Technical Notes and Additional Tables

Summary

Technical Notes

Ethnicity

Ethnicity is the ethnic group or groups to which an individual belongs. The concept of ethnicity adopted by the Ministry of Education is a social construct of group affiliation and identity. The Ministry of Education uses the definition of ethnicity used by Statistics New Zealand, namely:

A social group whose members have one or more of the following characteristics they:

  • share a sense of common origins
  • claim a common and distinctive history and destiny
  • possess one or more dimensions of collective cultural individuality
  • feel a sense of unique collective solidarity.

Individuals may identify with multiple ethnicities.  In total response ethnicity they will be counted once against each of the ethnicities with which they affiliate, except for the overall totals in which they are counted only once.  This overall total has been used to calculate the total non-Māori, in order to make comparisons between Māori and non-Māori throughout this report.

Decile

The decile assigned to the school. Students from low socio-economic communities face more barriers to learning than students from high socio-economic communities. Schools that draw their roll from these low socio-economic communities are given greater funding to combat these barriers. The mechanism used to calculate and allocate this additional funding is most often known as school deciles.

Schools are assigned a socio-economic score based on five census derived socio-economic factors. The 10 percent of schools with the lowest scores are considered decile 1 schools, the next 10 percent of schools are considered decile 2 schools, etc. Decile 1 schools have the highest proportion of low SES students.

Population Context

Most of the data in this table was taken from the New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings on Tuesday 5th March 2013.  It includes information about people who stated in the census that they identified as Māori, ether as their only ethnic group or as one of several groups.  More detailed information about Māori by region and by iwi can be found at: http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2013-census/profile-and-summary-reports/ethnic-profiles

Non-Māori data in this table was calculated by subtracting total Māori from total New Zealand population.

Total New Zealand data includes all respondents to the census, including Māori.

Employment rate data was sourced from the September 2015 Household Labour Force Survey and compares Māori to total New Zealand, including Māori.  More detailed information can be found at: http://www.stats.govt.nz/infoshare/default.aspx

Māori in Education - Overview Statistics

This information comes from the roll returns and is current as of 1 July unless otherwise stated.

Māori Language in Education

Participation in Māori Language in Education: This measure includes all students (Māori and non-Māori) participating in Māori Language in Education immersions levels one to five (see definitions, Table One).

Māori in Māori Medium Education: the number of students in Māori Medium Education (primary and secondary) reported here will be slightly fewer than in other Ministry reports. This is because, as 97% of students in MME are Māori, the data is not normally broken down by ethnic group. 

Māori Language in Early Childhood Education (ECE)

Language data source and coverage

Data on language use in ECE services is collected by the Annual Census of ECE Services.

Services which have not answered the applicable census question, home-based services and The Correspondence School are not included in this data (Figures 1.1 to 1.4), and so the total number of ECE services recorded here may be lower than that recorded elsewhere.

All services are required to account for 100% of teaching time. Kōhanga Reo services are assumed to be 100% Māori speaking.

For more information about language use in ECE see Education Counts: http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/early-childhood-education/language-use-in-ece

Enrolment by medium data

Enrolment data by ethnicity and Māori Medium level (Figures 1.3 and 1.4) includes only enrolments in Education and Care, Kindergarten, Playcentre and Te Kōhanga Reo services which have answered the relevant question in the Annual Census of ECE Services.

The total number of learners (prioritised ethnicity) has been used to calculate the total non-Māori (excluding 'unknown ethnicity'), in order to make comparisons between Māori and non-Māori.

Numerical comparisons are made to 2013, rather than 2014, because the method of data collection changed in 2014 (see below). The figures relating to enrolment and to ECE numbers show a break in the trend line for this reason.

From 2000 to current (60% of 2014 collection for licensed services), enrolment data describes regular enrolments in ECE licensed services.  

Data collection and definition change

In 2014, the method for data collection changed and around 40% of services completed the Annual Census using the Ministry's new electronic collection tool for ECE: ELI. For these services, the data shown in this workbook relates to attendances in ECE licensed services, not enrolments. This is a change to the definition of the data and means that the data should not be compared to previous years. For more information on ELI see the link below: http://eli.education.govt.nz/

From 2002 to current (60% of 2014 collection for licensed services), data on enrolments has been collected by the paper-based Annual Census of ECE Services. Note that within this data, a child may be enrolled and therefore counted in more than one service during the Census week.   Enrolment counts will therefore generally be more than the number of  children.

Enrolments in casual education and care services and hospital-based services have historically not been included because they do not have regular enrolments, they are also not included in the attendance data.

Enrolment rates show the enrolments as a percentage of the total number of children of that age in the population.

Māori Language in Primary and Secondary Schooling

Where teaching and learning are guided and directed by Te Marautanga o Aotearoa, kura and schools use Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori to monitor and report students' progress and achievement.

Ngā Whanaketanga describes the kōrero (oral language), pānui (reading), tuhituhi (writing) and pāngarau (mathematics) skills and knowledge students need to learn in all learning areas across Te Marautanga o Aotearoa, at different points of their year 1 to 8 schooling.  Pāngarau results are reported in the three separate categories of Te Ine me te āhuahanga (measurement/geometry), Te Tau me te Taurangi (number/algebra) and Te Tuanga me te Tūpunotanga (statistics/probability). Results in these parts of the subject are grouped to give a total number for pangaru, therefore the number of students reported in pangarau will be approximately three times that of each of the other three subjects.

