Twin Coast Community of Learning
Technical Notes and Definitions
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Achievement challenges are shared goals that are identified and developed by a Community of Learning | Kāhui Ako based on the needs of its learners.
View a list of Kāhui Ako or enter search terms to find a specific Kāhui Ako or read more information about Achievement Challenges and guidelines.
Where a school is operating a cohort entry policy students start school in groups (cohorts) at the beginning of each term. A student will start at the school in the term closest to their fifth birthday, or the beginning of a later term. This means that some children, depending on when their birthday falls may be able to start school up to two months before they turn five. The majority of schools in New Zealand operate a continuous entry of new entrants into Year 1 throughout the school year, rather than cohort entry.
Education Institution Number
A code assigned by the Ministry of Education to uniquely identify each institution. More often called school number when used in a schooling context.
Indicates the language in which the students receive education instruction. The options are:
- All students in Māori Medium
- Some students in Māori Medium
- All students in Pasifika Medium
- Some students in Pasifika Medium
- All students in Māori Medium or Pasifika Medium
- Some students in Māori Medium and some in Pasifika Medium
- All students in English Medium
In Māori medium education students are taught all or some curriculum subjects in the Māori language for at least 51 percent of the time (Māori Language Immersion Levels 1-2). In Pasifika medium education students are taught all or some curriculum subjects in a Pasifika language for at least 12 percent of the time (Pasifika Language Immersion Levels 1-4).
The term "ethnicity" refers to the ethnic group or groups to which an individual belongs. The concept of ethnicity adopted by the Ministry of Education is a social construct of group affiliation and identity. The Ministry of Education uses the definition of ethnicity used by Statistics New Zealand, namely:
A social group whose members have one or more of the following characteristics:
Where possible, ethnicity data is presented as a multiple response. Multiple response works by considering each ethnicity a person affiliates with as one data entry. For example, the data relating to an individual who affiliates as both Māori and Pasifika will be included in both categories. They are, however, included only once in the total. This approach is easily undertaken when data is collected in a disaggregate fashion.
Prioritisation of ethnicity is when people are allocated to one of the ethnicities they have recorded that they affiliate with. This usually occurs when data are collected manually and/or aggregate data returns are collected centrally. This allocation is performed using a predetermined order of ethnic groups. Where ethnicity is prioritised it is in the order of Māori, Pasifika, Asian, MELAA (Middle Eastern, Latin American, and African), other groups except European/Pākehā, and European/Pākehā.
European/Pākehā refers to people who affiliate as New Zealand European, Other European or European (not further defined). For example this includes, but is not limited to, people who consider themselves as Australian (not including Australian Aborigines), British and Irish, American, Spanish, and Ukrainian.
Students subject to exclusion are not allowed to return to the school they have been excluded from, but must enrol elsewhere. Only students under the age of 16 can be excluded.
For a school or region the observed number of exclusions is the number of exclusions that actually occurred while the baseline number of exclusions is the number of exclusions that would have occurred if the age-specific rates of the school or region were the same as a standard population (in this case the national population). Exclusions and age-standardisation are discussed more under Student Engagement.
(see School Deciles)
The proportion of students that remain at school beyond the minimum school leaving age. Students can leave at 15 years-old if they receive an early leaving exemption, or they can once they are 16 year-old without meeting any special requirements. Convention is to measure retention until they are 17 which is beyond the compulsory schooling age and by when the average student will have had opportunity to fully complete senior secondary school.
Describes the ownership of schools, that is, State, State-integrated, Private.
Students from low socio-economic communities face more barriers to learning than students from high socio-economic communities. Schools that draw their roll from these low socio-economic communities are given greater funding to combat these barriers. The mechanism used to calculate and allocate this additional funding is most often known as school deciles.
Schools are assigned a socio-economic score based on five census derived socio-economic factors. Schools are then ranked in order of this score and divided into 10 even groups called deciles. The 10 percent of schools with the lowest scores are considered decile 1 schools; the next 10 percent of schools are considered decile 2 schools, etc. Decile 1 schools have the highest proportion of low SES students, decile 10 schools have the least (NB: this does not mean students from decile 10 schools are 'rich'). See the Schools Directory for a list of each school's decile.
Deciles are also used in many of the education sector indicators as a proxy for socio-economic status.
The gender of students that a school caters for, for example, co-educational school, girls' school.
The type of school is based on the levels students are taught at, for example, Full Primary School (Year 1-8), Contributing School (Years 1-6).
Year levels have been included to help understand school types. Here the year level is current year level, which is the year level of the student's class cohort and the level at which the student spends most of their time at school.
Students on stand-down are removed from a state school for a specified period. The school principal can decide whether a student should be stood-down and how many days the stand-down will last for. Stand-downs, for any student, can total no more than five school days in any term, or 10 days in a school year. Following a stand-down, the student automatically returns to school.
