Hei Oranga Tika: Wellbeing Matters

Emerging evidence of the impact of the Christchurch earthquakes on young children

Introduction/Whakataki

Mā te mohio ka marama
Through knowledge there is understanding.

What is the focus of this research? / He aha te kaupapa o tēnei Rangahau?

A University of Canterbury-led multi-disciplinary research team, had been carrying out longitudinal research on children's wellbeing, behaviour and stress, before the Christchurch earthquake.

He raupapa rangahau, a, te whare wānanga o Waitaha, i whakahaere i te wāhanga roa mō te waiora, te whanonga, me te kohuki o ngā tamariki, i mua i te rū o Ōtautahi.

The researchers were able to compare pre-earthquake, baseline groups of children of different ages with matched groups of children who had experienced the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. The team wanted to investigate the impact of a prolonged disaster on the wellbeing of children and their families, focusing on how children were settling into school.

I taea e ngā kairangahau te whakarite i te wāhi o mua i te rū, o ngā rōpū raupapa o ngā tamariki o ngā tau rerekē me ngā rōpū o ngā tamariki i wheako i te rū o Ōtautahi i te tau 2011. I hiahia te kapa ki te tirotiro i te painga o te kino roa ki te ōranga o ngā tamariki me o rātou nei whānau, e arotahi ana ki te pēhea o te noho o ngā tamariki ki te kura.

What was the context? / He aha te horopaki?

On 22 February 2011, at 12:51 pm (lunchtime), Christchurch was struck by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake. The quake was centred 10km south-east of the city at a depth of 5km. In the ten minutes after it hit, there were 10 aftershocks of magnitude 4 or more.185 people died, 164 people were seriously injured and there was major, widespread damage.

I te 22 o Hui-tanguru 2011, i te 12.51pm (te tina), i patua a Ōtautahi e te rūinga nui o te 6.3. Ko te rito o te rū i 10km ki te tonga-rāwhiti o te pa i te hōhonu o te 5km. I roto i ngā meneti tekau i muri i te rū, kia 10 ngā rūmuri o te nui atu 4 neke atu rānei. Ko te 185 ngā tangata i mate 164 ngā tangata i whara me te nui o te whānui whara.

The destruction and dislocation experienced by families was ongoing. From 2010 Christchurch has experienced over 16,000 earthquake aftershocks and repeated flooding.

Te whakangaromanga me te wehewehe i kitea e ngā whānau he haere tonu. Mai i te tau 2010, kua pahure ake a Ōtautahi i te 16,000 rūmuri me te tahataha o te waipuke.

What did the findings reveal? / He aha ngā whakaaturanga i kitea?

The 2016 findings indicated that post-traumatic stress symptoms in children aged 24 months and younger at the time of the 2011 earthquake were far more prevalent (20.7%) than those for a pre-earthquake, baseline group (8.8%). Problem behaviour was also significantly more prevalent.

Ko ngā kitenga o te 2016 i tohuhia ko ngā tohu ohorere i roto i ngā tamariki e rua tekau ma whā marama me te iti i te wā o te 2011 rū, he nui rawa atu (20.7%) i te hunga mō te wāhi o mua (8.8%). Ko te whanonga raruraru he tino nui ake hoki.

The 2016 findings indicated a developmental vulnerability for children who were very young at the time of the catastrophic Christchurch earthquakes. The study found that the cohort of children who were older when the earthquakes struck, were not so affected.

Ko ngā kitenga o te 2016 i whakatairanga i te whakaraerae whakawhanaketanga mō ngā tamariki e wāhi ana i te wā o ngā mātatanga o te rū o Ōtautahi. I kitea e te rangahau ko te rōpū o ngā tamariki kua koroheketia i te wā i pa mai ai te rū, kīhai i pāngia.

The cohort of children most affected by the Christchurch earthquakes included new entrants to Canterbury schools from 2014 to 2016.

