Writing/Tuhituhi: primary schooling

Why This Is Important

In 2017, the Government set a target of 80% of Year 8 students will be achieving at or above the National Standard in writing, or at Manawa Ora or Manawa Toa in Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori tuhituhi.

Written language is a vital medium for communication, accessing information, developing cultural, social and personal identity, national awareness, and for understanding other perspectives. Students encounter a range of written language forms in a variety of settings; in the home, school, and community.

Writing enables students to gather, process, and present information, as well as to express themselves creatively. When students have opportunities to write for an audience, they can communicate across time and location, enabling wider participation in society and the global community. Moreover, reading and writing are foundation literacy skills critical for students to have in order to meet the demands of almost all learning areas in the New Zealand Curriculum and Te Marautanga o Aotearoa.

Indicator

This writing/tuhituhi indicator draws on two sources of information:

For state and state-integrated schools that use the New Zealand Curriculum, a summary of the National Standards writing results are used. National Standards results are based on Overall Teacher Judgements (OTJs) about whether students in Years 1-8 are achieving at a level 'well below', 'below', 'at', or 'above' the National Standard in writing for their year level.

For a comparison of results for kura and schools that use Te Marautanga o Aotearoa (mainly Māori medium education schools), the Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori results in the tuhituhi (writing) skill area are used. Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori are the Māori medium equivalent of National Standards.

Where other related indicators have international comparisons based on international education studies, writing was not a specific focus area in Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) or Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) from which the international comparisons for the mathematics/pāngarau and reading/pānui indicators were taken.

National Standards

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Numerator:

Year 1 to 8 students in state and state-integrated schools using the New Zealand Curriculum who were judged to be 'at' or 'above' the writing standard for their year level in writing.

Denominator:

All Year 1 to 8 students in state and state-integrated schools using the New Zealand Curriculum for whom National Standards results were provided for writing.

Interpretation issues: National Standards

Although all state and state-integrated kura and schools with Year 1 to 8 students that use the New Zealand Curriculum to inform their teaching are required to report their National Standards results, in practice not all provide results. Of a possible 2,081 schools, 2,063 (99%) provided National Standards data in 2016.

Because of differing assessment criteria for different year level standards, direct comparisons of performance across year levels are not advised. Comparing how the performance within a given year level changes over time is less problematic.

Exclusions

Although National Standards data has been collected from 2011, data from the 2011 year has been excluded from the indicator. School and Ministry staff were transitioning into reporting and collecting data.

Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori

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Numerator:

Year 1 to 8 students in state and state-integrated kura and schools using Te Marautanga o Aotearoa who were judged to be manawa ora or manawa toa for their Whanaketanga level in tuhituhi

Denominator:

All Year 1 to 8 students in state and state-integrated kura and schools using Te Marautanga o Aotearoa for whom Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori results were provided for tuhituhi.

Interpretation issues: Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori

Although all state and state-integrated kura and schools with Year 1 to 8 students that use the Te Marautanga to inform their teaching are required to report their Nga Whanaketanga results, in practice not all provide results. Of a possible 202 schools, 131 (65%) provided some Nga Whanaketanga data in 2016.

Because of differing assessment criteria at different Whanaketanga levels, direct comparisons of performance across these levels are not advised. Because it is not advisable and there is only one year's Ngā Whanaketanga data presented in this indicator, year level analysis has not been carried out.

Exclusions

Although Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori data has been collected from 2012, data from 2012 and 2013 has been excluded from the indicator. Due to a large change in the sample of schools providing data over the past years and an update in assessments, previous data from 2012 and 2013 has become incomparable.

General Interpretation Issues

General Interpretation Issues When drawing comparisons it is important to note that, although Ngā Whanaketanga is a Māori-medium equivalent to National Standards, the two are not directly comparable. Assessment requirements differ for the two different assessment programmes. Ngā Whanaketanga data provides a picture of current primary level achievement for students learning through Māori-medium and provides a baseline of sorts for future data analysis and reporting.

Socio-economic status is an indicator of social and economic hardship or deprivation. Decile is used as a proxy for a school community's socio-economic status in this indicator. Low socio-economic status is related with poorer outcomes on an array of social and economic outcome measures including education and health. Lower student performance in low decile schools does not necessarily indicate poor performance by these schools in educating their students. It may, in fact, reflect the overall disadvantage faced by people in these school communities, where students can be at a lower educational level than their high SES counterparts before they even start school.

Prioritised Ethnicity

Prioritisation of ethnicity is when people are allocated to one of the four main ethnic groupings even though they have identified with more than one ethnicity. This allocation is performed using a predetermined order of ethnic groupings. For this indicator ethnicity is prioritised in the order of Māori, Pasifika, Asian, and European/Pākehā. Not all students will fit into one of these four categories and therefore summing over the various ethnic groups may not add to the total.

National Standards from 2013 is prioritised in this way. National Standards data prior to 2013 only required that schools report separately on gender and for Māori and Pasifika, as these are priority groups for the Ministry of Education.

Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori has no ethnicity breakdown because over 99% of students assessed under Ngā Whanaketanga are Māori.

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