Technical Notes and Additional Tables

Summary

Technical Notes

Ethnicity

Ethnicity is the ethnic group or groups to which an individual belongs. The concept of ethnicity adopted by the Ministry of Education is a social construct of group affiliation and identity. The Ministry of Education uses the definition of ethnicity used by Statistics New Zealand, namely:

A social group whose members have one or more of the following characteristics they:

  • share a sense of common origins
  • claim a common and distinctive history and destiny
  • possess one or more dimensions of collective cultural individuality
  • feel a sense of unique collective solidarity.

Individuals may identify with multiple ethnicities.  In total response ethnicity they will be counted once against each of the ethnicities with which they affiliate, except for the overall totals in which they are counted only once.  This overall total has been used to calculate the total non-Māori, in order to make comparisons between Māori and non-Māori throughout this report.

Decile

The decile assigned to the school. Students from low socio-economic communities face more barriers to learning than students from high socio-economic communities. Schools that draw their roll from these low socio-economic communities are given greater funding to combat these barriers. The mechanism used to calculate and allocate this additional funding is most often known as school deciles.

Schools are assigned a socio-economic score based on five census derived socio-economic factors. The 10 percent of schools with the lowest scores are considered decile 1 schools, the next 10 percent of schools are considered decile 2 schools, etc. Decile 1 schools have the highest proportion of low SES students.

Population Context

Most of the data in this table was taken from the New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings on Tuesday 5th March 2013.  It includes information about people who stated in the census that they identified as Māori, ether as their only ethnic group or as one of several groups.  More detailed information about Māori by region and by iwi can be found at: http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2013-census/profile-and-summary-reports/ethnic-profiles

Non-Māori data in this table was calculated by subtracting total Māori from total New Zealand population.

Total New Zealand data includes all respondents to the census, including Māori.

Employment rate data was sourced from the September 2015 Household Labour Force Survey and compares Māori to total New Zealand, including Māori.  More detailed information can be found at: http://www.stats.govt.nz/infoshare/default.aspx

Māori in Education - Overview Statistics

This information comes from the roll returns and is current as of 1 July unless otherwise stated.

Māori Language in Education

Participation in Māori Language in Education: This measure includes all students (Māori and non-Māori) participating in Māori Language in Education immersions levels one to five (see definitions, Table One).

Māori in Māori Medium Education: the number of students in Māori Medium Education (primary and secondary) reported here will be slightly fewer than in other Ministry reports. This is because, as 97% of students in MME are Māori, the data is not normally broken down by ethnic group. 

Māori Language in Early Childhood Education (ECE)

Language data source and coverage

Data on language use in ECE services is collected by the Annual Census of ECE Services.

Services which have not answered the applicable census question, home-based services and The Correspondence School are not included in this data (Figures 1.1 to 1.4), and so the total number of ECE services recorded here may be lower than that recorded elsewhere.

All services are required to account for 100% of teaching time. Kōhanga Reo services are assumed to be 100% Māori speaking.

For more information about language use in ECE see Education Counts: http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/early-childhood-education/language-use-in-ece

Enrolment by medium data

Enrolment data by ethnicity and Māori Medium level (Figures 1.3 and 1.4) includes only enrolments in Education and Care, Kindergarten, Playcentre and Te Kōhanga Reo services which have answered the relevant question in the Annual Census of ECE Services.

The total number of learners (prioritised ethnicity) has been used to calculate the total non-Māori (excluding 'unknown ethnicity'), in order to make comparisons between Māori and non-Māori.

Numerical comparisons are made to 2013, rather than 2014, because the method of data collection changed in 2014 (see below). The figures relating to enrolment and to ECE numbers show a break in the trend line for this reason.

From 2000 to current (60% of 2014 collection for licensed services), enrolment data describes regular enrolments in ECE licensed services.  

Data collection and definition change

In 2014, the method for data collection changed and around 40% of services completed the Annual Census using the Ministry's new electronic collection tool for ECE: ELI. For these services, the data shown in this workbook relates to attendances in ECE licensed services, not enrolments. This is a change to the definition of the data and means that the data should not be compared to previous years. For more information on ELI see the link below: http://eli.education.govt.nz/

From 2002 to current (60% of 2014 collection for licensed services), data on enrolments has been collected by the paper-based Annual Census of ECE Services. Note that within this data, a child may be enrolled and therefore counted in more than one service during the Census week.   Enrolment counts will therefore generally be more than the number of  children.