Ko te rōpū o ngā tamariki e tino pa ana ki ngā rū o Ōtautahi i uru atu ki ngā kura hou o ngā kura o Ōtautahi mai i te tau 2014 ki te tau 2016.

Source Evidence [LINK]

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Photo: Professor Sonja Macfarlane

Associate Professor Sonja Macfarlane (Ngāi Tahu, Ngāti Waewae) has been recognised for her contributions to Māori education, most recently by the New Zealand Association for Research in Education through the 2017 Te Tohu Pae Tawhiti Award.

In this series of short videos, Associate Professor Macfarlane, a member of the University of Canterbury research team, explains the implications of the research for parents, teachers, school leaders and communities. She also discusses early findings of protective factors for Māori children through Māori whānau and marae connectedness.

Kua mōhiotia te Ahorangi Tuarua a Sonja Macfarlane (Ngai Tahu, Ngāti Waewae) mō ana pānga ki te mātauranga Māori, i tino tata mai nei e te rōpū o Aotearoa mō te Rangahau i te Mātauranga mai i Te Tohu Pae Tawhiti i te tau 2017.

I roto i ēnei raupapa o ngā ataata poto, ko te Ahorangi Tuarua a Macfarlane, he mema o te kapa rangahau o te Whare Wānanga o Waitaha, e whakaatu ana i ngā painga o te rangahau mō ngā mātua, ngā kaiako, ngā kaiarahi kura me ngā hapori. Kā whakawhiti kōrero hoki ia mō ngā kitenga wawe o ngā tīkanga tiaki mō ngā tamariki Māori i roto i ngā whānau Māori me te hononga marae.

What is the research background? / He aha te hitori Rangahau?

Literature reviews caution that estimating the effects of disasters on the behaviour of children following a disaster is difficult without baseline information and few studies report the effects of earthquakes on young children. In addition the relationship between age at the time of disaster and consequential behaviour problems have not been reported for young children who experience disaster-related stress during a developmentally sensitive period.

Ko ngā tuhinga e pai ana kia aro ki te whakatau i ngā pānga o ngā aitua ki runga i te whanonga o ngā tamariki i muri i te raruraru he uaua ki waho i ngā kōrero mō te raupapa me te iti ake o ngā kōrero e whakaatu ana i ngā pānga o ngā rū ki ngā tamariki. I tua atu ko te whānaungatanga i waenganui i te tau i te wa o te kino me ngā raruraru whanonga whaimana kaore i te panuitia mō ngā tamariki taiohi e pa ana ki te raruraru kohuki i te wa e raru ana te whanaketanga.

What is the importance of this research? / He aha te mea nui o tēnei Rangahau?

Behaviour problems and symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTS) were reported for two groups of children from nearby neighbourhoods during their first term at school, using the Behaviour Problem Index by teacher report, following approved informed consent procedures. Data on one group, "Pre-EQ" (N=297), was collected four years before the beginning of the earthquakes on children born 2001-2002. Data on the second group, "Post-EQ " (N=212), was collected approximately three to four years after the beginning of the earthquakes on children born 2007-2009 and living in heavily damaged neighbourhoods. The Post-EQ group had significantly more children from high socioeconomic neighbourhoods but no other significant differences on main demographic characteristics.

Ko ngā raruraru whanonga me ngā tohu o te raruraru o muri mai i tukuna e rua mō ngā tamariki mai i ngā takiwā i te wa tuatahi i te kura, me te whakamahi i te Rarangi Raraunga Whakaaetanga a te kaiako, i muri i ngā tukanga whakaaetanga kua whakaaetia. Ko te raraunga i runga i tētahi rōpū, "i mua i te ru" (N = 297), i kohia i te wha tau i mua i te timatanga o ngā rūrau ki ngā tamariki i whānau mai i ngā tau 2001-2002. Ko te raraunga i te rōpū tuarua, “i muri i te rū" (N=212), i kohia i te toru tau ki te wha tau i muri mai i te timatanga o ngā rūwhenua ki ngā tamariki i whānau mai i te 2007 - 2009 me te noho i roto i ngā wāhi he tino pakaru. Ko te rōpū i muri o ngā rūwhenua i nui ake i te nuinga o ngā tamariki mai i ngā taiao hapori mātua, engari kaore he rereke i runga i ngā wāhanga taupori.

