Early leaving exemptions
What We Have Found
As a result of the Ministry of Education strengthening its early leaving application and approval process, the rate of early leaving exemptions for 15 year olds dropped 72% since 2007 to reach an early leaving exemption approval rate of 9.2 per 1,000 students in 2017. The rate of early leaving exemptions has increased slightly since 2014.
Date Updated: July 2018
Proportion of 15-year-old students enrolled who obtain an early leaving exemption.
Why This Is Important
In order to achieve in education, students must be engaged and interested in learning. For many students this means staying at school. All schools face the constant challenge of ensuring that students feel they belong and are encouraged to participate. This promotes motivation, interest and achievement in learning.
Enrolment in school is compulsory for all students aged between 6 and 16 years. However, parents of 15-year-old students may apply to the Ministry of Education for an exemption from schooling on the basis of educational problems, conduct, or the unlikelihood of the student benefiting from attending available schools. Parents are required to give details about training programmes or employment that the student would move on to in the event of an early leaving exemption being granted.
Young people who leave school without qualifications may have difficulty performing in the workforce and may face difficulties in terms of life-long learning. However, initiatives like Youth Guarantee aim to provide learners with more choices, ways and places to achieve NCEA Level 2 or equivalent.
There is a strong correlation between early school leavers and unemployment and/or lower incomes. In New Zealand, recent data show that those with no qualifications have higher unemployment rates and lower median incomes when compared to those with qualifications.
How We Are Going
In the early 2000's, the number of applications for early leaving exemptions was high, peaking at 71 applications per 1,000 15-year-old students in 2005. The number of applications has dropped since 2005, to around 9 applications per 1,000 15-year-old students in 2017.In May 2007, the Ministry of Education strengthened its early leaving application and approval process in order to reduce the number of early leaving exemptions, and the associated social and economic disadvantages that face those students who leave school early. The process involved:
- imposing a stricter interpretation of the early leaving legislative criteria, which sets a very high threshold for early leaving eligibility,
- ensuring direct contact between parents and Ministry staff at the first stage of the early leaving process, to actively discourage early leaving and to support parents to find ways of keeping their children engaged in learning, and
- promoting alternatives to early leaving, such as a combination of school and work-based learning.
These changes had a dramatic effect, with the number of accepted exemptions decreasing 72% between 2007 and 2017. There were only 313 accepted early leaving exemptions in 2012, the lowest number of accepted early leaving exemptions since these changes were introduced.
Since 2014 the number of accepted early leaving exemptions has been slowly increasing. Last year, there was an increase in the number of accepted early leaving exemptions from 476 early leavers in 2016 to 522 in 2017, following a sharp drop from over 4,000 early leavers in 2005.
Figure 1: Early leaving exemption application, approval and decline rates (2001 to 2017)
A Training Provider course was the most popular destination for a 15-year-old student who received an early leaving exemption, with the majority (86%) of early leavers going there in 2017, up slightly from 2016. A further 6% of all 2017 early leavers went into full time employment with 8% intending to enrol in a Polytechnic course.
Figure 2: Early leaving exemption by destination (2009 to 2017)
All ethnic groups have seen a decrease in early leaving exemptions since the 2007 change in processes; 88% for Asian, 79% for Pacific, 72% for Māori, and 71% for European/Pākehā. Since 2014 the early leaving exemption rates have increased for Pacific, European/Pākehā and Māori students.
Māori students have higher rates of early leaving exemptions compared with students from other ethnic groups. In 2017, the early leaving exemption rate for Māori students was 20.9 per 1,000 15-year-old students (up from 13.9 per 1,000 15-year-old students in 2014). The rate for European/Pākehā was 6.4 per 1,000 15-year-old students and the Pacific rate was 6.7 per 1,000 15-year-old students.
Figure 3: Early leaving exemption rates per 1,000 15-year-olds by ethnicity (2001 to 2017)
In 2017, 61% of all early leavers were male. The female rate was 7.3 per 1,000 15-year-old students, and the male rate was 11.1 per 1,000 15-year-old students. Although the early leaving exemptions rates have decreased for both male and female 15-year-old students since 2005, male students continue to account for over 60% of all early leaving exemptions.
Figure 4: Early leaving exemption rates per 1,000 15 year olds by gender (2001 to 2017)
There is a clear correlation between school socio-economic mix and a high proportion of early leaving exemption rates. Schools in the lowest quintile (deciles 1 and 2) draw their students from communities with the highest degree of socio-economic disadvantage. In 2017, the early leaving exemption rate for students from these schools was six times higher than the rate for students in the highest quintile (deciles 9 and 10). There were 17.6 early leaving exemptions per 1,000 15-year-old students who had an early leaving exemption from quintile 1 schools, compared to 2.8 per 1,000 students in quintile 5 schools.
Figure 5: Early leaving exemption rates, by student ethnicity and school quintile (2017)
Evidence about what works for this indicator can be found in:
- Biddulph, F., Biddulph, J. and Biddulph, C. (2003). The Complexity of Community and Family Influences on Children's Achievement in New Zealand: Best Evidence Synthesis. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
- Brooks, M., et al. (1997). Under-age School Leaving: A Report to the National Youth Affairs Research Scheme. Hobart: National Clearing House for Youth Studies.
- Christenson, S., Reschly, A. L., & Wylie, C. (2012). Handbook of research on student engagement. New York, NY: Springer.
The Ministry of Education has established an Iterative Best Evidence Synthesis Programme to systematically identify, evaluate, analyse, synthesise and make accessible, relevant evidence linked to a range of learner outcomes. Please visit BES (Iterative Best Evidence Synthesis) Programme to find out more. Evidence about what works for this indicator can be found in:
- Alton-Lee, A. (2003). Quality Teaching for Diverse Students in Schooling: Best Evidence Synthesis. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
- The Complexity of Community and Family Influences on Children's Achievement in New Zealand. Best Evidence Synthesis. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
The Youth Guarantee initiative aims to provide learners with more choices, ways and places to achieve NCEA L2 or equivalent. More information can be found at:
Where To Find Out More
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