GlossaryTerms and acronyms used on Education Counts.
A provisionally registered teacher. Registration requires at least two years of teaching; hence beginning teachers are generally in their first two years of teaching. The Ministry provides support to state schools that employ beginning teachers in the form of the Beginning teacher time allowance. Historically this allowance has only been available for first year beginning teachers, but is now available for both first and second year teachers.
Governing body for schools; elected by parents and caregivers. Boards establish a charter, which sets out the aims and objectives of the school.
These services provide sessional, all-day, or flexible hour programmes for children from birth to school age. Children who attend these services are not enrolled on a regular basis, that is, they can attend that day if there is a place available for the child. (See ECE Service Type).
A document that signifies a qualification has been awarded.
Where a school is operating a cohort entry policy students start school in groups (cohorts) at the beginning of each term. A student will start at the school in the term closest to their fifth birthday, or the beginning of a later term. This means that some children, depending on when their birthday falls may be able to start school up to two months before they turn five. The majority of schools in New Zealand operate a continuous entry of new entrants into Year 1 throughout the school year, rather than cohort entry.
A public tertiary education institution (TEI) that provides mainly specialist teacher education training. They also offer other non-teaching courses such as business, performing arts, sport coaching and science, as well as professional development for teachers. All of these institutions in New Zealand have now amalgamated with universities.
|College of Education||Amalgamated with|
|Auckland College of Education||University of Auckland|
|Hamilton College of Education||University of Waikato|
|Massey University College of Education||Massey University|
|Wellington College of Education||Victoria University|
|Christchurch College of Education||University of Canterbury|
|Dunedin College of Education||University of Otago|
|Note: See Tertiary Education Providers.|
Communities of Learning are groups of schools/kura that come together, along with their communities, to raise achievement for all young people by sharing expertise in teaching and learning (ako), and supporting each other. They focus on the compulsory educational pathway, but can also engage with early childhood and post secondary education to fully include the learning journey children and young people will take.
A Community of Learning will work with the students, parents, families, whānau, iwi and other communities within its catchment, as the support and involvement of these groups is essential for the Community of Learning to progress towards its goals.
A service that is an incorporated society, a charitable, statutory, or community trust, or owned by a community organisation (e.g. a city council, church or university). Community based services are prohibited from making financial gains that are distributed to their members. (See ECE Services).
Mainly second chance education for adults, and hobby classes. These are provided through a variety of educational institutions, organisations and community groups.
National school providing distance learning for full-time students, dual enrolled students adult students and those with special education needs unable to attend regular school. Provides early childhood, primary and secondary education. (See School Types and Correspondence School - ECE Services).
A distant education service offering learning programmes for children aged three to five years. An option for children who are unable to attend or have limited access to an early childhood services because of isolation, illness, a physical disability or itinerancy. These children can also attend an early childhood service for up to two sessions per week. (See Correspondence School, ECE Service Type and ECE Services)
A basic unit of education and/or training. The unit may be known variously as a unit, paper, subject, course or module of a qualification. A course may occur many times at one or more locations. A course or collection of courses forms a programme of study, which if completed successfully, results in the award of a qualification.
This is the year level of the student's class cohort and the level at which the student spends most of their time at school. For student count made out of ENROL, the Current Year Level is used instead of the Funding Year Level.
Provides further information on the type of each institution.
- ECE examples; Pacific centre or Tongan ECE service.
- School examples; Kura Teina, health camp school or Kura Kaupapa Māori.
- Tertiary examples; aviation, equine, or theological.
A qualification awarded after satisfactory completion of and achievement in a programme of advanced study taught mainly by people engaged in research and which emphasises general principles and basic knowledge as the basis for self-directed work.
Designated character schools are state schools that teach the New Zealand Curriculum but have developed their own sets of aims, purposes and objectives to reflect their own particular values for example religious beliefs or culture.
A means of entrance to university for New Zealand citizens or permanent residents between the age of 16 and 20 on the first day of the semester of enrolment. The student must not meet the university entrance standard, have received secondary education to at least New Zealand Year 12, and earned at least 14 credits in an approved subject at level 2 towards NCEA. The student must also meet the literacy and numeracy standards required for university entrance and has not completed Year 13 or attempted to qualify for university entrance. (See Provisional Entrance).