What are the results? / He aha nga hua?

The mean behaviour problem score was significantly higher in the Post-EQ group (Mean =6.11) as compared to the Pre-EQ group (Mean = 3.78). PTS symptoms were also significantly higher in the Post-EQ group (Mean =2.91) as compared to the Pre-EQ group (Mean=1.98) and more children had high PTS scores (20.9% v. 8.8%, OR= 2.73, 95%CI =1.57, 4.76). Model testing identified that a younger age at the time of exposure was the only significant predictor of high numbers of PTS symptoms in the Post-EQ group.

He tino nui ake te karaehe raruraru whanonga i roto i te rōpū o mua i te ru (Mean = 6.11) me te mea kua whakaritea ki te rōpū a muri i te ru (Mean = 3.78). He nui rawa ngā tohu whakamamae i te rōpū a muri i te rū (Mean=2.91) ki te rōpū i mua o te rū (Mean=1.98), a, he maha atu ngā tamariki i te nui o ngā raruraru tukino (20.9% v 8.8%, OR = 2.73. 95% CI = 1.57, 4.76). Ko ngā whakamatautau tauira kua tautuhia ko te tau iti i te wa i whakaatuhia ana ko te Kaitohutohu tino nui o ngā tohu PTS i te rōpū a mua.

Discussion

Rates of teacher-reported behaviour problems in young children more than doubled following the Christchurch earthquakes. Younger children may be more vulnerable to the effects of earthquakes that occur during a developmentally sensitive period. Additional research is needed to consider the effects of age and duration of disaster effects to better understand the effects of disasters on children, their families and communities.

Ko te utu o te pouako e whakaatu ana i ngā raruraru whanonga i roto i ngā taiohi tamariki, neke atu i te ruarua i muri mai i ngā rū o Ōtautahi. Ka kaha ake te whakaraerae o ngā tamariki iti ki ngā pānga o ngā rūrau e puta ana i te wāhanga whanaketanga. Ko ngā mahi rangahau ano e hiahiatia ana kia whakaarohia ngā pānga o te tau me te roa o ngā raruraru kino kia pai ake ai te möhio ki ngā pānga o ngā aitua ki ngā tamariki, ki o rātou whānau me o hapori.

Implications

The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals call for a global shift to afford more priority to building competencies and wellbeing for an uncertain future. For many communities, that uncertainty is a reality that affects children and young people. See the paper below for more about teaching and leadership for children's wellbeing, belonging, social connectedness and curriculum learning through collaborative problem solving.

Ko ngā tauinga whanaketanga taumahi a te Kotahitanga o ngā Ao ka tono kia hurihia te ao ki te whakarahi i te kaupapa ki te whakapakari ake i ngā wāhanga me to ōranga mō te wāhanga kaore i te kaha. Mo te maha o ngā hapori, ko te kore o te tino mea he pono e pa ana ki ngā tamariki me ngā taiohi. Tirohia te pepa i raro nei mō ngā kōrero e pā ana ki te whakaako me te kaihautū mo te waiora o te tamaiti, te orangatanga, te honohono-a-iwi me te akoranga marautanga mā te whakaoti rapanga mahi ngātahi.

Read the UNESCO Paper:
PDF Icon 'Walking the talk' matters in the use of evidence for transformative education
Alton-Lee, A. (2017, September) This paper was prepared in response to an invitation for a think piece for the UNESCO Project: Rethinking and repositioning curriculum in the 21st century: A global paradigm shift.

