Intercultural communicative language teaching: Implications for effective teaching and learning

Publication Details

This report on intercultural communicative language teaching was commissioned by the Ministry of Education in the context of the development of the 2007 New Zealand Curriculum, with its new learning area of learning languages.

Author(s): Jonathan Newton, Eric Yates, Sandra Shearn and Werner Nowitzki, School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies and the Jessie Hetherington Centre for Educational Research, Victoria University of Wellington. Report prepared for the Ministry of Education.

Date Published: 2010

Please consider the environment before printing the contents of this report.

This report is available as a download (please refer to the 'Downloads' inset box).  To view the individual chapters please refer to the 'Sections' inset box.

References

  • Adshead, D. (1993). Discovery learning techniques using a microcomputer. Rusistika, 8, 36-40.
  • Alton-Lee, A. (2003). Quality teaching for diverse students in schooling: best evidence synthesis. Wellington, N.Z: Ministry of Education.
  • Alton-Lee, A. (2004). Improving educational policy and practice through an Iterative best evidence synthesis programme. Presented at the OECD-US Seminar, Evidence-based Policy Research. 
  • Alton-Lee, A. (2005). Quality teaching for diverse learners: How an evidence-based approach can help. In ACSA Forum, quality teachers: Quality teaching - Creating a new agenda for action by practitioners, researchers and policy makers. Melbourne: New Zealand Ministry of Education.
  • American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (1996). National standards in foreign language education
  • Applebee, A. N. (1996). Curriculum as conversation: Transforming traditions of teaching and learning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Atkinson, D. (2002). Toward a sociocognitive approach to second language acquisition. The Modern Language Journal, 86(4), 525-545.
  • Atkinson, P. A. (1985). Talk and identity: Some convergences in micro-sociology. In H. J. Helle & S. N. Eisentadt (Eds.), Micro-sociology theory. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
  • Bailey, B. H. (2002). Language, race and negotiation of identity: A study of Dominican Americans. New York: LFB Scholarly.
  • Banks, J. A. (1994). An introduction to multicultural education. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Banks, J. A., McGee Banks, C., Cortes, C., Hahn, C., Merryfield, M., Moodley, K., Murphy-Shigematsu, S., et al. (2005). Democracy and diversity: Principles and concepts for educating citizens in a global age. Seattle: Centre for Multicultural Education.
  • Barker, C. (2003). Cultural studies: Theory and practice. London: Sage Publications.
  • Barro, A., Jordan, S., & Roberts, C. (1998). Cultural practice in everyday life: The language learner as ethnographer. In M. Byram & M. Fleming (Eds.), Language learning in intercultural perspective: Approaches through drama and ethnography (pp. 76-97). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bauman, R., & Sherzer, J. (Eds.). (1974). Explorations in the ethnography of speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Belz, J. A. (2003). Linguistic perspectives on the development of intercultural competence in telecollaboration. Language Learning & Technology, 7(2), 68-117.
  • Bennett, J., Bennett, M., & Allen, W. (2003). Developing intercultural competence in the language classroom. In D. Lange & R. Paige (Eds.), Culture as the core: Perspectives on culture in second language learning (pp. 237-270). Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.
  • Bentahila, A., & Davies, E. (1989). Culture and language use: A problem for foreign language teaching. Iral, 27(2), 99-112.
  • Benwell, B. (2006). Discourse and identity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Benwell, B., & Stokoe, E. (2006). Discourse and identity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Berry, J. W. (2001). A psychology of immigration. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 615-631.
  • Berry, J. W. (2005). Acculturation: living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(6), 697-712.
  • Bhabha, H. (1994). The location of culture. London: Routledge.
  • Bhabha, H. (1996). Cultures in-between. In S. Hall & P. Gay (Eds.), Questions of cultural identity (pp. 53-60). London: Sage.
  • Bishop, R., & Berryman, M. (2006). Culture speaks: Cultural relationships and classroom learning. Wellington, N.Z: Huia.