Persons who are:-
- New Zealand citizens (including those born in the Cook Islands, Tokelau and Niue)
- New Zealand permanent residents
- Citizens of Australia residing in New Zealand
- Dependent children of:-
- Diplomatic staff
- Persons with New Zealand work permits
- Persons with Commonwealth scholarships
- And foreign students who are enrolled in any Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programme at a New Zealand university
A student who is enrolled at their local school whilst studying subjects through the Correspondence School that their local school is unable to provide.
Early Childhood Education. Education and care for infants and young children before they begin school. The majority of children in early childhood services are under five; however, children may attend early childhood services up to their sixth birthday, when schooling becomes compulsory. ECE_Services services can be provided and organised in a range of ways (See ECE_Services Service Type).
These services provide sessional, all-day, or flexible hour programmes for children from birth to school age. They may be privately owned, community-based, or operated as an adjunct to a business or organisation. Individual Education and Care Services may be known by many names, including crèches, private kindergartens, aoga, punanga reo, and childcare centres. These services are teacher-led and required to meet the teacher registration targets. (See ECE Services, ECE Service Type).
The electorate each institution is located in. Can be General or Māori electorates.
A unit for counting tertiary student numbers. The basis of the EFTS system is that a student taking a normal year's full-time study counts as 1.0 EFTS units or the equivalent of 120 credits on the National Qualifications Framework.
Education Review Office. A government department whose purpose is to evaluate and report publicly on the education and care of students in schools and early childhood education services.
English for Speakers of Other Languages. A student who comes from a home where English is not the predominant language.
The ethnic group or groups to which an individual belongs. The concept of ethnicity adopted by the Ministry of Education is a social construct of group affiliation and identity. The Ministry of Education uses the definition of ethnicity used by Statistics New Zealand, namely:"A social group whose members have one or more of the following characteristics:
- they share a sense of common origins,
- they claim a common and distinctive history and destiny,
- they possess one or more dimensions of collective cultural individuality,
- they feel a sense of unique collective solidarity."
A student who attends a school for some courses but is enrolled at another school where the majority of instruction occurs. (See Student Types (School)).
Covers students who are unable to attend on-campus courses. Students may be a resident in New Zealand or overseas.
The subject matter of a tertiary qualification. The 12 broad Fields of Study are from the New Zealand Standard Classification of Education (NZSCED).
A student enrolled in their first year of their first formal programme at a tertiary institution either in New Zealand or overseas. Enrolments in STAR, community or other non-formal courses are not included under this definition.
An international student who is studying in New Zealand under an exchange programme approved by the New Zealand Government and is exempt from paying tuition fees. However a foreign exchange student is treated as a regular student (or adult student, depending on their age) for the purposes of Ministry of Education statistical returns. (See Student Types (School)).
Any non-domestic postgraduate student enrolled in a course or courses whose supervised work results in the production of a substantial research output by the individual student, amounting to 100 percent of the learning and assessment for that course.
For the purposes of statistical reporting, a tertiary student is considered to be a formal student when enrolled in a formal programme of study of more than one week's full-time duration (i.e. an EFTS value greater than 0.03). The programme must lead to a qualification approved by an authorised or certifying body or issued by an institution.
Any programme of study of 32 weeks or more and at least 0.8 EFTS is designated full-time/full-year. Any programme of study of at least 12 weeks and at least 0.3 EFTS or the equivalent on a pro rata basis (e.g. 24 weeks and 0.6 EFTS) is designated full-time/part-year. A programme of study of 12 weeks that is less than 0.3 EFTS (or the equivalent on a pro rata basis) is called part-time. (See Part-time (Tertiary)).
At secondary schools an FTE is calculated by adding together class contact hours of each part-time student, dividing by 20, and rounding to one decimal place.
One full-time teacher equivalent is a teacher employed for a full working week. At schools an FTTE is calculated by adding together class contact hours, dividing by 25, and rounding to two decimal places.