The descriptions used in Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori to show students progress and achievement are:

  • Manawa Toa: Kei runga noa atu. The student is progressing and achieving higher than expected for particular learning areas.
  • Manawa Ora: Kua tutuki Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori. The student is progressing and achieving as expected for particular learning areas.
  • Manawa Āki: E whanake tonu ana kia tutuki Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori. The student is progressing but requires further support to assist their achievement for particular learning areas.
  • Manawa Taki: Me āta tautoko kia tutuki Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori. The student requires in-depth support to assist their achievement for particular learning areas
  • Approximately 200 kura and schools with year 1 to 8 students use Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. In 2014, the Ministry if Education were able to report on the data of 122 schools and kura using Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori.
  • Due to the low proportion of schools and kura with Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori information reported, care must be taken when interpreting the data.
  • Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori data is not reported by ethnic group as over 99% of the students identify as Māori.

Māori Language in Tertiary Education

Initial Teacher Education (ITE)

As the sector of teaching has been derived in some cases from the underlying course data the results should be seen as indicative only.  Further, a number of students complete more than one ITE qualification and so the number of qualification completions may overstate the supply of potential teachers.

Māori Medium Initial Teacher Qualification

The way that tertiary institution qualifications are classified in the NZSCED means that it is not a straightforward process to classify a qualification as Māori-medium or non-Māori medium.  For example, some qualifications have a non-Māori-medium NZSCED at the qualification level but offer a specialisation in Māori medium.  To determine if a student is taking a Māori medium qualification it is necessary to examine their course level data.  This means that Māori-medium statistics are partly derived from underlying course data, and are therefore indicative only.

Early Childhood Education

Enrolment rates show the enrolments as a percentage of the total number of children of that age in the population.

The total number of learners (prioritised ethnicity) has been used to calculate the total non-Māori (excluding 'unknown ethnicity'), in order to make comparisons between Māori and non-Māori.

Data collection and definition change

From 2000 to current (60% of 2014 collection for licensed services), enrolment data describes regular enrolments in ECE licensed services.  

In 2014, the method for data collection changed and around 40% of services completed the Annual Census using the Ministry's new electronic collection tool for ECE: ELI. For these services, the data shown in this workbook relates to attendances in ECE licensed services, not enrolments. This is a change to the definition of the data and means that the 2014 data should not be compared to previous years.

Enrolments in casual education and care services and hospital-based services have historically not been included because they do not have regular enrolments, they are also not included in the attendance data.

Primary and Secondary Education

All results in this report are taken from information publicly available on Education Counts.  For more information on how Māori 2014 results compare to other ethnicities, and on the dimensions used to classify student type, school decile and other factors visit the School Rolls webpage.

National Standards

Where teaching and learning are guided and directed by the New Zealand Curriculum, schools monitor and report on year 1 to 8 students' progress and achievement using National Standards.

Engagement in School: Attendance, Stand-downs and Suspensions

The most recent published survey of attendance was undertaken in Term 2, 2015 (April 20-July 3). 636,147 students were included in the survey sample and attendance data was collected for each student for each day of the term. Other information about the student, and school were also collected, including total response ethnicity..

Students who were enrolled for less than 30 half-days during Term 2 have been excluded from the data.

Students attending regularly are defined as having attended more than 90% of all school time in Term 2 in 2015, where time is measured in half-days.

Students arriving late to class are classified as attending, as the students were present for the class after arriving late. Therefore, to accurately report on students arriving late to class, only classes that were attended are included in this measure.  For more information see the report Attendance in New Zealand Schools, available on Education Counts

Stand-downs: As a consequence of a serious breach of school rules, a school principal can order a student to stand down from school for a period of up to five school days. A stand-down, for any student, can total no more than five school days in any term, or 10 days in a school year. Students return automatically to school following a stand-down.

For very serious breaches of school rules, a principal can suspend a student from attending school until the school board of trustees decides on the consequence for the student. The board may decide to lift the suspension with or without conditions, to extend the suspension, or, in the most serious cases, exclude or expel the student.

Ethnic differences analysis for stand-downs and suspensions uses prioritised ethnicity.

More information about stand-downs, suspensions, exclusions and expulsions from school can be found in the Indicator section.

NCEA Highest Attainment

School leavers are identified from the Ministry of Education's ENROL system, while the highest qualification status for each leaver is obtained from NZQA. Where a student achieved a non-NQF qualification, highest attainment information is obtained directly from their school.

The number of school leavers with a Level 1 qualification or above includes school leavers who attained:

  • NCEA Level 1 or other Level 1 NQF qualification; or
  • A non-NQF award at the equivalent of  NCEA level 1 including Accelerated Christian Education (ACE), International Baccalaureate (IB) or Cambridge International exams (CIE),  or another overseas award at Year 11;
  • NCEA Level 2 or other Level 2 NQF qualification; or
  • A non-NQF award at the equivalent of  NCEA level 2 including Accelerated Christian Education (ACE), International Baccalaureate (IB) or Cambridge International exams (CIE),  or another overseas award at Year 12;
  • NCEA Level 3 or other Level 3 NQF Qualification; or
  • A non-NQF award at the equivalent of  NCEA level 3 including Accelerated Christian Education (ACE), International Baccalaureate (IB) or Cambridge International exams (CIE),  or another overseas award at Year 13;
  • NZ Scholarship or National Certificate at Level 4 or above

as at the end of the school leaver year (eg. 1 March 2014 for the 2013 school leaver year). 