  • Bishop, R., Berryman, M., & Richardson, C. (2002). Te Toi Huarewa: effective teaching and learning in total immersion Māori language educational settings. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 26(1), 44-61.
  • Bishop, R., Berryman, M., Tiakiwai, S., & Richardson, C. (2003). Te Kōtahitanga: The Experiences of Year 9 and 10 Māori Students in Mainstream Classrooms: Report to the Ministry of Education. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
  • Bishop, R., & Glynn, T. (1999). Culture counts: Changing power relations in education. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press.
  • Blake, B. F., Heslin, R., & Curtis, S. C. (1996). Measuring impacts of cross-cultural training. In D. Landis & R. Bhakat (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training (Vol. 2, pp. 165-182). Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Blum-Kulka, S., House, J., & Kasper, G. (1989). Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies. Norwood, N.J: Ablex.
  • Boas, F. (1940). Race, language, and culture. New York: Macmillan.
  • Bourdieu, P. (1991). Language and symbolic power. (J. B. Thompson, Ed., M. Adamson & G. Raymond, Trans.). Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
  • Boxer, D. (1993). Complaining and commiserating: a speech act view of solidarity in spoken American English. New York: Peter Lang.
      de Bres, J. (2007a). Urgent action required to halt decline in Pacific languages use. Human Rights Commission Press Release. Wellington.
      de Bres, J. (2007b, March 21). Te Reo Māori: For all of us. Human Rights Commission Press Release. Wellington.
  • Bretag, T. (2006). Developing 'third space' interculturality in the 'third place' of computer mediated communication. Refereed Paper in the Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, Article 5.
  • Browett, J. (2003). Culture: Are we speaking the same language. Babel, 38(2), 18-38.
  • Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness. Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: University Press, Cambridge.
  • Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1978). Universals in language usage: Politeness phenomena. In E. Goody (Ed.), Questions and politeness (pp. 56-289). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Butler, J. (1999). Gender trouble. New York: Routledge.
  • Byram, M. (1992). Language and culture learning for European citizenship. Language and education, 6(2), 165-76.
  • Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Clevedon; Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.
  • Byram, M. (2003). On being 'bicultural an intercultural'. In G. Alred, M. Byram, & M. Flemming (Eds.), Intercultural experience and education (pp. 50-66). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
  • Byram, M. (2006a). Language teaching for intercultural citizenship. Keynote address. Presented at the NZALT Conference, University of Auckland.
  • Byram, M. (2006b). Language teaching for intercultural citizenship: the European situation. Presented at the NZALT Conference, University of Auckland.
  • Byram, M., & Cain, A. (1998). Civilisation/cultural studies: An experiment in French and English schools. In M. Byram & M. Fleming (Eds.), Language learning in intercultural perspective: Approaches through drama and ethnography (pp. 32-44). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Byram, M., Esarte-Sarries, V., & Taylor, S. (1991). Cultural studies and language learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Byram, M., & Fleming, M. (1998). Language learning in intercultural perspective: Approaches through drama and ethnography.
  • Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cameron, D. (2005). Relativity and its discontents: Language, gender, and pragmatics. Intercultural Pragmatics, 2(3), 321-334.
  • Carr, J. (2007, February 23). A critical literacy approach to intercultural language teaching and learning. ILTLP: Self-Access Module 1.
  • Clément, R. (1980). Ethnicity, contact and communicative competence in a second language. In W. P. R. H. Giles (Ed.), Language: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 147-154). Oxford: Pergamon.
  • Cohen, S., & Taylor, L. (1976). Escape attempts: The theory and practice of resistance to everyday life. Middlesex: Pelican.
  • Comings, J. P., Beder, H., Reder, S., Bingman, B., & Smith, C. (2003). Establishing an evidence-based adult education system. NCSALL Occasional Paper
  • Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Coupland, N., & Coupland, J. (1995). Discourse, identity, and aging. In J. F. Nussbaum & J. Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (pp. 79-110). Mahwah, NJ and Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Crawford, L. M., & McLaren, P. (2003). A critical perspective on culture in the second language classroom. In D. L. Lange & R. M. Paige (Eds.), Perspectives on culture in second language learning (pp. pp. 127-157). Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.