Prior to 2008 this was known as Year of Schooling or MOE Year Level. The Funding Year Level measures the number of years of schooling a student has received and provides the Ministry of Education with a method of counting students for funding and staffing purposes. The Funding Year Level for most students is based on the date they first started school. It is independent of the way schools are organised and independent of the particular programme of study that a student may undertake.
See also Current Year Level.
Gender of the students that a school caters for.
State-owned organisation other than an educational institution that provides education, training or assessment services (e.g. Navy, Department of Conservation); this is a term used mainly by NZQA when registering and accrediting training sections of government organisations. Often referred to as GTE. (See Tertiary Education Institutions (TEIs)).
Early childhood services where early childhood education is provided to small groups of children in a caregiver/educator's or child's own home. Home-based care services are grouped together in networks, which are supervised by co-coordinators who are registered teachers. (See ECE Service Type).
A generic term for children schooled at home during the compulsory schooling ages (6 to 16). To home school a child the parents/caregivers must satisfy the Ministry that the child will be taught at least as regularly and as well as in a registered school. If satisfied the Ministry issues an exemption certificate and the student is deemed to be "homeschooled". The parents/caregivers do not have to teach the child, they can arrange for someone else to teach the child or may purchase a programme from someone else. Homeschooling parents/caregivers are given an annual grant to help with the cost of learning materials or programme purchase. (See School Types and MOE Year Level).
Hospital Based Services are those services where the provision of education or care is to three or more children under the age of six, who are also receiving health services within premises under the control of the Ministry of Health or a district health board. These services are established by or under section 19 of the New Zealand Public Health and Disability Act 2000. (See ECE Services, ECE Service Type).
A public tertiary education institution (TEI) that is characterised by a wide diversity of vocational and professional programmes. Normally known as polytechnics. (See Tertiary Education Provider Types)
A code assigned by the Ministry of Education to uniquely identify each institution.
Level at which a particular subject is being studied.
Always relates to a subject studied at a secondary school.
The IDI is a linked longitudinal dataset that combines unit-record administrative information from a range of agencies and organisations. The IDI is maintained by Statistics New Zealand under strict privacy and confidentiality protocols. All records within the IDI are anonymised and any statistical outputs that use IDI data go through a confidentialisation process to ensure that the privacy of individuals is protected. Further detail about the IDI can be found on the Statistics New Zealand website.
A school which has previously been a private school and is now integrated into the state-funded system. (See Authority ).
An international student who meets the full tuition costs on their own or from funds provided to them by sponsors other than the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Students can be studying at a secondary or tertiary level. (See Student Types (School)).
An overseas student who has come to New Zealand for the purpose of education, and/or is currently studying on a student permit or domestic passport. This excludes students from overseas with New Zealand citizenship or permanent residence or with Australian citizenship. (See Domestic Student and Student Types (School)).
Covers courses where students must be physically present in scheduled teaching sessions either in New Zealand or at a provider's campus located overseas.
International Standard of Classification of Education. A system designed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) so that statistics on education can be compiled and presented on an internationally comparable basis.
ISCED-1997 levels of education are: -
|Level 0||Pre-primary||Early childhood pre-primary education|
|Level 1||Primary Education||Primary schooling up to Year 6.|
|Level 2||Lower Secondary||Year 7-10.|
|Level 3||Upper Secondary||Levels equivalent to Year 11 - 13 (or NQF levels 1 - 3) for secondary schooling, and all post-secondary programmes at NQF levels 1 - 3. While year 11 (or NCEA level 1) students are enrolled at ISCED level 3, attainment of ISCED 3 requires completion of a programme of at least 2 years duration, eg NCEA level 2 or equivalent. Students whose highest level of attainment is NCEA level 1, or equivalent, are not considered to have attained ISCED 3, or upper secondary level.|
|Level 4||Post-secondary Non-tertiary||Education beyond school level leading to an award not equivalent to a diploma. Typically these are one year certificates at NQF level 4. Also includes apprenticeship qualifications.|
|Includes diplomas, degrees and postgraduate programmes, excluding doctorates. Note that 'tertiary education' as used in New Zealand refers to all post-secondary education. In ISCED, and as used in international comparisons, 'tertiary education' refers just to programmes at diploma level and above (ISCED levels 5 - 6).|
|Level 6||Advanced Research Programmes||Doctorates.|
Industry Training Organisation. A body recognised under the Industry Training Act 1992 as having responsibility for setting standards and arranging the delivery of industry training for the sector it represents; commonly known as an ITO. ITO's can become accredited to register assessors.