For a school or region the observed number of stand-downs is the number of actual stand-downs that occurred while the baseline number of stand-downs is the number of stand-downs that would have occurred if the age-specific rates of the school or region were the same as a standard population (in this case the national population). Stand-downs and age-standardisation are discussed more under Student Engagement.
Students who are suspended are not allowed to attend school until the board of trustees decides the outcome at a suspension meeting. The school principal can suspend a student, but the school board decides the next step. The board may decide to list the suspension with or without conditions, to extend the suspension, or, in the most serious cases, to either exclude or expel the student.
For a school or region the observed number of suspensions is the number of actual suspensions that occurred while the baseline number of suspensions is the number of suspensions that would have occurred if the age-specific rates of the school or region were the same as a standard population (in this case the national population). Suspensions and age-standardisation are discussed more under Student Engagement.
There are two common forms of year level in education data.
Current Year Level (CYL)
This is the year level of the student's class cohort and the level at which the student spends most of their time at school studying.
Funding Year Level (FYL)
Prior to 2008 this was known as Year of Schooling or MOE Year Level. The funding year level measures the number of years of schooling a student has received and provides the Ministry of Education with a method of counting students for funding and staffing purposes. The funding year level for most students is based on the date they first started school.
The funding year level is independent of the way schools are organised and independent of the particular programme of study that a student may undertake. It is therefore possible for a contributing school (year 1-6 current year levels) to have students in funding year level 7, or secondary schools that finish at learning current year level 13 to have students in funding year level 14 or 15.
The roll data presented in these tables is from the July roll returns. Ethnic group information in July roll returns is prioritised. International students are treated as a separate ethnic group; therefore subtracting international students from the total roll equals the domestic roll.
Year level information is funding year level, however funding year levels 14 and 15 are included with the year 13 students in the year 13+ category.
Stand-downs, suspensions, and exclusions
A state or state integrated school principal may consider the formal removal of a student through a stand-down from school for a consecutive period of up to 5 school days. A stand-down, for any student, can total no more than 5 school days in a term, or 10 days in a school year. Students return automatically to school following a stand-down.
While stand-downs impact on actual opportunity to learn they are also a response to a wide range of concerning behaviours including drug and alcohol abuse and violence that are disruptive to the learning of the individuals concerned, and disruptive and unsafe for peers and adults in the school community. Stand-downs can offer an opportunity to reduce tension and reflect on the action which led to the stand-down. As such, if used in appropriate circumstances, a stand-down can be a positive mechanism for preventing escalation. However, its use should be part of a pro-active approach and should be kept to a minimum due to its inherent disruption.
A suspension is a formal removal of a student from a school until a school Board of Trustees decides the outcome at a suspension meeting. Following a suspension, the Board of Trustees decides how to address the student's misbehaviour. The Board can either lift the suspension (with or without conditions), extend the suspension (with conditions), or terminate the student's enrolment at the school.
If the student is aged under 16, the Board may decide to exclude him or her from the school, with the requirement that the student enrols elsewhere. This decision should be arrived at only in the most serious cases. If the student is aged 16 or over, the board may decide to expel him or her from the school, and the student may or may not enrol at another school. Again, this decision should be arrived at only in the most serious cases. Excluded (or expelled) students may face difficulties in enrolling in other schools. This may result in students:
Standardisation is a technique which controls for the compositional variation between the groups being compared. Standardised rates give a 'true' comparison of the event being studied.
An example of standardisation is age-standardisation where the age distribution could lead to misleading results. Age-standardisation removes the effects of the different age structure of the different groups (schools, regions, time periods) you are comparing.
Comparison of suspension rates between schools or regions which may have different age structures would be inappropriate, because the age structure of the school or region can affect the number of suspensions and thereby the crude suspension rate. We standardise the suspension rates to take account of differences between the age structures of the schools and regions. This is also done for stand-downs and exclusions.
The two main methods of standardisation are indirect standardisation and direct standardisation.
So more simply with indirect standardisation you apply a national rate to a local population and see which is higher/lower, while direct standardisation involves applying a local rate to a national population. For stand-downs, suspensions and exclusions indirect standardisation is used.
Care should be taken when examining age-standardised rates, especially in the cases when small numbers are involved. When numbers are small, a very small amount of variation in the raw data can lead to a large effect on the age-standardised rate.
From 2004 onwards, for a small number of schools, there was an abnormally large increase in the number of stand-downs recorded as belonging to 'Other' ethnic groups. Investigation of individual records, trends over time for each school, and each school's catchment area indicated a considerable number of records had an ethnic group erroneously coded as 'Other'. A conservative adjustment was made to the data to correct for this poor coding.
Where for a particular school stand-downs in 2012 for 'Other' ethnic groups are greater than one-third of the number of 'Other' ethnic group students for that year, then the following adjustment was made:
This adjustment to stand-down data allows more accurate ethnic comparisons to be made, however, it does stop other ethnic group comparisons being made for dimensions specific to individuals, such as, reason for stand-down.
This same issue existed, and subsequent adjustment was made for suspension, exclusion and expulsion data.
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