Enrolments in casual education and care services and hospital-based services have historically not been included because they do not have regular enrolments, they are also not included in the attendance data.

Enrolment rates show the enrolments as a percentage of the total number of children of that age in the population.

Māori Language in Primary and Secondary Schooling

Where teaching and learning are guided and directed by Te Marautanga o Aotearoa, kura and schools use Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori to monitor and report students' progress and achievement.

Ngā Whanaketanga describes the kōrero (oral language), pānui (reading), tuhituhi (writing) and pāngarau (mathematics) skills and knowledge students need to learn in all learning areas across Te Marautanga o Aotearoa, at different points of their year 1 to 8 schooling.  Pāngarau results are reported in the three separate categories of Te Ine me te āhuahanga (measurement/geometry), Te Tau me te Taurangi (number/algebra) and Te Tuanga me te Tūpunotanga (statistics/probability). Results in these parts of the subject are grouped to give a total number for pangaru, therefore the number of students reported in pangarau will be approximately three times that of each of the other three subjects.

The descriptions used in Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori to show students progress and achievement are:

  • Manawa Toa: Kei runga noa atu. The student is progressing and achieving higher than expected for particular learning areas.
  • Manawa Ora: Kua tutuki Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori. The student is progressing and achieving as expected for particular learning areas.
  • Manawa Āki: E whanake tonu ana kia tutuki Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori. The student is progressing but requires further support to assist their achievement for particular learning areas.
  • Manawa Taki: Me āta tautoko kia tutuki Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori. The student requires in-depth support to assist their achievement for particular learning areas
  • Approximately 200 kura and schools with year 1 to 8 students use Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. In 2014, the Ministry if Education were able to report on the data of 122 schools and kura using Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori.
  • Due to the low proportion of schools and kura with Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori information reported, care must be taken when interpreting the data.
  • Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori data is not reported by ethnic group as over 99% of the students identify as Māori.

Māori Language in Tertiary Education

Initial Teacher Education (ITE)

As the sector of teaching has been derived in some cases from the underlying course data the results should be seen as indicative only.  Further, a number of students complete more than one ITE qualification and so the number of qualification completions may overstate the supply of potential teachers.

Māori Medium Initial Teacher Qualification

The way that tertiary institution qualifications are classified in the NZSCED means that it is not a straightforward process to classify a qualification as Māori-medium or non-Māori medium.  For example, some qualifications have a non-Māori-medium NZSCED at the qualification level but offer a specialisation in Māori medium.  To determine if a student is taking a Māori medium qualification it is necessary to examine their course level data.  This means that Māori-medium statistics are partly derived from underlying course data, and are therefore indicative only.

Early Childhood Education

Enrolment rates show the enrolments as a percentage of the total number of children of that age in the population.

The total number of learners (prioritised ethnicity) has been used to calculate the total non-Māori (excluding 'unknown ethnicity'), in order to make comparisons between Māori and non-Māori.

Data collection and definition change

From 2000 to current (60% of 2014 collection for licensed services), enrolment data describes regular enrolments in ECE licensed services.  

In 2014, the method for data collection changed and around 40% of services completed the Annual Census using the Ministry's new electronic collection tool for ECE: ELI. For these services, the data shown in this workbook relates to attendances in ECE licensed services, not enrolments. This is a change to the definition of the data and means that the 2014 data should not be compared to previous years.

Enrolments in casual education and care services and hospital-based services have historically not been included because they do not have regular enrolments, they are also not included in the attendance data.

Primary and Secondary Education

All results in this report are taken from information publicly available on Education Counts.  For more information on how Māori 2014 results compare to other ethnicities, and on the dimensions used to classify student type, school decile and other factors visit the School Rolls webpage.

National Standards

Where teaching and learning are guided and directed by the New Zealand Curriculum, schools monitor and report on year 1 to 8 students' progress and achievement using National Standards.

Engagement in School: Attendance, Stand-downs and Suspensions

The most recent published survey of attendance was undertaken in Term 2, 2015 (April 20-July 3). 636,147 students were included in the survey sample and attendance data was collected for each student for each day of the term. Other information about the student, and school were also collected, including total response ethnicity..

Students who were enrolled for less than 30 half-days during Term 2 have been excluded from the data.