A teacher-led early childhood service represented by the New Zealand Kindergartens Inc. (NZKI) or the New Zealand Federation of Free Kindergartens, that provides sessional programmes for mainly three and four year old children. (See ECE Service Type).
See Te Kōhanga Reo.
A state school where the principal language of instruction is Te Reo Māori and which follow the Te Aho Matua teaching and learning philosophy. The first Kura Kaupapa Māori opened in 1985 catering for graduates of Nga Kōhanga Reo . Kura Kaupapa Māori can either be a primary or a composite school. (See School Types, MOE Year Level and Wharekura).
An applicant school accepted into the preparation and assessment process for establishment as a Section 155 Te Aho Matua Kura Kaupapa Māori. It is an off-site satellite unit of an existing Kura Kaupapa Māori called a Kura Tuakana. Each Kura Teina is provided with governance, management, mentoring and professional support by a Kura Tuakana. Kura Teina's can either be a primary or a composite school. (See School Types).
An established Kura Kaupapa Māori school that provides mentoring support and acts as a role model for an off-site satellite unit called a Kura Teina. The Kura Tuakana provides the governance for the Kura Teina and acts as the conduit for the funding/resourcing from the ministry to the Kura Teina. A Kura Tuakana must be a Kura Kaupapa Māori school of high quality (based on ERO reports) that is capable of providing support. (See School Types).
Any premises used regularly for the education or care of three or more children under the age of six must be licensed, except where specifically exempted by the Minister of Education. (See Licence-Exempt ECE Groups and ECE Service Type).
A service that has been issued an exemption from licensing requirements, in recognition of the fact that more than half of the children attending attend with a parent. (See ECE Services).
The Ministry of Education local office district each institution is located in.
Maori immersion school a student is attending while actually enrolled at another school. Students attending Maori Medium Satellites are funded the same way as the other students enrolled at the same school.
See Funding Year Level.
A qualification on the National Qualifications Framework that recognises skills and knowledge that meet nationally endorsed standards (unit and achievement standards); National Certificates are usually registered between levels one and four, and require a minimum of 40 credits at or above the level at which the qualification is registered.
A qualification on the National Qualifications Framework that recognises skills and knowledge that meet nationally endorsed standards unit and achievement standards); National Diplomas are registered between levels five and seven. The top 72 credits define the level at which the qualification can be registered and at least 120 of all credits contributing towards the qualification must be at level four or above.
National Certificate of Education Achievement. A qualification on the National Qualification Framework based on credits from all unit and achievement standards . NCEAs are registered between levels 1 and 3, and are open to anyone assessed through an accredited provider.
National Education Monitoring Project. NEMP is an ongoing project that assesses and reports on the achievement of New Zealand Year 4 and Year 8 primary school children in all areas of the school curriculum. A sample of children are assessed each year. Different curriculum areas are assessed each year and repeated over a four year cycle.
For more information about NEMP, visit the NEMP publications section here on Education Counts.
Licence-exempt groups in community based locations that are culturally appropriate for Māori. (See ECE Services)
See Institution Number.
New Zealand Agency for International Development funded student. A student on a scholarship from the New Zealand Agency for International Development. Prior to 2004 this was known as a MFAT scholarship.
New Zealand Qualifications Authority. An independent body that quality-assures secondary and tertiary qualifications and education providers; evaluates overseas qualifications and administers the New Zealand Register of Quality Assured Qualifications and the National Qualifications Framework, including the NCEA.
New Zealand Standard Classification of Education. A subject-based classification system for courses in tertiary education. The classification system consists of three levels – broad, narrow and detailed fields. It is used to improve the quality and consistency of statistics collected by the Ministry of Education and other education agencies in relation to tertiary study.