School leavers with a NCEA Level 2 or above or NCEA Level 3 or above qualification includes the school leavers who achieved at that level of NCEA and those who achieved an NQF award or non-NQF level described at the appropriate level as above.

NCEA Level 1 Literacy and Numeracy

In 2013, students were required to obtain 10 literacy and 10 numeracy credits at level 1 to achieve an NCEA Level 1 qualification. This is an increase on the 8 credits previously required to achieve NCEA Level 1. No historical adjustment has been made for this change.

NCEA Level 2

In 2013, for the first time, students were required to obtain 10 literacy and 10 numeracy credits at level 1 to achieve a NCEA Level 2 qualification. Investigation shows that an additional 0.4 percent of school leavers in 2013 would have achieved NCEA Level 2 under the old requirements.

NCEA Level 3 or University Entrance (UE) Award

A level 3 or above qualification or the NZQA university entrance award (university entrance standard) is considered the minimum requirements to enable students to go directly into further tertiary study at degree level.Educational qualifications are also linked to labour force status and incomes.  For example, in 2011, New Zealanders with no qualification possessed two-thirds of the relative earning power of those with a Bachelor degree or higher, on average (OECD, 2013).

Proportion of school leavers with at least a level 3 qualification or a university entrance award:

Numerator: (Data Source: Ministry of Education: ENROL)
The total number of school leavers who attained:

  • A NZQA University Entrance award; or
  • National Certificate Level 3 (NCEA level 3); or
  • A non-NQF award at the equivalent of NCEA level 3 or University Entrance award including Accelerated Christian Education (ACE),
  • International Baccalaureate ( IB) or Cambridge International exams (CIE),  or another overseas award at Year 13;
  • NZ Scholarship or National Certificate Level 4

as at the time they left school in a given school year.

The highest qualification status for each student is obtained from NZQA. Where a student achieved a non-NQF qualification, highest attainment information is obtained directly from their school.

Denominator: (Data Source: Ministry of Education: ENROL)
The total number of school leavers in a given school year.

School Leavers

School leavers in a given year are students that permanently left school to enter the workforce and/or undertake further education and training outside of the compulsory schooling system sometime between 1 March and the last day of February (inclusive) of that year. School leavers are identified using ENROL. Students counted as school leavers are:

  • Domestic students who were aged less than 19 in their first enrolment in ENROL; including alternative education students, students 16 or over on 1 March in the year of interest, and students attending teen parent units.
  • Students with leave reason; 'end of schooling' or 'early leaving exemption'
  • Students with leave reason 'transferred to another school in New Zealand' or 'transferred to home schooling' but did not reenrol in another school according to ENROL
  • Students with leave reason 'gone overseas permanently', who meet the age criteria
  • Students who attend for a period of time at the start of the current year but leave before 1 March are counted with the school leavers of the previous year.

This excludes:

  • Returning adult students (aged 19 or more) with a year gap in their attendance
  • Exchange and International fee-paying students
  • Students who successfully transferred to another school in New Zealand or to home schooling
  • Deceased students

Alternative education students are counted in the total for leavers but not reported with the school they are funded from. This is to reflect that the funding school may not be the last school the student attended.

School leavers are counted under the last school they attended for at least 70 days. If they did not attend a school for 70 days within the school leaver year, then they are included under a 'transitory leaver' group.

18-year-olds

To boost skills and employment the Government has set a Better Public Service target that 85% of 18-year-olds will have achieved Level 2 or an equivalent qualification in 2017.

Cohort numbers are identified through the Ministry's ENROL database, and based on New Zealand Domestic Students who turned 18 within a calendar year.  Attainment details are sourced from the Ministry of Education School Leaver dataset, New Zealand Qualifications Authority, and Tertiary Single Data Returns (SDRs).

Tertiary Education

Proportion of 25-year-old Māori with a qualification of NZQF Level Four or Above

The information this table is based on has been revised with 2014 data and includes some adjustments to previous years.  The population for Māori is as at 18 years to correct for later out migration while the population for total and non-Māori is as at 25 years.

Employment Rate for Māori

Information in this section is taken from the Statistics New Zealand Household Labour Force Survey (HFLS), customised data and from the Statistics New Zealand paper "The New Zealand labour market during recession" (2012) with reference to 2013 Census data about the age structure of the Māori population.

Destinations of Graduates

Information in this report is based on the paper "The outcomes of tertiary education for Māori graduates" published in June, 2014, looks at the earnings and outcomes for young Māori and non-Māori who completed a qualification in the New Zealand tertiary education system.  It focusses on the differences in post study earnings and destinations between Māori and non-Māori graduates.  It should be noted that the paper does not attempt to explain these differences.  For example it does not examine whether there is a difference in employment type, or in hours worked, between Māori and non-Māori.  More information about the findings and methodology of the report can be found at http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/tertiary_education/education-outcomes/the-outcomes-of-tertiary-education-for-maori-graduates

Additional Tables

Māori Language in Early Childhood Education

Table: 1.1 Number and percentage of ECE services providers, by medium* (2002-2014)
Note:

    Home-based services and the Correspondence School are not included, see technical notes for details.