Students attending regularly are defined as having attended more than 90% of all school time in Term 2 in 2015, where time is measured in half-days.

Students arriving late to class are classified as attending, as the students were present for the class after arriving late. Therefore, to accurately report on students arriving late to class, only classes that were attended are included in this measure.  For more information see the report Attendance in New Zealand Schools, available on Education Counts

Stand-downs: As a consequence of a serious breach of school rules, a school principal can order a student to stand down from school for a period of up to five school days. A stand-down, for any student, can total no more than five school days in any term, or 10 days in a school year. Students return automatically to school following a stand-down.

For very serious breaches of school rules, a principal can suspend a student from attending school until the school board of trustees decides on the consequence for the student. The board may decide to lift the suspension with or without conditions, to extend the suspension, or, in the most serious cases, exclude or expel the student.

Ethnic differences analysis for stand-downs and suspensions uses prioritised ethnicity.

More information about stand-downs, suspensions, exclusions and expulsions from school can be found in the Indicator section.

NCEA Highest Attainment

School leavers are identified from the Ministry of Education's ENROL system, while the highest qualification status for each leaver is obtained from NZQA. Where a student achieved a non-NQF qualification, highest attainment information is obtained directly from their school.

The number of school leavers with a Level 1 qualification or above includes school leavers who attained:

  • NCEA Level 1 or other Level 1 NQF qualification; or
  • A non-NQF award at the equivalent of  NCEA level 1 including Accelerated Christian Education (ACE), International Baccalaureate (IB) or Cambridge International exams (CIE),  or another overseas award at Year 11;
  • NCEA Level 2 or other Level 2 NQF qualification; or
  • A non-NQF award at the equivalent of  NCEA level 2 including Accelerated Christian Education (ACE), International Baccalaureate (IB) or Cambridge International exams (CIE),  or another overseas award at Year 12;
  • NCEA Level 3 or other Level 3 NQF Qualification; or
  • A non-NQF award at the equivalent of  NCEA level 3 including Accelerated Christian Education (ACE), International Baccalaureate (IB) or Cambridge International exams (CIE),  or another overseas award at Year 13;
  • NZ Scholarship or National Certificate at Level 4 or above

as at the end of the school leaver year (eg. 1 March 2014 for the 2013 school leaver year). 

School leavers with a NCEA Level 2 or above or NCEA Level 3 or above qualification includes the school leavers who achieved at that level of NCEA and those who achieved an NQF award or non-NQF level described at the appropriate level as above.

NCEA Level 1 Literacy and Numeracy

In 2013, students were required to obtain 10 literacy and 10 numeracy credits at level 1 to achieve an NCEA Level 1 qualification. This is an increase on the 8 credits previously required to achieve NCEA Level 1. No historical adjustment has been made for this change.

NCEA Level 2

In 2013, for the first time, students were required to obtain 10 literacy and 10 numeracy credits at level 1 to achieve a NCEA Level 2 qualification. Investigation shows that an additional 0.4 percent of school leavers in 2013 would have achieved NCEA Level 2 under the old requirements.

NCEA Level 3 or University Entrance (UE) Award

A level 3 or above qualification or the NZQA university entrance award (university entrance standard) is considered the minimum requirements to enable students to go directly into further tertiary study at degree level.Educational qualifications are also linked to labour force status and incomes.  For example, in 2011, New Zealanders with no qualification possessed two-thirds of the relative earning power of those with a Bachelor degree or higher, on average (OECD, 2013).

Proportion of school leavers with at least a level 3 qualification or a university entrance award:

Numerator: (Data Source: Ministry of Education: ENROL)
The total number of school leavers who attained:

  • A NZQA University Entrance award; or
  • National Certificate Level 3 (NCEA level 3); or
  • A non-NQF award at the equivalent of NCEA level 3 or University Entrance award including Accelerated Christian Education (ACE),
  • International Baccalaureate ( IB) or Cambridge International exams (CIE),  or another overseas award at Year 13;
  • NZ Scholarship or National Certificate Level 4

as at the time they left school in a given school year.

The highest qualification status for each student is obtained from NZQA. Where a student achieved a non-NQF qualification, highest attainment information is obtained directly from their school.

Denominator: (Data Source: Ministry of Education: ENROL)
The total number of school leavers in a given school year.