Ongoing and Reviewable Resourcing Schemes. The schemes, which were introduced in 1997, assist individuals with very high or high special education needs by providing funding for extra teaching, specialist programming, therapy and education support.
Organisations that deliver programmes of tertiary education or in support of tertiary education of some national significance, the New Zealand School of Dance and Drama. (See Tertiary Education Provider Types).
Available to pre-school children with the purpose of developing and maintaining Pacific Islands languages and cultures. There is a high level of parent participation. (See ECE Services).
Students are taught curriculum subjects in both Pacific languages and English (bilingual) or in Pacific languages only (immersion).
A category of early childhood services that do not have to meet teacher registration targets, and have high levels of parent and/or whānau involvement in providing education and care for children. These services include licensed Playcentres and licensed Te Kōhanga Reo
Partnership Schools/Kura Hourua are the newest type of school in the education system. These schools are partnerships between education, business and community groups to provide new opportunities for students to achieve education success. You can find out more about partnership schools in the charter schools section of the Youth Law website
A tertiary expression which can apply to either the qualification or the student. A qualification offered part-time has the same EFTS value, but is studied over a longer period of time than its full-time equivalent. A student may elect to study a full-time qualification on a part-time basis, by enrolling in fewer courses than the normal student full-time workload. Some qualifications are specifically designed for part-time study, e.g. the Massey University MBA. (See Full-Time (Tertiary) ).
Early childhood services that belong to an association affiliated with the New Zealand Playcentre Federation Inc. A primary characteristic of playcentres is that families manage and implement the education programme (See ECE Services).
Community-based groups of parents and pre-school children whose playgroups meet for one to three sessions per week. (See ECE Service Type).
Now referred to as Institutes of Technology and Polytechnics.
The main activity of a first-year tertiary student at 1 October the previous year. Categories include: attendance at a secondary school or other form of education, paid employment, house-person, retired or other beneficiary, and overseas.
A service owned by a private company, publicly listed company, private trust, partnership, or an individual. Private services are able to make financial gains and distribute these to their members.
Schools owned by private proprietors, governed by an independent board, state registered as meeting specific standards, and receiving some state funding but charging tuition fees. (See Authority).
These consist of private institutions registered with the New Zealand Qualifications Authority and other tertiary education providers in receipt of a Ministry of Education Grant (OTEP). Many private tertiary education providers receive Ministry of Education tuition subsidies and/or funding for Skill NZ programmes. (See Tertiary Education Providers and Tertiary Education Institutions).
A means of entrance to university for New Zealand citizens and permanent residents between the age of 16 and 20 who have gained Sixth Form Certificate in at least one subject. From 2005, with the phasing in of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement this has been replaced discretionary entrance.
A student has completed a qualification when all the academic requirements for the completion of a formal qualification during the previous academic year have been met.
Regional Health Schools
Regional health schools are for students with ongoing or serious health issues who can't attend their local school because they are in hospital, recovering at home, or gradually returning to school. Teachers work with students both in hospital and at home. Three regional health schools based in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch together service the whole country including remote country areas.
A domestic student, who is aged less than 19 years at 1 January of the roll count year. Includes; students in general classrooms and those in special needs units. Excludes; foreign fee-paying students, NZAID-funded students, alternative education students and adult students. This classification is used by the Ministry for funding purposes. (See Student Types (School)).
A student who has returned to school following a break of one year or more and is aged between 16 and 19 years-old on 1 January of the roll count year. These students will take up the same MOE Year Level that they had when they left school. (See Returning Adult Student and Student Types (School)).
An annual return of students at 1 March and at 1 July for the purpose of informing the Ministry of Education of the number of students attending that school on those dates.
An institution for the instruction of children or people. In New Zealand school is compulsory for students aged between six and sixteen years. (See School Types).
Students leaving secondary school permanently to enter the workforce, further education or training.
See Institution Number.
A Government agency responsible for providing training in skill development within New Zealand. Programmes include Skill Enhancement, Training Opportunities and Youth Training.
Students from low socio-economic communities face more barriers to learning than students from high socio-economic communities. Schools that draw their roll from these low socio-economic communities are given greater funding to combat these barriers. The mechanism used to calculate and allocate this additional funding is most often known as school deciles.