Year
(end of June)
Service Type
Number of MME
service providers
Total ECE Services % of all ECE services
which are MME
2002 565 3,293 17%
2003 552 3,332 17%
2004 540 3,381 16%
2005 525 3,395 15%
2006 513 3,451 15%
2007 493 3,515 14%
2008 493 3,630 14%
2009 490 3,822 13%
2010 485 4,006 12%
2011 497 4,120 12%
2012 494 3,926 13%
2013 493 3,906 13%
2014 484 3,927 12%

Table 1.2: Number of licensed service providers by percentage of time Te Reo Māori is spoken, 2002-2014

Note:

Home-based services and the Correspondence School are not included, see technical notes for details.

Percentage
of time
spoken
Year

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

1-11% 1886 1889 2012 2023 2075 2107 2185 2295 2417 2482 2346 2349 2356
12-20% 212 268 286 316 322 341 379 410 463 517 500 461 578
21-50% 127 140 140 163 145 163 183 210 235 264 273 265 248
51-80% 9 15 12 13 16 13 13 15 13 23 21 17 16
81-100% 556 537 528 512 497 480 480 475 472 474 473 476 468
51%-100% 565 552 540 525 513 493 493 490 485 497 494 493 484

Table: 1.3 Enrolment in Early Childhood Education services, by ethnicity and medium (2002-2014)

Notes:

  1. This only includes enrolments in Education and Care, Kindergarten, Playcentre and TKR.  Home-based services, the Correspondence School and some other services are not included.
  2. Numerical comparisons are made to 2013, rather than 2014, because the method of data collection changed in 2014.  See technical notes for more detail
Year
(end of June) 
Enrolments in ECE
Total Enrolments in ECE1 non-Māori enrolments in ECE Māori enrolments in ECE Māori enrolments in Māori
Medium ECE
2002 146,683 116,888 29,795 10,831
2003 149,595 119,152 30,443 10,881
2004 152,241 120,833 31,408 11,015
2005 153,938 122,097 31,841 10,654
2006 154,875 123,387 31,488 10,064
2007 159,328 127,610 31,718 9,312
2008 163,337 130,403 32,934 9,413
2009 165,229 131,397 33,832 9,551
2010 171,252 135,367 35,885 9,464
2011 175,586 137,778 37,808 9,998
2012 177,595 138,951 38,644 9,754
2013 181,534 140,625 40,909 9,609
2014 180,340 138,542 41,798 9,389

Table 1.4: Māori enrolments in Māori medium ECE, by immersion level (2002-2014)

Notes:

  1. Home-based services, the Correspondence School and some other services are not included, see technical notes for details.
  2. Only enrolments in Education and Care, Kindergarten, Playcentre and Te Kōhanga Reo are included
Year (End of June)Māori Enrolments in ECE
Level Two MME (51-80%)Level One MME (81-100%)Total MME (51-100%)
200222310,60810,831
200332310,55810,881
200424410,77111,015
200533110,32310,654
20063519,71310,064
20073618,9519,312
20083859,0289,413
20094569,0959,551
20103129,1529,464
20116239,3759,998
20126009,1549,754
20136089,0019,609
20145908,7999,389

Māori Language in Primary and Secondary Education

Table 1.5a: Number and percentage of all students participating in Māori language in Education, by immersion level (2006-2016)
Year Participation in Māori Language in Education Years 1-13
Level 1
MME
(81-100%)
Level 2
MME
(81-100%)
Level 3
(31%-50%)
Level 4a
(12%-30%)
Level 4b
(at least
3 hours)
Level 5
(less than
3 hours)
Total
Students
Levels 1-5
% of all
Students
Levels 1-5
Total
Students
2006 12,235 5,187 5,450 6,469 19,875 109,386 158,602 20.80% 760,745
2007 11,987 5,420 5,154 5,926 20,191 102,447 151,125 19.90% 759,878
2008 11,772 5,157 4,795 7,007 19,151 101,511 149,393 19.70% 758,094
2009 11,634 5,161 4,649 6,727 21,128 102,014 151,313 19.90% 760,859
2010 11,738 4,587 4,904 6,303 20,010 101,514 149,056 19.50% 764,398
2011 11,818 4,729 4,807 5,640 20,131 103,777 150,902 19.80% 762,682
2012 11,816 4,976 4,936 5,357 21,245 109,405 157,735 20.80% 759,960
2013 12,028 5,315 4,843 5,718 21,141 109,352 158,397 20.80% 762,400
2014 12,704 5,009 4,884 5,723 22,249 114,667 165,236 21.50% 767,258
2015 12,958 4,884 5,819 5,950 21,208 121,745 172,564 22.20% 776,815
2016 13,473 4,971 6,885 6,229 20,236 128,031 179,825 22.80% 787,960