  • Crichton, J., Paige, M., Papadematre, L., & Scarino, A. (2004). Integrated resources for intercultural teaching and learning in the context of internationalization of higher education. Research Centre for Languages and Culture Education in the School of International Studies at the University of South Australia. 
  • Crozet, C., & Liddicoat, A. J. (1999). The challenge of intercultural language teaching: Engaging with culture in the classroom. J. Lo Bianco, A.J. Liddicoat & C. Crozet (Eds), Striving for the Third Place:  Intercultural competence through language education (pp. 113-126).  Canberra: Language Australia.
  • Crozet, C., & Liddicoat, A. J. (2000). Teaching culture as an integrated part of language: Implications for the aims, approaches and pedagogies of language teaching. In C. Crozet & A. .. Liddicoat (Eds.), Teaching languages, teaching cultures. Melbourne: Language Australia.
  • Cushner, K., & Brislin, R. W. (1996). Intercultural interactions. A practical guide (Vol. 2). Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • D'Andrade, R. G. (1981). The cultural part of cognition. Cognitive Science, 5(3), 179–195.
  • De Fina, A., Schiffrin, D., & Bamberg, M. (2006). Discourse and identity. Studies in interactional sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • DEET. (1991). Australia's language: The Australian language and literacy policy. Australian Government Publishing Service.
  • Dellit, J. (2005). Getting started with intercultural language learning: A resource for schools. Melbourne: Asian Languages Professional Learning Project, Asia Education Foundation.
  • Department for Education and Skills. (2002). Languages for all: Languages for life: A strategy for England. Nottingham, DfES Publications.
  • Department of Education. [Tasmania, Australia]. (2005). Report on the supporting intercultural language learning in secondary schools project. Hobart: Department of Education.
  • Dillon, R. G. (2002). Boundary work: American ethnographers as intercultural communicators in Japan. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26(1), 59–89.
  • Donmall, B. G. (1985). Language awareness. NCLE Papers and Reports. London: Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.
  • Dörnyei, Z. (2001a). Motivational strategies in the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Dörnyei, Z. (2001b). Teaching and researching motivation. Harlow: Pearson.
  • Durkheim, E. (1956). Education and sociology. New York: Free Press.
  • Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (1995). Constructing meaning, constructing selves: Snapshots of language, gender, and class from Belten High. In K. Hall & M. Bucholtz (Eds.), Gender articulated: Language and the socially constructed self (pp. 469-507). New York: Routledge.
  • Education Review Office. (2000). Multi-cultural schools in New Zealand. New Zealand Education Review Office. 
  • Education Review Office. (2001). Provision for Māori Students in mainstream schools
  • Education Review Office. (2002). The education of Pacific students in New Zealand Schools, Office, Education Review. 
  • Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ellis, R. (2005). Instructed second language acquisition: A literature review. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
  • Elola, L., & Oskoz, A. (2008). Blogging: Fostering intercultural competence development in foreign language and study abroad contexts. Foreign Language Annals, 41(3), 454-477.
  • Erlam, R. (2006). Draft Learning languages in the New Zealand Curriculum: Implications for pedagogy and assessment. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
  • Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and text: Linguistic and intertextual analysis within discourse analysis. Discourse and Society, 3, 193-219.
  • Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical discourse analysis. London: Longman.
  • Fairclough, N. (2000). Language and power (Vol. 2). New York: Longman.
  • Fantini, A. E. (2006). Exploring and assessing intercultural competence. 
  • Fehling, S. (2005). Language awareness und bilingualer Unterricht : eine komparative Studie. Frankfurt am Main [u.a.]: Lang.
  • Finkbeiner, C. (2006). Constructing the third space together: The principles of reciprocity and cooperation. In P. R. Schmidt & C. Finkbeiner (Eds.), The ABCs of cultural understanding and communication: National and international adaptations (pp. 19-42). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
  • Finkbeiner, C. (2007). Criteria-based review of the draft final report on intercultural language learning: Implications for pedagogy. (pp. 1-11). Ministry of Education, New Zealand.