School Leavers

School leavers in a given year are students that permanently left school to enter the workforce and/or undertake further education and training outside of the compulsory schooling system sometime between 1 March and the last day of February (inclusive) of that year. School leavers are identified using ENROL. Students counted as school leavers are:

  • Domestic students who were aged less than 19 in their first enrolment in ENROL; including alternative education students, students 16 or over on 1 March in the year of interest, and students attending teen parent units.
  • Students with leave reason; 'end of schooling' or 'early leaving exemption'
  • Students with leave reason 'transferred to another school in New Zealand' or 'transferred to home schooling' but did not reenrol in another school according to ENROL
  • Students with leave reason 'gone overseas permanently', who meet the age criteria
  • Students who attend for a period of time at the start of the current year but leave before 1 March are counted with the school leavers of the previous year.

This excludes:

  • Returning adult students (aged 19 or more) with a year gap in their attendance
  • Exchange and International fee-paying students
  • Students who successfully transferred to another school in New Zealand or to home schooling
  • Deceased students

Alternative education students are counted in the total for leavers but not reported with the school they are funded from. This is to reflect that the funding school may not be the last school the student attended.

School leavers are counted under the last school they attended for at least 70 days. If they did not attend a school for 70 days within the school leaver year, then they are included under a 'transitory leaver' group.

18-year-olds

To boost skills and employment the Government has set a Better Public Service target that 85% of 18-year-olds will have achieved Level 2 or an equivalent qualification in 2017.

Cohort numbers are identified through the Ministry's ENROL database, and based on New Zealand Domestic Students who turned 18 within a calendar year.  Attainment details are sourced from the Ministry of Education School Leaver dataset, New Zealand Qualifications Authority, and Tertiary Single Data Returns (SDRs).

Tertiary Education

Proportion of 25-year-old Māori with a qualification of NZQF Level Four or Above

The information this table is based on has been revised with 2014 data and includes some adjustments to previous years.  The population for Māori is as at 18 years to correct for later out migration while the population for total and non-Māori is as at 25 years.

Employment Rate for Māori

Information in this section is taken from the Statistics New Zealand Household Labour Force Survey (HFLS), customised data and from the Statistics New Zealand paper "The New Zealand labour market during recession" (2012) with reference to 2013 Census data about the age structure of the Māori population.

Destinations of Graduates

Information in this report is based on the paper "The outcomes of tertiary education for Māori graduates" published in June, 2014, looks at the earnings and outcomes for young Māori and non-Māori who completed a qualification in the New Zealand tertiary education system.  It focusses on the differences in post study earnings and destinations between Māori and non-Māori graduates.  It should be noted that the paper does not attempt to explain these differences.  For example it does not examine whether there is a difference in employment type, or in hours worked, between Māori and non-Māori.  More information about the findings and methodology of the report can be found at http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/tertiary_education/education-outcomes/the-outcomes-of-tertiary-education-for-maori-graduates

Additional Tables

Māori Language in Early Childhood Education

Table 1.1: Number and percentage of ECE service providers, by medium* (2002-2014)

Note: 

Home-based services and the Correspondence School are not included, see technical notes for details.

Service type

Year (end of June)

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Number of MME service providers

565

552

540

525

513

493

493

490

485

497

494

493

484

Total ECE Services

3,293

3,332

3,381

3,395

3,451

3,515

3,630

3,822

4,006

4,120

3,926

3,906

3,927

Percentage of all ECE services
which are MME

17%

17%

16%

15%

15%

14%

14%

13%

12%

12%

13%

13%

12%

Table 1.2: Number of licensed service providers by percentage of time Te Reo Māori is spoken, 2002-2014

Note:

Home-based services and the Correspondence School are not included, see technical notes for details.

Percentage of time spoken

Year

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

1-11%

1886

1889

2012

2023

2075

2107

2185

2295

2417

2482

2346

2349

2356

12-20%

212

268

286

316

322

341

379

410

463

517

500

461

578

21-50%

127

140

140

163

145

163

183

210

235

264

273

265

248

51-80%

9

15

12

13

16

13

13

15

13

23

21

17

16

81-100%

556

537

528

512

497

480

480

475

472

474

473

476

468

51%-100%

565

552

540

525

513

493

493

490

485

497

494

493

484

Table 1.3: Enrolment in Early Childhood Education Services, by ethnicity and medium (2002-2014)

Notes:

  1. This only includes enrolments in Education and Care, Kindergarten, Playcentre and TKR.  Home-based services, the Correspondence School and some other services are not included.
  2. Numerical comparisons are made to 2013, rather than 2014, because the method of data collection changed in 2014.  See technical notes for more detail

Enrolments in ECE

Year (end of June)

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Total enrolments in ECE1

146,683

149,595

152,241

153,938

154,875

159,328

163,337

165,229

171,252

175,586

177,595

181,534

180,340

non-Māori enrolments in ECE

116,888

119,152

120,833

122,097

123,387

127,610

130,403

131,397

135,367

137,778

138,951

140,625

138,542

Māori enrolments in ECE

29,795

30,443

31,408

31,841

31,488

31,718

32,934

33,832

35,885

37,808

38,644

40,909

41,798

Māori enrolments in Māori Medium ECE

10,831

10,881

11,015

10,654

10,064

9,312

9,413

9,551

9,464

9,998

9,754

9,609

9,389

Table 1.4: Māori enrolments in Māori medium ECE, by immersion level (2002-2014)

Note:

Home-based services, the Correspondence School and some other services are not included, see technical notes for details.
Only enrolments in Education and Care, Kindergarten, Playcentre and Te Kōhanga Reo are included

Māori Enrolments in ECE

Year (end of June)

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Level Two MME (51-80%)

223

323

244

331

351

361

385

456

312

623

600

608

590

Level One MME  (81-100%)

10,608

10,558

10,771

10,323

9,713

8,951

9,028

9,095

9,152

9,375

9,154

9,001

8,799

Total MME (51-100%)

10,831

10,881

11,015

10,654

10,064

9,312

9,413

9,551

9,464

9,998

9,754

9,609

9,389

Māori Language in Primary and Secondary Education

Table 1.5a: Number and percentage of all students participating in Māori language in Education, by immersion level (2006-2016)
Participation in Māori Language in Education in Years 1-13Year
20062007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Level One MME(81-100%) 12,235 11,987 11,772 11,634 11,738 11,818 11,816 12,028 12,704 12,958 13,473
Level Two MME(81-100%) 5,187   5,420  5,157   5,161 4,587 4,729   4,976   5,315 5,009 4,884 4,971
Level Three (31%-50%)5,450   5,154  4,795   4,649 4,904 4,807   4,936   4,843 4,884 5,819 6,885
Level 4a (12%-30%) 6,469   5,926  7,007   6,727 6,303 5,640   5,357   5,718 5,723 5,950 6,229
Level 4b (at least 3 hours) 19,875 20,191 19,151  21,128  20,010  20,131 21,245 21,141 22,249 21,208 20,236
Level 5 (less than 3 hours)109,386 102,447 101,511 102,014 101,514 103,777 109,405 109,352  114,667    121,745  128,031
Total students in Levels 1-5 158,602 151,125   149,393   151,313   149,056 150,902  157,735  158,397   165,236 172,564   179,825
Percentage of all students participating in
Māori language education at levels 1-5
20.8%19.9%19.7%19.9%19.5%19.8%20.8%20.8%21.5%22.2%22.8%
Total students760,745 759,878 758,094 760,859 764,398 762,682 759,960 762,400 767,258 776,815 787,960

Table 1.5b: Number and percentage of Māori students participating in Māori language in Education, by immersion level (2004-2016)
Level of Immersion2004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Total Māori160,616 162,493 162,319  163,978 165,379 166,872  169,869  171,811 173,011 175,449 178,691 183,079 187,730
Level 1: 81-100% 12,469 12,626 12,125   11,874 11,664 11,511 11,565 11,710 11,710  11,930 12,568 12,842 13,364
Level 2: 51-80% 5,164 4,994 5,018 5,166 4,890 4,911  4,351  4,423  4,643 4,945  4,695  4,541  4,690
Number of Māori in MME 17,633 17,620 17,143   17,040 16,554 16,422 15,916 16,133 16,353  16,875 17,263 17,383 18,054
% of Māori in MME11.0%10.8%10.6%10.4%10.0%9.8%9.4%9.4%9.5%9.6%9.7%9.5%9.6%
Level 3: 31-50% 5,006  5,187 4,820 4,600 4,338 4,192  4,372  4,308  4,412 4,261  4,240  5,013  5,674
Level 4(a): up to 30% 4,488 3,773 4,377 4,342 4,834 4,735  4,516  4,265  3,794 4,024  4,048  4,100  4,238
Level 4(b): At least 3 Hours 15,160 13,759 13,512   13,299 12,969 13,670 13,305 13,196 13,715  13,374 13,817 13,543 13,323
Level 5: Less than 3 Hours 31,147 31,934 30,553   29,034 29,095 29,554 29,084 29,715 30,734  31,068 31,856 33,236 35,500
Level 6: Taha Māori 48,336 49,700 49,614   52,628 54,894 60,059 61,651 63,334 63,581  64,002 64,810 66,375 67,270
No Māori language learning / Not Applicable 38,846 40,520 42,300   43,035 42,695 38,240 41,025 40,860 40,422  41,845 42,657 43,429 43,671
Number of Maori at level 5 and above 73,434 72,273 70,405   68,315 67,790 68,573 67,193 67,617 69,008  69,602 71,224 73,275 76,789
Percentage of Māori at Level 5 and above45.7%44.5%43.4%41.7%41.0%41.1%39.6%39.4%39.9%39.7%39.9%40.0%40.9%