Table 1.5b: Number and percentage of Māori students participating in Māori language in Education, by immersion level (2004-2016)
Year Total
Māori
 Level 1: 
81-100%
Level 2:
51-80%
Māori in MME Level 3:
31-50%
Level 4(a):
Up to 30%
Level 4(b):
At least
3 Hours
Level 5:
Less than
3 Hours
Level 6:
Taha
Māori
No Māori
Language
Learning*
Māori at Level 5
and Above
No % No %
2004 160,616 12,469 5,164 17,633 11.0% 5,006 4,488 15,160 31,147 48,336 38,846 73,434 45.7%
2005 162,493 12,626 4,994 17,620 10.8% 5,187 3,773 13,759 31,934 49,700 40,520 72,273 44.5%
2006 162,319 12,125 5,018 17,143 10.6% 4,820 4,377 13,512 30,553 49,614 42,300 70,405 43.4%
2007 163,978 11,874 5,166 17,040 10.4% 4,600 4,342 13,299 29,034 52,628 43,035 68,315 41.7%
2008 165,379 11,664 4,890 16,554 10.0% 4,338 4,834 12,969 29,095 54,894 42,695 67,790 41.0%
2009 166,872 11,511 4,911 16,422 9.8% 4,192 4,735 13,670 29,554 60,059 38,240 68,573 41.1%
2010 169,869 11,565 4,351 15,916 9.4% 4,372 4,516 13,305 29,084 61,651 41,025 67,193 39.6%
2011 171,811 11,710 4,423 16,133 9.4% 4,308 4,265 13,196 29,715 63,334 40,860 67,617 39.4%
2012 173,011 11,710 4,643 16,353 9.5% 4,412 3,794 13,715 30,734 63,581 40,422 69,008 39.9%
2013 175,449 11,930 4,945 16,875 9.6% 4,261 4,024 13,374 31,068 64,002 41,845 69,602 39.7%
2014 178,691 12,568 4,695 17,263 9.7% 4,240 4,048 13,817 31,856 64,810 42,657 71,224 39.9%
2015 183,079 12,842 4,541 17,383 9.5% 5,013 4,100 13,543 33,236 66,375 43,429 73,275 40.0%
2016 187,730 13,364 4,690 18,054 9.6% 5,674 4,238 13,323 35,500 67,270 43,671 76,789 40.9%

Table 1.6: Number and percentage of students assessed as manawa ora or manawa toa (at or above) in Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori by subject (2014-2015)
Subject 2014 2015
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Kōrero 3,163 58.8 4,257 63.0
Pānui 4,248 67.4 4,871 68.5
Tuhituhi 3,604 58.0 4,218 59.8
Te Ine me te Āhuahanga 1,755 55.1 2,339 57.3
Te Tau me te Taurangi 2,842 60.9 3,802 63.0
Te Tauanga me te Tūponotanga 1,695 56.4 2,451 61.4

Table 1.7: Number and percentage of students manawa ora or manawa toa in each area of Ngā Whanaketanga Reo by gender (2014-2015)
Subject Student Type 2014 2015
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Kōrero Female 1,768 63.4 2,356 69.0
Male 1,395 53.8 1,901 56.9
Total 3,163 58.8 4,257 63.0
Pānui Female 2,368 72.7 2,675 74.5
Male 1,880 61.7 2,196 62.5
Total 4,248 67.4 4,871 68.5
Tuhituhi Female 2,090 65.0 2,410 67.6
Male 1,514 50.4 1,808 51.9
Total 3,604 58.0 4,218 59.8

Table 1.8: Number and percentage of students assessed as manawa ora or manawa toa (at or above) the Ngā Whanaketanga Pāngarau levels by subject and gender (2014-2015)
Subject Student Type 2014 2015
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Te Ine me te Āhuahanga Female 926 56.0 1,205 58.8
Male 829 54.3 1,134 55.8
Total 1,755 55.1 2,339 57.3
Te Tau me te Taurangi Female 1,512 63.0 1,981 65.2
Male 1,330 58.7 1,821 60.7
Total 2,842 60.9 3,802 63.0
Te Tauanga me te Tūponotanga Female 882 56.7 1,269 63.6
Male 813 56.1 1,182 59.2
Total 1,695 56.4 2,451 61.4

Table 1.9: Number and percentage of Māori School Leavers with NCEA Level 2, by medium (2009-2015)
Medium of Education 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
No % No % No % No % No % No % No %
Non-Māori Medium 5,115 45.4 5,966 49.0 6,659 52.1 6,554 55.2 7,068 55.5 7,094 59.2 7,987 61.8
Māori Medium 183 55.6 229 63.8 220 70.1 236 70.2 304 74.7 308 76.6 298 77.6
All Māori School Leavers 5,298 45.7 6,195 49.4 6,879 52.5 6,790 55.6 7,372 56.1 7,402 59.8 8,285 62.2

Table 1.10: Number of Māori School Leavers, by medium (2009-2015)
Medium of Education 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Non-Māori Medium 11,263 12,170 12,784 11,873 12,735 11,977 12,926
Māori medium 329 359 314 336 407 402 384
Total Māori School Leavers 11,592 12,529 13,098 12,209 13,142 12,379 13,310

Table 1.11: Retention of Māori students to age 17, by medium (2009-2015)
Medium of Education 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
No % No % No % No % No % No % No %
Non-Māori Medium 7,028 62.4 7,886 64.8 8,509 66.6 8,143 68.6 8,983 70.5 8,014 70.1 8,994 69.6
Māori Medium 232 70.5 254 70.8 232 73.9 265 78.9 298 73.2 325 79.1 301 78.4
All Māori School Leavers 7,260 62.6 8,140 65.0 8,741 66.7 8,408 68.9 9,281 70.6 8,339 70.3 9,295 69.8


Māori Language in Tertiary Education

Table 1.12: The number of domestic students who enrol in, and complete, Māori language* qualifications increases (2007-2015)

Notes:

  1. Data in tables is rounded to the nearest five students. 
  2. Students are counted if they are domestic students enrolled in, or completing, formal qualifications with NZSCED of "091502 Te Reo Māori".
Year Enrolments Completions
2007 11,515 3,975
2008 12,130 4,875
2009 11,955 6,260
2010 9,255 4,660
2011 8,195 4,565
2012 8,925 4,875
2013 9,290 5,340
2014 9,755 5,880
2015 9,350 5,005