  • Finkbeiner, C., & Koplin, C. (2002). A cooperative approach for facilitating intercultural education. Reading Online
  • Fiske, J. (1990). Introduction to communication studies (Vol. 2). London: Routledge.
  • Foster, P. (1998). A classroom perspective on the negotiation of meaning. Applied Linguistics, 19(1), 1-23. doi:10.1093/applin/19.1.1
  • García, M., & Sercu, L. (2005). Pupils' culture and learning profile. In L. Sercu (Ed.), Foreign language teachers and intercultural competence (pp. 50-74). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
  • Garfinkel, H. (1967). Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
  • Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday Anchor.
  • Gohard-Radenkovic, A., Lussier, D., Penz, H., & Zarate, G. (2004). Reference fields and methodologies. In G. Zarate, A. Gohard-Radenkovic, D. Lussier, & H. Penz (Eds.), Cultural mediation and the teaching and learning of languages (pp. 27-58). Strasbourg Cedex: Council of Europe Publishing.
  • Gray, A. (2006). The draft Te Reo Māori in the New Zealand curriculum and the NCEA: Report for the Ministry of Education. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
  • Gumperz, J. J. (1982a). Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gumperz, J. J. (1982b). Language and social identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gumperz, J. J. (1999). On interactional sociolinguistic method. In S. Sarangi & C. Roberts (Eds.), Talk, work and institutional order. Discourse in medical, mediation and management settings (pp. 453-471). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Halliday, M. A. K. (1978). Language as social semiotic: The social interpretation of language and meaning. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Harkings, J. (2006). Educating for intercultural competence. Presented at the LALS Seminar, Victoria University of Wellington.
  • Harlow, R. (2003). Issues in Māori language planning and revitalisation. Journal of Māori and Pacific Development: He Puna Korero, 4(1), 32-43.
  • Harris, R. (2003). Rethinking linguistics. In G. Davis H & T. Taylor (Eds.), On redefining linguistics (pp. 17-168). London: Routledge.
  • Heider, F. (1958). The Psychology of interpersonal relationships. New York: John Wiley.
  • Herron, C., Dubreil, S., & Cole, S. P. (2000). Using instructional video to teach culture to beginning foreign language students. CALICO Journal, 17(3), 395-429.
  • Hickey, L., & Stewart, M. (2004). Politeness in Europe. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.
  • Hofstede, G., & Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind (Vol. 2). New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.
  • Hohepa, P. (1978). Māori and Pakeha: The one-people myth. In M. King (Ed.), Tihe Mauri Ora, Aspects of Māoritanga. Auckland: Methuen.
  • Holmes, J. (1997). Women, language and identity. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 1(2), 195-223.
  • Holmes, J. (1998). Narrative structure: Some contrasts between Māori and pakeha story-telling. Multilingua, 17(1), 25-57.
  • Holmes, J. (2003). Small talk at work: Potential problems for workers with an intellectual disability. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 36(1), 65-84.
  • Holmes, J. (2007). An introduction to sociolinguistics (Vol. 3). London: Pearson.
  • Holmes, J., Stubbe, M., & Vine, B. (1999). Constructing professional identity: "doing power" in policy units. In S. Sarangi & C. Roberts (Eds.), Talk, work and institutional order. Discourse in medical, mediation and management settings. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Hymes, D. H. (1974). Foundations in sociolinguistics: An ethnographic approach. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Hymes, D. H. (1986). Models of interaction and social life. In J. J. Gumperz & D. H. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Ide, S., Hill, B., Ogino, T., & Kawasaki, A. (1992). The concept of politeness: An empirical study of American English and Japanese. In R. Watts, S. Ide, & K. Ehrlich (Eds.), Politeness in language: Study in its history, theory and practice (pp. 281-297). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Ingram, D. (2004). Language Learning and Cross-Cultural Attitudes. In International TESOL Conference. Presented at the International TESOL Conference. 
  • Ingram, D., & O'Neill, S. (2001). The enigma of cross-cultural attitudes in language teaching - Part 1. Babel, 36(2), 12-38.