Table 1.6: Number and percentage of students assessed as manawa ora or manawa toa (at or above) in Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori by subject (2014-2015)

Subject

2014

2015

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Kōrero

3,163

58.8

4,257

63.0

Pānui

4,248

67.4

4,871

68.5

Tuhituhi

3,604

58.0

4,218

59.8

Te Ine me te Āhuahanga

1,755

55.1

2,339

57.3

Te Tau me te Taurangi

2,842

60.9

3,802

63.0

Te Tauanga me te Tūponotanga

1,695

56.4

2,451

61.4

Table 1.7: Number and percentage of students manawa ora or manawa toa in each area of Ngā Whanaketanga Reo by gender (2014-2015)

Subject

 

2014

2015

Student type

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Kōrero

Female

1,768

63.4

2,356

69.0

Male

1,395

53.8

1,901

56.9

Total

3,163

58.8

4,257

63.0

Pānui

Female

2,368

72.7

2,675

74.5

Male

1,880

61.7

2,196

62.5

Total

4,248

67.4

4,871

68.5

Tuhituhi

Female

2,090

65.0

2,410

67.6

Male

1,514

50.4

1,808

51.9

Total

3,604

58.0

4,218

59.8

Table 1.8: Number and percentage of students assessed as manawa ora or manawa toa (at or above) the Ngā Whanaketanga Pāngarau levels by subject and gender (2014-2015)

Subject

 

2014

2015

Student type

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Te Ine me te Āhuahanga

Female

926

56.0

1,205

58.8

Male

829

54.3

1,134

55.8

Total

1,755

55.1

2,339

57.3

Te Tau me te Taurangi

Female

1,512

63.0

1,981

65.2

Male

1,330

58.7

1,821

60.7

Total

2,842

60.9

3,802

63.0

Te Tauanga me te Tūponotanga

Female

882

56.7

1,269

63.6

Male

813

56.1

1,182

59.2

Total

1,695

56.4

2,451

61.4

Table 1.9: Number and percentage of Māori School Leavers with NCEA Level 2, by medium (2009-2015)

Medium of education

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

non-Māori Medium

5,115

45.4

5,966

49.0

6,659

52.1

6,554

55.2

7,068

55.5

7,094

59.2

7,987

61.8

Māori Medium

183

55.6

229

63.8

220

70.1

236

70.2

304

74.7

308

76.6

298

77.6

All Māori School Leavers

5,298

45.7

6,195

49.4

6,879

52.5

6,790

55.6

7,372

56.1

7,402

59.8

8,285

62.2

Table 1.10: Number of Māori School Leavers, by medium (2009-2015)

Medium of education

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

non-Māori Medium

11,263

12,170

12,784

11,873

12,735

11,977

12,926

Māori medium

329

359

314

336

407

402

384

Total Māori school leavers

11,592

12,529

13,098

12,209

13,142

12,379

13,310

Table 1.11: Retention of Māori students to age 17, by medium (2009-2015)

Medium of education

Year

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

non-Māori Medium

7,028

62.4

7,886

64.8

8,509

66.6

8,143

68.6

8,983

70.5

8,014

70.1

8,994

69.6

Māori Medium

232

70.5

254

70.8

232

73.9

265

78.9

298

73.2

325

79.1

301

78.4

All Māori school leavers

7,260

62.6

8,140

65.0

8,741

66.7

8,408

68.9

9,281

70.6

8,339

70.3

9,295

69.8


Māori Language in Tertiary Education

Table 1.12: The number of domestic students who enrol in, and complete, Māori language* qualifications increases (2007-2015)