Table 1.13: Domestic students enrolled in Māori medium ITE qualifications (2008-2014)

Notes:

  1. Data relates to students enrolled at any time during the year with a tertiary education provider in formal qualifications of greater than 0.03 EFTS (more than one week's full-time duration).
  2. Students can enrol in qualifications in more than one sector, so summing individual sectors may not equal the total.
  3. The sector of study and whether a student is enrolled in a Māori Medium programme has been derived from the underlying data and should be seen as indicative only.
  4. In some cases, sector of qualification has been derived from the courses studied by a student and so should be seen as indicative only.
  5. Where sector of study has not been able to be determined, students have been placed in the "Unknown" category.
  6. Data in this table has been revised, and may differ from previously published figures.
  7. Data in this table, including totals, have been rounded to the nearest 5 to protect the privacy of individuals, so the sum of individual counts may not add to the total.
Sector 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
ECE 90 145 150 130 115 125 110
Primary 425 580 725 850 865 715 640
Secondary






Unknown 0 0 5 10 10 15 5
Total 515 725 875 990 990 855 750
Percentage of all Enrolments 3.5% 4.5% 5.1% 6.1% 6.3% 6.2% 6.1%

Table 1.14: Domestic students completing Māori medium ITE qualifications (2008-2014)

Notes:

  1. Students can complete a qualification in more than one sector, so summing individual sectors may not equal the total.
  2. The sector of study and whether a student completed a Māori Medium programme has been derived from the underlying data and should be seen as indicative only.
  3. In some cases, sector of qualification has been derived from the courses studied by a student and so should be seen as indicative only.
  4. Where sector of study has not been able to be determined, students have been placed in the "Unknown" category.
  5. During 2015, providers can report further completions for previous years. So the completions data in this table is provisional.
  6. Data is subject to revision and so may differ from that previously provided.
  7. Data in this table, including totals, have been rounded to the nearest 5 to protect the privacy of individuals, so the sum of individual counts may not add to the total.
Sector 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
ECE 10 20 15 30 20 40 25
Primary 65 125 180 115 155 215 190
Secondary






Unknown






Total 75 145 195 140 170 255 215
Percentage of all Completions 1.6% 3.0% 4.1% 2.5% 3.0% 5.0% 4.6%


Early Childhood Education

Table 2.1a: Number of new entrants starting school with prior participation in early childhood education by ethnic group and year* (2010-2016)

Note:

  1. *For all children starting school in the 12 months ending in March each year. Total students includes those of unknown ethnicity.
Year Ending Ethnic Group Total
Māori non-Māori
March 2010 12,942 40,730 53,730
March 2011 13,074 41,774 54,889
March 2012 13,382 42,300 55,728
March 2013 14,272 44,335 58,687
March 2014 14,892 44,430 59,382
March 2015 14,674 44,141 58,894
March 2016 14,955 44,662 59,701

Table 2.1b: Rate of prior participation in early childhood education in new entrants, by ethnicity (2010-2016)
Year Ending Ethnic Group Total
Māori non-Māori
March 2010 89.9 95.9 94.4
March 2011 90.2 96.2 94.7
March 2012 90.3 96.1 94.7
March 2013 91.8 96.7 95.4
March 2014 93 96.9 95.9
March 2015 93.9 96.9 96.1
March 2016 94.6 97.3 96.6

Table 2.2: Percentage of ECE services working in partnership with whānau Māori (2012 review)

None Limited Extent Some Extent High Extent
Percentage of the ECE Services in the study 4% 41% 45% 10%

Primary and Secondary Education

Table 3.1: Proportion of learners in years 1-8 achieving at or above the National Standards, by subject (2011-2015)
Subject Māori non-Māori
2012 2013 2014 2015 2012 2013 2014 2015
Reading 68.2 68.7 68.6 68.8 80.1 80.5 80.8 80.8
Maths 63.6 64.6 65.0 65.4 76.5 77.5 78.1 78.5
Writing 60.4 60.8 61.2 61.6 73.0 73.4 74.0 74.4

Table: 3.2 Age standardised rate of stand-downs and suspensions per 1,000 Māori students (2000-2016)
Year Māori Non-Māori
Stand-down Rate Suspension Rate Stand-down Rate Suspension Rate
2000 48.0 18.0 18.5 4.8
2001 49.4 16.4 18.0 4.5
2002 50.6 16.2 18.2 4.5
2003 54.0 15.6 19.7 4.3
2004 52.6 14.3 20.3 4.2
2005 54.9 15.3 21.9 4.4
2006 55.2 14.4 22.9 4.4
2007 51.4 13.2 21.3 4.2
2008 49.6 12.1 20.6 4.0
2009 49.4 13.5 20.4 4.2
2010 48.1 11.9 19.5 3.7
2011 43.9 10.9 17.5 3.3
2012 41.0 10.1 17.0 2.8
2013 38.0 8.7 15.9 2.8
2014 35.7 7.6 14.6 2.4
2015 35.2 7.2 14.1 2.4
2016 37.2 7.6 15.2 2.3

Table 3.3: Student attendance and lateness by ethnicity (Term 2, 2011-2016)

Notes:

  1. Regular Attendance is defined as attending more than 90% of all school time in Term 2, where time is measured in half-days.
  2. Students arriving late to class are classified as attending, as the students were present for the class after arriving late. Therefore, to accurately report on students arriving late to class, only classes that were attended are included in this measure. See technical notes for additional detail.
YearEthnicityTotal
Students
(n)
Students
Attending
Regularly (%)
Students by Attendance (%)Classes
Arrived
Late to (%)
95-100%90-95%85-90%75-85%0-75%
2011Māori92,46955.735.320.414.715.913.72.0
non-Māori341,40472.652.120.512.09.65.71.0
2012Māori115,67456.134.521.616.614.612.71.9
non-Māori408,03672.750.422.212.98.95.51.0
2013Māori129,37153.531.821.717.315.913.32.0
non-Māori441,83170.147.522.714.19.95.91.1
2014Māori139,67656.136.619.51515.313.62.0
non-Māori471,63872.552.719.812.09.56.11.1
2015Māori148,37556.733.123.61416.812.52.0
non-Māori487,02873.449.823.611.210.15.31.1
2016Māori147,86254.733.421.316.715.613.12.1
non-Māori481,71871.049.421.613.49.66.01.1

Table 3.4: School Leavers with NCEA Literacy and Numeracy, by ethnicity (2009-2015)
Year Māori Non-Māori
Number Percentage Number Percentage
2009 8,118 70.0 41,383 87.9
2010 9,240 73.7 43,870 89.9
2011 9,933 75.8 44,849 90.6
2012 9,300 76.2 43,630 91.2
2013 9,696 73.8 44,615 90.7
2014 9,539 77.1 43,478 92.2
2015 10,662 80.1 44,584 93.3

Table 3.5a: Number and proportion of school leavers with NCEA Level 2, by ethnicity (2009-2015)
Year Māori Non-Māori
Number Percentage Number Percentage
2009 5,298 45.7 34,337 72.9
2010 6,195 49.4 36,874 75.5
2011 6,879 52.5 38,512 77.8
2012 6,790 55.6 38,145 79.8
2013 7,372 56.1 39,313 79.9
2014 7,402 59.8 38,979 82.6
2015 8,285 62.2 40,015 83.8

Table 3.5b: Number and proportion of school leavers with NCEA Level 3 or a UE award, by ethnicity (2009-2015)
Year Māori Non-Māori
Number Percentage Number Percentage
2009 2,214 19.1 22,390 47.5
2010 2,618 20.9 23,976 49.1
2011 3,163 24.1 25,660 51.8
2012 3,335 27.3 26,146 54.7
2013 3,611 27.5 27,304 55.5
2014 3,454 27.9 26,624 56.5
2015 4,139 31.1 28,090 58.8

Table 3.6: Number and proportion of 18-year-olds with NCEA Level 2 or above, by ethnicity (2009-2015)
Year Māori non-Māori
Number Percentage Number Percentage
2011 7,888 57.1 40,291 78.9
2012 8,196 60.9 40,721 81.7
2013 8,602 63.3 41,161 82.8
2014 8,947 67.7 41,490 84.8
2015 9,476 71.1 41,823 86.7

Table 3.7: Number and proportion of schools with fair Māori representation on their Board of Trustees (1997-2014)

Notes:

  1. "Total schools" is the number of schools in New Zealand with a sufficient number of Māori students to expect at least one Māori parent representative on the board.
  2. This indicator is a snapshot of the composition of boards of trustees as at 1 December of each year.
Year Total Schools1 Schools with Fair Representation
Number Number Proportion
1997 1,756 588 33.5%
1998 1,756 553 31.5%
1999 1,727 567 32.8%
2000 1,738 547 31.5%
2001 1,760 642 36.5%
2002 1,807 705 39.0%
2003 1,834 686 37.4%
2004 1,786 672 37.6%
2005 1,798 690 38.4%
2006 1,775 672 37.9%
2007 1,738 643 37.0%
2008 1,868 679 36.3%
2009 1,870 654 35.0%
2010 1,800 667 37.1%
2011 1,877 673 35.9%
2012 1,902 708 37.2%
2013 1,889 748 39.6%
2014 1,910 758 39.7%

Tertiary Education

Table 4.1: Number and proportion of 25 year olds who have completed a qualification at Level 4 or above through the New Zealand tertiary system, by ethnicity (2007-2014)
Year Māori non-Māori
Number Percentage Number Percentage
2007 2,085 20% 18,502 40%
2008 2,260 21% 19,332 41%
2009 2,460 22% 20,416 43%
2010 2,735 23% 21,490 46%
2011 2,930 24% 22,223 48%
2012 3,170 25% 23,495 51%
2013 3,530 28% 24,694 51%
2014 3,880 30% 25,560 50%

Table 4.2a: Employment and unemployment rate, all ages, Māori and total New Zealand (2008-2015)

Note:

  1. Source: Statistics NZ Table Reference HLF180AA, HLF031AA.
Year
(Sep, Q3)
Māori Total
Unemployment Rate Employment Rate Unemployment Rate Employment Rate
2008 8.2 61.6 4.1 65.4
2009 13 57.5 6.3 63.3
2010 13.7 56.9 6.3 63.5
2011 13.2 57.1 6.4 63.6
2012 15.2 55.8 7.2 63
2013 12.4 57.6 6.2 63.9
2014 12.4 58.1 5.5 64.6
2015 12.9 57.5 6.0 64.1

Table 4.2b: Employment rate for people aged 15 years and over with a post-school qualification, Māori and total New Zealand (2007-2014)

Note:

  1. Source: Statistics New Zealand, Household Labour Force Survey (customised data Average for year to December
Year Rate of Employment
Māori Total
2007 76% 76%
2008 75% 76%
2009 71% 75%
2010 71% 75%
2011 70% 75%
2012 69% 75%
2013 72% 75%
2014 71% 76%
2015 71% 76%

Table 4.3: Median earned annual income ($000s): one year after completing study, by qualification level and ethnic group

Note:

  1. Source Mahoney, P. (2014) The outcomes of tertiary education for Māori graduates. Ministry of Education.
Level of Study Māori Non-Māori
Doctorate C 57.526
Masters 39.461 40.733
Bachelors/ Postgraduate Diploma or Certificate 44.586 46.084
Graduate Certificate or Diploma 46.236 44.607
Bachelors Degree 37.484 37.214
Diploma 25.679 26.321
Certificate at Level 4 23.041 23.596
Certificate at Levels 1-3 21.959 22.752

Table 4.4: Median earned annual income ($000s): two years after completing study, by qualification level and ethnic group

Notes:

  1. Source: Mahoney, P. (2014). The outcomes of tertiary education for Māori graduates. Ministry of Education.
  2. See technical notes for more information
Level of Study Māori Non-Māori
Doctorate 63.768 64.463
Masters 41.438 49.423
Bachelors/Postgraduate Diploma or Certificate 48.272 49.508
Graduate Certificate or Diploma 47.735 48.123
Bachelors Degree 42.556 43.911
Diploma 30.848 32.046
Certificate at Level 4 27.350 27.731
Certificate at Levels 1-3 25.516 26.081

Table 4.5: Median earned annual income ($000s): five years after completing study, by qualification level and ethnic group

Notes:

  1. Mahoney, P. (2014). The outcomes of tertiary education for Māori graduates. Ministry of Educatio.
  2. See technical notes for more information
Level of Study Māori Non-Māori
Doctorate 80.313 70.943
Masters 56.993 60.282
Bachelors/ Postgraduate Diploma or Certificate 58.496 62.343
Graduate Certificate or Diploma 57.583 59.366
Bachelors Degree 50.093 52.045
Diploma 37.386 39.528
Certificate at Level 4 33.286 35.851
Certificate at Levels 1-3 31.256 34.458

Table 4.6: Median and quartile annual earnings of young domestic graduates, one, two and five years after study by ethnic group and qualification level

Notes:

  1. Source: Mahoney, P. (2014). The outcomes of tertiary education for Māori graduates. Ministry of Education.
  2. See technical notes for more information.
Level of Study Measure Māori:
Years after Study
Non-Māori:
Years after Study
Māori Earnings as a
Percentage of non-Māori earnings %
One Two Five One Two Five One Two Five
Doctorate Level
Degree
Upper Quartile C.. C.. C.. $69,529 $73,173 $81,964 N/a N/a N/a
Median C.. $63,768 $80,313 $57,526 $64,463 $70,943 N/a 99 113
Lower Quartile C.. C.. C.. $35,056 $52,711 $52,667 N/a N/a N/a
Masters Degree Upper Quartile $51,196 $52,264 $66,597 $52,928 $59,910 $74,447 97 87 89
Median $39,461 $41,438 $56,993 $40,733 $49,423 $60,282 97 84 95
Lower Quartile $24,624 $26,601 $46,547 $24,929 $36,271 $45,244 99 73 103
Bachelors Honours/ Postgraduate Diploma or Certificate Upper Quartile $56,041 $57,752 $74,958 $53,391 $57,252 $75,914 105 101 99
Median $44,586 $48,272 $58,496 $46,084 $49,508 $62,343 97 98 94
Lower Quartile $33,993 $35,070 $41,334 $35,109 $37,698 $46,745 97 93 88
Graduate Certificate or Diploma Upper Quartile $50,318 $52,400 $68,180 $49,400 $54,006 $70,035 102 97 97
Median $46,236 $47,735 $57,583 $44,607 $48,123 $59,366 104 99 97
Lower Quartile $39,394 $40,436 $42,179 $32,436 $39,870 $44,306 121 101 95
Bachelors Degree Upper Quartile $45,967 $49,198 $61,098 $46,141 $52,269 $64,662 100 94 94
Median $37,484 $42,556 $50,093 $37,214 $43,911 $52,045 101 97 96
Lower Quartile $26,669 $31,543 $34,096 $25,543 $33,898 $38,094 104 93 90
Diploma Upper Quartile $34,613 $39,498 $47,336 $34,362 $41,712 $49,463 101 95 96
Median $25,679 $30,848 $37,386 $26,321 $32,046 $39,528 98 96 95
Lower Quartile $17,319 $20,298 $22,982 $16,684 $20,438 $28,052 104 99 82
Certificate
at Level 4
Upper Quartile $30,163 $34,043 $41,394 $30,534 $34,666 $43,234 99 98 96
Median $23,041 $27,350 $33,286 $23,596 $27,731 $35,851 98 99 93
Lower Quartile $15,513 $18,330 $23,638 $15,052 $17,955 $25,828 103 102 92
Certificate at
Levels 1 to 3
Upper Quartile $30,804 $33,622 $40,789 $31,081 $33,520 $43,369 99 100 94
Median $21,959 $25,516 $31,256 $22,752 $26,081 $34,458 97 98 91
Lower Quartile $13,543 $16,393 $20,113 $13,635 $16,167 $24,242 99 101 83