  • Ingram, D., & O'Neill, S. (2002). The enigma of cross-cultural attitudes in language teaching - Part 2. Babel, 36(3), 17-22, 37-38.
  • James, C., & Garrett, P. (1992). Language awareness in the classroom. New York: Longman.
  • Janeke, M. (1996). Multicultural education in New Zealand: A case study. He Parekereke: Occasional publications series ; v. 6, no. 2. Victoria University of Wellington.
  • Kasper, G. (1990). Linguistic politeness: Current research issues. Journal of Pragmatics, 14, 193-218.
  • Kasper, G., & Blum-Kulka, S. (1993). Interlanguage pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Knoblauch, H. (2000). Communication, context and culture. In A. D. Luzio, S. Gunther, & F. Orletti (Eds.), Culture in communication : Analyses of intercultural situations. Philadelphia: J. Benjamins.
  • Kohler, M. (2005). Framing culture. Babel, 40(1), 12-17.
  • Korhonen, K. (2004). Developing intercultural competence as part of professional qualifications. A training experiment. Journal of Intercultural Communication
  • Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Kramsch, C. (1997). The privilege of the nonnative speaker. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 112(3), 359-369.
  • Kramsch, C. (1998). Teaching along the cultural faultline. In R. Paige, D. Lange, & Y. Yershova (Eds.), Culture as the core: Interdisciplinary perspectives on culture teaching and learning in the second language curriculum (pp. 15-32). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
  • Kramsch, C. (2003). Teaching along the cultural faultline. In D. Lange & R. Paige (Eds.), Culture as the core: Perspectives on culture in second language learning (pp. 19-36). Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.
  • Kramsch, C. (2004). Language, thought and culture. In A. Davies & C. Elder (Ed.), The handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 235-261). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Kramsch, C. (2006). The multilingual subject. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 16(1), 97-110.
  • Kramsch, C., & Thorne, S. (2001). Foreign language teaching as global communicative practice. In D. Block & D. Cameron (Eds.), Language learning and teaching in the age of globalization. London: Routledge.
  • Lahdenperä, P. (2000). From monocultural to intercultural research. Intercultural Education, 11(2), 201-207.
  • Lange, D. L. (2003). Implications of theory and research in second language classrooms. In D. L. Lange & R. M. Paige (Eds.), Culture as the core: Perspectives on culture in second language learning. (pp. 271-336). Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Publishing Age.
  • Lange, D. L., & Paige, M. (2003). Introduction. In D. L. Lange & R. M. Paige (Eds.), Culture as the Core: Perspectives on Culture in Second Language Learning (pp. ix-xvii). Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.
  • Lantolf, J. (2007). Dialectics and L2 Proficiency (pp. 1-38). Presented at the pre-conference symposium for the Social and Cognitive Aspects of Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference, Auckland, New Zealand.
  • Lee-Wong, S. (2000). Politeness and face in Chinese culture. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
  • Liddicoat, A. J. (2001). Static and dynamic views. The New Zealand Language Teacher, 27, 47-58.
  • Liddicoat, A. J. (2002b). Static and dynamic views of cultural and intercultural languages acquisition.  Babel, 36,3:4-11,37.
  • Liddicoat, A. J. (2004). Intercultural language teaching: Principles for practice. The New Zealand Language Teacher, 30, 17-23.
  • Liddicoat, A. J. (Ed.). (2007). Language planning and literacy. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
  • Liddicoat, A. J. (2009). Communication as culturally contexted practice: A view from intercultural communication. Australian Journal of Linguistics, 29(1), 115-133. doi:10.1080/07268600802516400
  • Liddicoat, A. J., Papademetre, L., Scarino, A., & Kohler, M. (2003). Report on intercultural language learning. Canberra: Department of Education, Science and Training.
  • Lopez, M. E. (1999). When discourses collide: An ethnography of migrant children at home and in school. Peter Lang, New York.
  • Luke, A. (1997). Theory and practice in critical discourse analysis. In L. Saha (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the sociology of education. New York: Elsevier Science.