Note: data in tables is rounded to the nearest five students
Students are counted if they are domestic students enrolled in, or completing, formal qualifications with NZSCED of "091502 Te Reo Māori"

Year

Enrolments

Completions

2007

11,515

3,975

2008

12,130

4,875

2009

11,955

6,260

2010

9,255

4,660

2011

8,195

4,565

2012

8,925

4,875

2013

9,290

5,340

2014

9,755

5,880

2015

9,350

5,005

Table 1.13: Domestic students enrolled in Māori medium ITE qualifications (2008-2014)

Notes:

  1. Data relates to students enrolled at any time during the year with a tertiary education provider in formal qualifications of greater than 0.03 EFTS (more than one week's full-time duration).
  2. Students can enrol in qualifications in more than one sector, so summing individual sectors may not equal the total.
  3. The sector of study and whether a student is enrolled in a Māori Medium programme has been derived from the underlying data and should be seen as indicative only.
  4. In some cases, sector of qualification has been derived from the courses studied by a student and so should be seen as indicative only.
  5. Where sector of study has not been able to be determined, students have been placed in the "Unknown" category.
  6. Data in this table has been revised, and may differ from previously published figures.
  7. Data in this table, including totals, have been rounded to the nearest 5 to protect the privacy of individuals, so the sum of individual counts may not add to the total.

Sector

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

ECE

90

145

150

130

115

125

110

Primary

425

580

725

850

865

715

640

Secondary

      

 

Unknown

0

0

5

10

10

15

5

Total

515

725

875

990

990

855

750

% of all enrolments

3.5%

4.5%

5.1%

6.1%

6.3%

6.2%

6.1%

Table 1.14: Domestic students completing Māori medium ITE qualifications (2008-2014)

Notes:                                                                         

  1. Students can complete a qualification in more than one sector, so summing individual sectors may not equal the total.
  2. The sector of study and whether a student completed a Māori Medium programme has been derived from the underlying data and should be seen as indicative only.          
  3. In some cases, sector of qualification has been derived from the courses studied by a student and so should be seen as indicative only.          
  4.  Where sector of study has not been able to be determined, students have been placed in the "Unknown" category.
  5. During 2015, providers can report further completions for previous years. So the completions data in this table is provisional.
  6. Data is subject to revision and so may differ from that previously provided.
  7. Data in this table, including totals, have been rounded to the nearest 5 to protect the privacy of individuals, so the sum of individual counts may not add to the total.

Sector

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

ECE

10

20

15

30

20

40

25

Primary

65

125

180

115

155

215

190

Secondary

      

 

Unknown

      

 

Total

75

145

195

140

170

255

215

% of all completions

1.6%

3.0%

4.1%

2.5%

3.0%

5.0%

4.6%


Early Childhood Education

Table 2.1a: Number of new entrants starting school with prior participation in early childhood education by ethnic group and year*(2010-2016)

Note:

*For all children starting school in the 12 months ending in March each year. Total students includes those of unknown ethnicity.

Year ending

Ethnic group

Total

Māori

non-Māori

March 2010

12,942

40,730

53,730

March 2011

13,074

41,774

54,889

March 2012

13,382

42,300

55,728

March 2013

14,272

44,335

58,687

March 2014

14,892

44,430

59,382

March 2015

14,674

44,141

58,894

March 2016

14,955

44,662

59,701

Table 2.1b: Rate of prior participation in early childhood education in new entrants, by ethnicity (2010-2016)

Year ending

Ethnic group

Total

Māori

non-Māori

March 2010

89.9

95.9

94.4

March 2011

90.2

96.2

94.7

March 2012

90.3

96.1

94.7

March 2013

91.8

96.7

95.4

March 2014

93

96.9

95.9

March 2015

93.9

96.9

96.1

March 2016

94.6

97.3

96.6

Table 2.2: Percentage of ECE services working in partnership with whānau Māori (2012 review)

 

None

Limited Extent

Some extent

High extent

Percentage of the ECE
Services in the study

4%

41%

45%

10%

Primary and Secondary Education

Table 3.1: Proportion of learners in years 1-8 achieving at or above the National Standards, by subject (2011-2015)

