be known and central to the disposition of Māori-medium ITE graduates. They need to be committed to teaching and learning within the context of the vision of Māori-medium education. Knowledge of strategic and vision documents is important, as is a heartfelt drive for Māori-medium education to persevere and be successful.

below outlines the knowledge, expertise and dispositions that this paper recommends be part of a Māori-medium ITE Graduate Profile.

Discussion

Options for how to achieve such a Graduate Profile include the housing of Māori-medium ITE within one institution, or local ITEs training local people for local Māori-medium education settings. Wherever it is based it is clear that the Ministry of Education's strategic vision for Māori students to succeed 'as Māori' needs to be fully embodied by Māori-medium ITE providers. This may require funding formulas that enable Māori-medium ITE to be delivered within a Māori immersion environment. This will, in turn, enable Māori-medium ITE students to explore and critically analyse knowledge in te reo Māori and integrate the development of their cultural expertise and teaching expertise.

Table 1: Kaupapa Māori Principles and the knowledge, expertise and disposition of Māori-medium Initial Teacher Education graduates
Rangatiratanga
Knowledge   Expertise Dispositions

Knowledge about Māori sovereignty and self-determination
Possession of a Māori worldview gained through genuine experiences
Knowledge of political impacts on Māori cultural continuity historically and present day
Knowledge of the importance of local, national and global politics
Proficient knowledge of mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge) and the place of ngākau whakaiti (humility)
Proficient in te reo Māori (Māori language)
Knowledge of healthy eating practices & healthy life styles, mana (status), tapu (restricted), and noa (unrestricted)

Ability to apply tikanga (custom) practices in their classroom, use current teaching and learning pedagogy, apply mātauranga Māori in their teaching pedagogy

Graduating Teachers demonstrate leadership, are highly motivated, and are lifelong learners who are capable of investigating the effects of their teaching on student learning

Taonga Tuku Iho   
Knowledge  ExpertiseDispositions

A high level of cultural knowledge
A high level proficiency of te reo Māori, with an understanding that this is an area of lifelong learning
Knowledge base of the philosophies of both Kura Kaupapa Māori and Kura-ā-Iwi as well as the taonga tuku iho philosophies they are grounded in
Knowledge of political impacts on Māori-medium schooling historically and present day

 

Graduating Teachers use reflective practices and have developed an instinctive response to the kaupapa Māori philosophies that they are grounded in

Graduating Teachers demonstrate resilience and are conscientised culturally and politically

Ako Māori   
Knowledge Expertise Dispositions Other

Sound curriculum knowledge
Subject knowledge
Quality planning knowledge
Assessment knowledge (pānui haere, poutama tau, report writing, and other relevant assessment knowledge)
ICT knowledge
Classroom management skills (seating, grouping children, resources, classroom displays, etc.)
Behavioural management strategies
Has a broad knowledge of learning styles  

An understanding of and an ability to apply Māori pedagogy
Well organised and prepared for teaching
An understanding of the needs of second language learners
A teaching style that encourages interaction and responsiveness from the students and validates their 'lived experiences'
Creates a culturally responsive environment

An ability to start each day fresh (wipe the slate clean of issues from the day before), hard working, passionate and enthusiastic
Has a love of teaching

Has a broad understanding of local tikanga practices
Has an awareness of their own strengths and talents and leads their own learning

Taonga Tuku Iho   
Knowledge Expertise Dispositions Other

Sound curriculum knowledge
Subject knowledge
Quality planning knowledge
Assessment knowledge (pānui haere, poutama tau, report writing, and other relevant assessment knowledge)
ICT knowledge
Classroom management skills (seating, grouping children, resources, classroom displays, etc.)
Behavioural management strategies
Has a broad knowledge of learning styles  

An understanding of and an ability to apply Māori pedagogy
Well organised and prepared for teaching
An understanding of the needs of second language learners
A teaching style that encourages interaction and responsiveness from the students and validates their 'lived experiences'
Creates a culturally responsive environment

An ability to start each day fresh (wipe the slate clean of issues from the day before), hard working, passionate and enthusiastic
Has a love of teaching

Has a broad understanding of local tikanga practices
Has an awareness of their own strengths and talents and leads their own learning