Schools are assigned a socio-economic score based on five census derived socio-economic factors. Schools are then ranked in order of this score and divided into 10 even groups called deciles. The 10 percent of schools with the lowest scores are considered decile 1 schools, the next 10 percent of schools are considered decile 2 schools, etc. Decile 1 schools have the highest proportion of low SES students, decile 10 schools have the least (NB: this does not mean students from decile 10 schools are 'rich'). See the Ministry of Education web page How The Decile Is Calculated for a more detailed explanation.
A list of schools with their deciles as well as their contact details is available as a downloadable spreadsheet on Directory of Educational Institutions.
Deciles are also used in many of the indicators used by the Ministry of Education as a proxy for socio-economic status. These indicators are found on Education Counts > Indicators.
A school providing specialist education or support for students with specific physical, behaviour, sensory or intellectual support needs. (See School Types).
The formal removal of a student from a state school for a specified period. A stand-down of a student can total no more than five days in any term, or ten days in a school year. Following a stand-down, the student returns automatically to school.
Secondary, Tertiary Alignment Resource. STAR's main purpose is to assist senior secondary school students in finding suitable pathways into work or further secondary or tertiary study.
Fully state funded school which is co-educational at the primary level, and offers single sex or co-educational options at the secondary level. (See Authority).
- Foreign Exchange Student
- Regular Student (includes Returning Students)
- Kura Teina Student
- Alternative Education Student
- Adult Student
- Returning Adult Student
- External Student
- Satellite Class Student
- Teen Parent Unit Student
- NZAID-Funded Students
(prior to 2009 NZAID-Funded Students were considered International students)
Te Aho Matua is a philosophy specifically developed for 'kura' schools. Te Aho Matua describes the principles for operation and for teaching in kura. See also Kura Kaupapa Māori.
An early childhood centre administered by the Te Kōhanga Reo National Trust. The programmes in Kōhanga Reo are based on the total immersion of children from birth to school age in Māori language, culture, and values. (See ECE Service Type).
The Māori Language.
Early childhood services that are required to have a person responsible (or home-based care coordinator) who is a registered ECE qualified teacher, and they must meet the teacher registration targets for registered teacher staff. For funding purposes, teacher-led services include; Kindergartens, Education and Care Services and Homebased Care Services.
A unit, attached to a host secondary school, providing educational programmes for teenagers who are pregnant or who have prime responsibility for their children's care; and who have enrolled within the age range to receive free education (i.e. up to age 19 years).
The Territorial Authority (TA) each institution is located in. TAs are defined by Statistics New Zealand based on 1995 boundaries. In 2006 there TAs consisted of 16 cities, 57 districts and Chatham Islands county.
Publicly owned tertiary education providers. These consist of university, college of education , polytechnic, or Wānanga. The term excludes other post-secondary institutions, such as private training establishments. (See Tertiary Education Providers and Private Training Education (PTE) providers).
Post compulsory educational institutions that provide formal programmes of study. These can be divided into private tertiary education (PTE) providers and public Tertiary Education Institutions (TEIs).
A prerequisite for entrance to university for people who have not attained the age of 20 years. University Entrance requires a minimum of 42 credits at NCEA level three or higher. Within these credits there must be at least 14 credits at level three or higher in two separate subjects from a list of 'approved subjects'. There are also literacy and numeracy requirements. A student must gain at least 14 numeracy credits at level one or higher and eight literacy credits at level two or higher, four in reading and four in writing. (See Admission ad eundem statum (at entrance level) and Discretionary Entrance).
A public tertiary education institution (TEI) that provides programmes with an emphasis on the application of knowledge regarding ahuatanga Māori (Māori tradition) according to tikanga Māori (Māori custom). (See Tertiary Education Provider Types )
Kura Kaupapa Māori that are composite or secondary total immersion schools. Wharekura are not recorded distinctly from Kura Kaupapa Māori in Ministry data collections, so are not reported on separately. (See School Types).
Indicates whether a domestic full-time regular student resides inside or outside of the School Zone at their date of first attendance at a school.