Kōrero: primary schooling

Why This Is Important

In the context of Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori, kōrero relates to oral communication or speaking. Oral communication is an important part of Māori culture and, more generally, an important part of conversing and connecting with others regardless of culture. Kōrero is especially important with Māori because up until the 19th century Māori was not a written language and speaking was the primary means of sharing information, or stories, and passing knowledge down through generations. Speaking in person also conveys the emotional or spiritual aspects of a message more strongly.




Year 1 to 8 students in state and state-integrated kura and schools using Te Marautanga o Aotearoa who were judged to be 'manawa ora' or 'manawa toa' for their Whanaketanga level in kōrero.


All year 1 to 8 students in state and state-integrated kura and schools using Te Marautanga o Aotearoa for whom Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori results were provided for kōrero.

Interpretation issues: Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori

Although all state and state-integrated kura and schools with year 1 to 8 students that use the Te Marautanga to inform their teaching are required to report their Ngā Whanaketanga results, in practice not all provide results. Of a possible 202 schools, 131 (65%) provided some Ngā Whanaketanga data in 2016.

Because of differing assessment criteria at different Whanaketanga levels, direct comparisons of performance across these levels are not advised.

Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori has no ethnicity breakdown because over 99% of students assessed under Ngā Whanaketanga are Māori.

Socio-economic status is an indicator of social and economic hardship or deprivation. Decile (or quintile) is used as a proxy for a school community's socio-economic status in this indicator. Low socio-economic status is related with poorer outcomes on an array of social and economic outcome measures including education and health. Lower student performance in low decile schools does not necessarily indicate poor performance by these schools in educating their students. It may, in fact, reflect the overall disadvantage faced by people in these school communities, where students can be at a lower educational level than their high SES counterparts before they even start school.


Although Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori data has been collected from 2012, data from 2012 and 2013 has been excluded from the indicator. Due to a large change in the sample of schools providing data over the past years and an update in assessments, only data from 2014 onwards is used for this analysis.

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