Kia Piki Ake u Ngā Raruraru o te Kāinga
Knowledge Expertise Dispositions Other

Understanding of how children's home life can impact on their emotions and how they learn/don't learn in class
Structural analysis of perceptions of Māori locally, nationally, internationally
Special education needs

Reflective teaching practitioner

Positive
Optimistic
Hardworking
Motivated
Sense of humour

Aware of how they connect to their kura, locally, nationally, globally
An awareness of the existence of racism and its impact

Whānau   
Knowledge Expertise Dispositions Other

Relationship management
Whanaungatanga in a kura setting (an understanding of the inter-connectedness of relationships between, kaiako, kura, whānau, whānau whānui and community)
An awareness of local hapū and Iwi history/tikanga

Whakawhanaungatanga – an ability to create relationships
Culturally/hapū/iwi responsive

Loyalty
Humility

An ability to identify their own needs and to ask for help

Kaupapa
Knowledge Expertise Dispositions Other

Te reo proficiency
Knowledge of Te Aho Matua and Kura-ā-Iwi philosophies
Knows the history of Māori-medium education and its kaupapa
Māori/Iwi pedagogy
Knowledge of sustainable environmental practices

Is a proficient user of te reo
Applies the relevant philosophy for the kura they are employed in
Applies sustainable practices
Applies Māori pedagogy in planning
Plans for a variety of learning styles

Conscientious of the affects of their teaching practices on their students
Conscientious of their impact on community, the environment
Adapts to change
Discerning

A facilitator, conscious of the collectives purpose;
A person willing to facilitate learning experiences out of kura time

Effective Practicum and Induction Experiences

Student teachers gain practical teaching experience during their study through placements in classrooms with fully registered teachers. Graduates spend at least two years as Provisionally Registered Teachers (PRTs) and participate in a mentoring and induction programme facilitated by the school they teach in. These experiences and supports aid teacher retention and satisfaction, and contribute to positive teaching and learning outcomes.

Tino Rangatiratanga: The principle of self-determination

Rangatiratanga was considered in terms of leadership and cultural advancement. The practicum allows students to demonstrate their thinking strategies, their understanding of strategic documents, and their ability to design and plan lessons. It is also a time for students to engage with Māori-medium teachers and the passion and vision they have for Māori culture and language. For PRTs induction is the time when they are supported and mentored to extend their leadership as the primary leader of classroom teaching and of their own learning. A commitment to shared learning, and the support of a dedicated mentor provide manaaki (support) for PRTs within Māori-medium education settings.

The implications for the Kura include:

  • A clear induction process, including the creation of an Induction booklet for student teachers and PRTs that outlines vision and mission, professional standards, and practical information.
  • Ensure that performance expectations are clear and obtainable
  • Help student teachers and PRTs to connect kura philosophy and goals as an expression of tino rangatiratanga
  • Release Mentor Teachers (MTs) to attend Induction Mentoring training programmes

Implications for the mentor include:

  • The engagement with student teachers and PRTs needs to be a power sharing relationship based on rangatiratanga and manaakitanga. Have them identify their needs and be part of the decision making process about their own training.

Taonga Tuku Iho: The principle of cultural aspiration

Students on practicum and PRTs benefit from the role played by kaumatua (elders) within Māori-medium education settings. Kaumatua are guardians of Māori knowledge and culturally congruent pedagogy, and are key connectors to the history, place and people of the local area. While formal mentoring for student teachers and PRTs might be assigned to an experienced teacher, the informal mentoring and support provided by kaumatua plays a key role in orienting students and PRTs to Māori-medium education settings.

The implications for Kura include:

  • The Induction processes needs to be adopted as an important part of kura life, and supported by the whole kura whānau
  • Kaumātua should be available as role models and supports for student teachers and PRTs.
  • Create standards relevant to the kura philosophies and professional standards whilst also taking into consideration recent developments of the Induction mentoring training being offered by the Ministry (or attend the training)
  • Support for PRTs to become familiar with local history and tikanga

Ako Māori: the principle of culturally preferred pedagogy

The collaborative relationship between PRTs and Mentor Teachers (MTs) is key to the induction process. Communication needs to be both regular and valued, and expectations clear. Student teachers on practicum and PRTs need exposure to culturally congruent teaching strategies, and to be encouraged to regain and retain ownership of Māori culture and language within the everyday environment of the Māori-medium education classroom.