Where to Find Out More/ Te Wahi hei rapu atu

The best evidence in action video series for BES Exemplar 1 Hangaia Te Urupounamu Pāngarau Mō TātouDeveloping Mathematical Inquiry Communities demonstrates a high impact teaching approach that when well-implemented focuses on equity, excellence, belonging and wellbeing. Teaching focuses on progressions for students relating and participating as well as progressions for mathematics. The context of this video series is the first year of implementation of this intervention in highly earthquake impacted Shirley School in Christchurch 2016.

Ko ngā taunakitanga pai i roto i te raupapa ataata mō te BES Tauira 1 Hangaia te Urupounamu Pāngarau mō Tātou e whakaatu ana i te huarahi whakahirahira o te whakaakoranga i te wāhanga ka arotahi te wāhanga ki te tika, te hiranga, te ōranga me te ōranga tinana. Ko te whakaākoranga e arotahi ana ki ngā ahunga whakamua mō ngā ākonga e hono ana, e uru ana hoki, tae atu hoki ki te ahunga whakamua mō te Pāngarau. Ko te horopaki o tēnei raupapa ataata ko te whakatinanatanga tuatahi o te wāhanga i te rū nui i pa ki te Kura Tuatahi o Shirley i Ōtautahi 2016.

As one Ngāi Tahu student explained: 'It's not just because you're working. It's because you're having fun and you're actually happy'.

Hei korero mō tētahi o ngā ākonga a Ngāi Tahu: ‘Ehara i te mea he mahi koe, na te mea he tino koa koe’.

Find out more about this pedagogy here and here.

Tirohia etahi atu e pā ana ki tēnei tikanga i konei me konei.

The implementation of Hangaia Te Urupounamu Pāngarau Mō Tātou was made possible in 2016 through the James Stewart Loper Bequest.

Ko te whakatinanatanga o Hangaia Te Urupounamu Pāngarau Mo Tatou i taea i te 2016 na roto i te whakarerenga a James Stewart Loper.

Members of the University of Canterbury research team have continued to publish widely on specific strategies to support the wellbeing of children affected by earthquakes. For more information see here and here.

Kua haere tonu ngā mema o Te Whare Wānanga o Waitaha ki te whakaputa i ngā rautaki motuhake hei tautoko i te ōranga o ngā tamariki e pa ana ki ngā rūwhenua. Mō ētahi atu mōhiohio I kite konei me konei.

The second difference was for Māori children, who did not show a significant increase in rates of high PTS symptoms in the Post-EQ group. This may also be due to low numbers of children in the study participants. However, research indicates that the social connectedness, spiritual support and collective dynamics that are associated within Māori communities in Christchurch may have protected them against the development of high PTS symptoms following the earthquakes21,27,38 Hogg and colleagues27 also reported that Māori adults in highly earthquake-affected Christchurch neighborhoods were less likely to have a mood or anxiety disorder as compared to other ethnic groups.

Ko te rereketanga tuarua mō ngā tamariki Māori, kaore i kitea he nui ake te piki o ngā tohu o te PTS nui i roto i te rōpū a muri ake o te rū. Ko tēnei pea ka tika ma te iti rawa o ngā tamariki i roto i ngā ākonga āko. Heoi, ko ngā rangahau e tohu ana ko te hononga hapori, te tautoko wairua me ngā kaha o ngā rōpū e uru ana ki roto i ngā hapori Māori i Ōtautahi kua tiakina ki a rātou mō te whakawhanaketanga o ngā tohu PTS teitei i muri mai i ngā rū. I kōrero ano a Hogg me ngā hoa mahi ko ngā pakeke Māori i te ruinga nui i ngā takiwa o Ōtautahi he iti ake pea te ahua o te haurangi, o te raruraru pouri ranei i whakaritea ki ētahi atu iwi. Ko ngā reiti i roto i ngā tamariki akoako Māori ka whakaarohia he torutoru raruraru hauora hinengaro i roto i o rātou mātua, hapori ranei.

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