  • Maley, A. (1993). Short and sweet: Volume 1. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Mantle-Bromley, C. (1995). Positive attitudes and realistic beliefs: Links to proficiency. The Modern Language Journal, 79(3), 372–386.
  • Mao, L. (1994). Beyond politeness theory: 'face' revisited and renewed. Journal of Pragmatics, 21(451-486).
  • Márquez-Reiter, R. (2000). Linguistic politeness in Britain and Uruguay. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Marx, N. (2002). Never quite a 'Native Speaker': accent and identity in the L2 - and the L1. Canadian Modern Language Review, 59(2), 264-281.
  • Matsumoto, Y. (1989). Politeness and conversational universals: Observations from Japanese. Multilingua, 8(2-3), 207-221.
  • May, S. (2002). Accommodating multiculturalism and biculturalism in Aotearoa New Zealand: Implications for language education. Waikato Journal of Education, (8), 5-26.
  • May, S. (2005). Developing a national languages policy: Overview. New Zealand Diversity Forum – The Challenges of Cultural Diversity.
  • May, S., Hill, R., & Tiakiwai, S. (2004). Bilingual/Immersion education: Indicators of good practice. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
  • McGroarty, M. (1996). Language attitudes, motivation and standards. In S. L. McKay & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and language teaching (pp. 3-46). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • McLeod, W. T. (Ed.). (1987). The new Collins dictionary and thesaurus. Collins.
  • McNeight, C. (1998). "Wow! These sorts of things are similar to our culture! Becoming culturally inclusive within the senior secondary school curriculum (Unpublished graduate report). Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington Department of Teacher Education.
  • Metge, J. (1990). Te Kohao o te ngira: Culture and learning. Wellington: Learning Media, Ministry of Education.
  • Meyer, L., McClure, J., Walkey, F., McKenzie, L., & Weir, K. (2006). The impact of the NCEA on student motivation. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
  • Miller, L. (1995). Two Aspects of Japanese and American Co-Worker Interaction: Giving Instructions and Creating Rapport. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 31(2), 141-161. doi:10.1177/0021886395312004
  • Ministerial Council on Education Employment Training and Youth Affairs. (2005). National statement of languages education in Australian schools: National plan for languages education in Australian schools, 2005-2008. Hindmarsh, SA: The State of South Australia, Department of Education and Children's Services.
  • Ministry of Education. (1995). Māori and Pacific Island language demand for educational services: Overview. Wellington: MRL Research Group.
  • Ministry of Education. (1996). Samoan in the New Zealand curriculum. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
  • Ministry of Education. (2000). Developing programmes for teaching Pacific Islands languages. 
  • Ministry of Education. (2002). Learning languages: A guide for New Zealand schools. Wellington: Learning Media Limited. 
  • Ministry of Education. (2007). The New Zealand curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media.
  • Ministry of Education. (2008). Ka Hikitia - Managing for Success: The Māori Education Strategy 2008-2012. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
  • Morgan, C. (1993). Attitude change and foreign language culture teaching. Language Teaching, 26(2), 63-75.
  • Neto, F. (2006). Changing intercultural attitudes over time. Journal of Intercultural Communication
  • Noels, K. A., & Clément, R. (1996). Communicating across cultures: Social determinants and acculturative consequences. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 28(3), 214–228.
  • Norton, B. (2000). Language and identity in language learning. London: Longman.
  • Ochs, E. (1993). Constructing social identity: A language socialization perspective. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 26(3), 287–306.
  • O'Dowd, R. (2003). Understanding the "other side": Intercultural learning in a Spanish-English e-mail exchange. Language Learning & Technology
  • O'Dowd, R. (2007). Online intercultural exchange: An introduction for foreign language teachers. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
  • Parsons, T. (1937). The structure of social action. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Patrick, D. (2003). Language, politics, and social interaction in an Inuit community. Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Pennycook, A. (2001). Critical applied linguistics: A critical introduction. In A. Davies & C. Elder (Eds.), Handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 784-807). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • Phillips, E. (2003). IC? I see! Developing learners' intercultural competence. LOTE CED Communique
  • Phillips, J. K. (2003). National standards for foreign language learning. In D. L. Lange & R. M. Paige (Eds.), Culture as the core: Perspectives on culture in second language learning (pp. 161-171). Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.