The implications for Kura include:

  • Develop 'effective practices' booklet
  • On-going support for the PRT by other teachers and the kura whānau
  • Provide on-going training as needed to support te reo competency of PRTs
  • On-going support for the MT and the PRT to have an effective teaching/learning/mentoring relationship

The implications for mentors include:

  • Be in close proximity of student teachers and PRTs, observe their practice, and have regular hui with them
  • Encourage PRTs to self-reflect to empower their teaching process, and support them to become a reflective practitioner
  • Create training opportunities in collaboration with PRTs (e.g., visits with other kura)
  • Support student teachers and PRTs to gain local knowledge
  • In the case of the mentoring tutor for student teachers during their practicum, provide opportunities to practice skills such as shared reading, running records, poutama tau and other such activities

The implications for Ministry include:

  • Ensure on-going funding to support release of both the MTs and PRTs
  • Put in place strategies to support rurally based kura who do not have a ready supply of relieving teachers to ensure release can happen
  • Continue to develop induction and mentoring standards (as presently provided through recent training initiatives)
  • Continue to research good practices
  • Support kura to create accountability systems as required by Government with kura priorities and focuses as guidelines and measurements

Kia Piki Ake i Ngā Raruraru o te Kāinga: the principle of socio-economic mediation

Insight into the Māori-medium education settings vision and goals, as well as the circumstances of the community in which they are teaching, needs to be facilitated for students on practicum and PRTs. This includes support with identifying and working with issues that impact on students' learning (e.g., hunger, disability). Sensitivity for difficulties and hardships faced by ITE students and PRTs themselves is also encouraged.

Implications for Kura include:

  • Have flexibility regarding the completion of provisional registration within two years

Implications for the Mentor Teacher include:

  • Orient of PRTs to student, whānau, and community circumstances
  • Train and support students and PRTs with problem-solving 'tricky situations' (e.g., whānau hardship)

Whānau: the principle of extended family structure

Student teachers and PRTs need to be supported to build relationships with the whānau of learners and the Māori community (including hapū, Iwi and stakeholders) in which the school/kura resides. These relationships are based on Māori values that enable boundaries to be negotiated and safe spaces created. The skill of building of these relationships needs to be nurtured in student teachers and PRTs, even when they are working in their own rohe (tribal area).

The implications for Kura include:

  • Support PRTs to create positive relationships with kura whānau
  • Prepare PRTs for the realities of the communities they will be teaching in and the challenges they may face

The implications for Mentors include:

  • Support PRT to create positive relationships with kura whānau and classroom parents in particular
  • Support the PRT to identify 'effective practices' for facilitating whānau engagement

Kaupapa: the principle of collective philosophy

Commitment to the kaupapa of inducting and mentoring PRTs is expressed through their job security and the enabling of their on-going professional development through release time for both themselves and their mentor(s). On-going ties with their ITE would also assist with their professional development and support a professional relationship with a tertiary learning institution.

Implications for Kura include:

  • Create a researching culture of best practices amongst senior teachers
  • Ensure all stakeholders' intents align so that government policies support programme implementation and outcomes as envisioned by ITEs, schools, teachers, students, whānau, and communities

The implications for the Ministry include:

  • Provide on-going research for best practices in Māori-medium using Māori-medium research principles and focuses
  • Provide on-going training for Mentoring Teachers in a Māori-medium setting

Discussion

Practicum experiences move students from the ITE classroom to Māori-medium classrooms where they can develop understandings of what it means to be a Māori-medium teacher. Induction experiences then move them as graduate PRTs from these understandings to knowing and applying knowledge. Good practicum and induction is about ITEs and Māori-medium education settings collaborating and sharing responsibilities for student and PRT learning. This learning, in turn, is about the development of cultural and pedagogical expertise within the kaupapa that is Māori-medium education.

ICT knowledge
Classroom management skills (seating, grouping children, resources, classroom displays, etc.)
Behavioural management strategies
Has a broad knowledge of learning styles

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