  • Pufahl, I., Rhodes, N. C., & Christian, D. (2001). What we can learn from foreign language teaching in other countries. ERIC Digest
  • Reinders, H., Lewis, M., & Kirkness, A. (2006). Transform your teaching: Strategies for multicultural education. Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson Education.
  • Richards, K. (2006). Language and professional identity: Aspects of collaborative interaction. London: Palgrave.
  • Roberts, C., Davies, E., & Jupp, T. (1992). Language and discrimination: A study of communication in multi-ethnic workplaces. London: Longman.
  • Ros i Solé, C. (2003). Culture for beginners: A subjective and realistic approach for adult language learners. Language and Intercultural Communication, 3(2), 141-150.
  • Rubenfeld, S., Clement, R., Lussier, D., Lebrun, M., & Auger, R. (2006). Second language learning and cultural representations: Beyond competence and identity. Language Learning, 56, 609-631.
  • Sacks, H. (1984). Notes on methodology. In J. M. Atkinson & J. Heritage (Eds.), Structures of social action: Studies in conversation analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. A., & G., J. (1978). A simplest systematics for the organization of turn taking for conversation. In J. Schenkein (Ed.), Studies in the organization of conversational interaction. New York: Academic.
  • Samu-Wendt, T. (2004). Multiple lenses, multiple ways of seeing our world: Some critical reflections. New Zealand Journal of Social Studies, 12(1), 8-13.
  • Samu-Wendt, T. (2006). The 'Pasifika Umbrella' and quality teaching: Understanding and responding to the diverse realities within. Waikato Journal of Education, 12, 35-49.
  • Saville-Troike, M. (2003). The ethnography of communication (Vol. 3). Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Schiffrin, D. (1996). Narrative as self-portrait: Sociolinguistic constructions of identity. Language in Society, 25(2), 167–203.
  • Schilling-Estes, N. (2004). Constructing ethnicity in interaction. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 8(2), 163-195.
  • Schmidt, P. R., & Finkbeiner, C. (2006). What is the ABCs of cultural understanding and communication? In P. R. Schmidt & C. Finkbeiner (Eds.), The ABCs of cultural understanding and communication. National and international adaptations (pp. 1-18). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
  • Schmidt, R. (1998). The centrality of attention in SLA. University of Hawaii Working Papers, 16(2), 1- 35.
  • Schultz, R. (2007). The challenge of assessing cultural understanding in the context of foreign language instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 40(1), 9-26.
  • Scollon, R., & Scollon, S. (1995). Intercultural communication. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Sen Gupta, A. (2003). Changing the focus: A discussion of the dynamics of the intercultural experience. In G. Alred, M. Byram, & M. Fleming (Eds.), Intercultural experience and education (pp. 155-178). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
  • Sercu, L. (2004). Assessing intercultural competence: a framework for systematic test development in foreign language education and beyond. Intercultural Education, 15(1), 73-89.
  • Sercu, L. (2005). Teaching foreign languages in an intercultural world. In L. Sercu (Ed.), Foreign language teachers and intercultural competence (pp. 1-18). Clevedon, Ohio: Multilingual Matters.
  • Sheets, R. H. (2005). Diversity pedagogy: Examining the role of culture in the teaching-learning process. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Shepard, C. A., Giles, H., & Le Poire, B. A. (2001). Communication accommodation theory. In W. P. Robinson & H. Giles (Eds.), The new handbook of language and social psychology (pp. 33-56). Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
  • Shotter, J. (1993). Conversational realities: constructing life through language. London: Sage.
  • Sifianou, M. (1992). Politeness phenomena in England and Greece. Oxford: Clarendon.
  • Siilata, R., & Barkhuizen, G. (2004). Pasifika student's perceptions of their L1 maintenance at home and school: Language to climb a coconut tree? TESOLANZ Journal, (12), 22-38.
  • Sinicrope, C., Norris, J., & Watanabe, Y. (2007). Understanding and assessing intercultural competence: A summary of theory, research, and practice. University of Hawai'i at Mānoa. 
  • Siskin, H. J. (2003). The native speaker: Membership has its privileges. In C. Blyth (Ed.), The sociolinguistics of foreign-language classrooms: Contributions of the native, the near-native, and the non-native speaker. Issues in language program direction (pp. 277-280). Boston, MA: Heinle.
  • Sleurs, K., Jacobs, G., & Van Waes, L. (2003). Constructing press releases, constructing quotations: A case study. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 7(2), 192–212.
  • Smith, G. H. (2003). Kaupapa Māori theory: Theorizing indigenous transformation of education schooling. Kaupapa Māori Symposium NZARE / AARE Joint Conference.
  • Snell, S. (2005). Bilateral thinking. People Management, 11(20), 40-42.
  • Spencer-Oatey, H. (2000). Culturally speaking: Managing rapport through talk across cultures. London New York: Continuum.
  • Stokes, B. B. E. (2006). Discourse and identity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Streeck, J. (2002). Culture, meaning, and interpersonal communication. In M. L. Knapp & J. A. Daly (Eds.), Handbook of interpersonal communication (Vol. 3, pp. 300-335). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
  • Tau'au, H. F. (2003). Pasifika friendly pedagogy: Relationship building and cultural inclusiveness. English in Aotearoa, 51, 72-74.
  • Te Kanawa, H. K., & Whaanga, H. (2005). The Māori language revitalisation agenda and Te Whakapiki Reo & Te Whakapiki i te Reo: meeting the needs of the teachers. Journal of Māori and Pacific Development: He Puna Korero, 6(2), 30-41.
  • Ting-Toomey, S. (1994). The challenge of facework: Cross-cultural and interpersonal issues. Albany, NY: University of New York Press.
  • Tomlinson, B. (2001). The inner voice: A critical factor in language learning. Journal of the Imagination in L2 Learning, 6, 26–33.
  • Tomlinson, B., & Matsuhara, H. (2004). Developing cultural awareness: Integrating culture into a language course. Modern English Teacher, 13(1), 1-7.
  • Tuafuti, P., & McCaffery, J. (2005). Family and community empowerment through bilingual education. The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 8(5), 480-503.
  • Tuuta, M., Bradnam, L., Hynds, A., Higgins, J., & Broughton, R. (2004). Evaluation of the Te Kauhua Māori Mainstream Pilot Project: Report to the Ministry of Education. Wellington: Ministry of Education, New Zealand.
  • Unger, R. K. (1989). Representations: Social constructions of gender. Amityville, New York: Baywood.
  • Usami, M. (2002). Discourse politeness in Japanese conversation. Some implications for a universal theory of politeness. Tokyo: Hituzi Syobo.
  • Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Ware, P. (2005). "Missed" communication in online communication: tensions in a German-American telecollaboration. Language, Learning & Technology
  • Weaver, G. (1993). Understanding and coping with cross-cultural adjustment stress. In R. M. Paige (Ed.), Education for the intercultural experience (pp. 137-168). Yarmouth, Maine: Intercultural Press.
  • Weedon, C. (1997). Feminist practice and poststructuralist theory (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Wendt, M. (2003). Context, culture and construction: Research implications of theory formation in foreign language methodology. In M. Byram & P. Grundy (Eds.), Context and culture in language teaching and learning (pp. 92-105). Clevedon Hall, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
  • Westmarland, L. (2001). Gender and policing: Sex, power and police culture. Willan Publishing.
  • White, S. (1989). Backchannels across cultures: A study of Americans and Japanese. Language in Society, 18, 59-76.
  • Whorf, B. L. (1964). Language, thought, and reality: Selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. (J. B. Carroll, Ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Contact Us

Education Data Requests
If you have any questions about education data then please contact us at:
Email:      Requests EDK
Phone:    +64 4 463 8065