 

 

Māori

non-Māori

2012

2013

2014

2015

2012

2013

2014

2015

Reading

68.2

68.7

68.6

68.8

80.1

80.5

80.8

80.8

Maths

63.6

64.6

65.0

65.4

76.5

77.5

78.1

78.5

Writing

60.4

60.8

61.2

61.6

73.0

73.4

74.0

74.4

Table 3.2: Age standardised rate of stand-downs and suspensions per 1,000 Māori students (2000-2015)

  

Year

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Māori

Stand-downs

55.8

57.1

53.2

51.7

50.9

49.1

44.6

41.7

38.4

36.0

35.7

Suspensions

15.7

14.9

13.9

12.7

14.0

12.2

11.1

10.3

8.9

7.7

7.3

non-Māori

Stand-downs

21.9

22.6

21.0

20.3

20.2

19.4

17.5

17.1

15.9

14.6

14.1

Suspensions

4.5

4.4

4.1

4.0

4.2

3.7

3.3

2.8

2.8

2.4

2.4

Total

Stand-downs

29.2

30.1

28.2

27.4

27.2

26.3

23.8

22.9

21.3

19.8

19.4

Suspensions

6.9

6.7

6.3

5.9

6.4

5.7

5.1

4.6

4.2

3.7

3.6

Table 3.3: Student attendance and lateness, by ethnicity (Term 2, 2011-2015)

Notes:

*Regular Attendance is defined as attending more than 90% of all school time in Term 2, where time is measured in half-days
* Students arriving late to class are classified as attending, as the students were present for the class after arriving late. Therefore, to accurately report on students arriving late to class, only classes that were attended are included in this measure. See technical notes for additional detail

Year

Ethnicity

Total Students (n)

Students Attending Regularly (%)

95-100%

90-95%

85-90%

75-85%

0-75%

Classes Arrived Late to (%)

2011

Māori

92,467

55.7

35.3

20.4

14.7

15.9

13.7

2.0

 

non-Māori

341,402

72.6

52.1

20.5

12.0

9.6

5.7

1.0

2012

Māori

115,680

56.1

34.5

21.6

16.6

14.6

12.7

1.9

 

non-Māori

408,239

72.7

50.4

22.2

12.9

8.9

5.5

1.0

2013

Māori

129,380

53.5

31.8

21.7

17.3

15.9

13.3

2.0

 

non-Māori

442,024

70.1

47.5

22.6

14.1

9.9

5.9

1.1

2014

Māori

139,674

56.1

36.6

19.5

15.0

15.3

13.6

2.0

 

non-Māori

471,810

72.4

52.7

19.8

12.0

9.5

6.1

1.1

2015

Māori

148,708

56.7

33.0

23.6

14.0

16.8

12.6

2.0

 

non-Māori

487,439

73.3

49.7

23.6

11.2

10.2

5.4

1.1

Table 3.4: School Leavers with NCEA Literacy and Numeracy, by ethnicity (2009-2015)

Year

Māori

non-Māori

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

2009

8,118

70.0

41,383

87.9

2010

9,240

73.7

43,870

89.9

2011

9,933

75.8

44,849

90.6

2012

9,300

76.2

43,630

91.2

2013

9,696

73.8

44,615

90.7

2014

9,539

77.1

43,478

92.2

2015

10,662

80.1

44,584

93.3

Table 3.5a: Number and proportion of school leavers with NCEA Level 2, by ethnicity (2009-2015)

Year

Māori

non-Māori

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

2009

5,298

45.7

34,337

72.9

2010

6,195

49.4

36,874

75.5

2011

6,879

52.5

38,512

77.8

2012

6,790

55.6

38,145

79.8

2013

7,372

56.1

39,313

79.9

2014

7,402

59.8

38,979

82.6

2015

8,285

62.2

40,015

83.8

Table 3.5b: Number and proportion of school leavers with NCEA Level 3 or a UE award, by ethnicity (2009-2015)

Year

 

Māori

non-Māori

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

2009

2,214

19.1

22,390

47.5

2010

2,618

20.9

23,976

49.1

2011

3,163

24.1

25,660

51.8

2012

3,335

27.3

26,146

54.7

2013

3,611

27.5

27,304

55.5

2014

3,454

27.9

26,624

56.5

2015

4,139

31.1

28,090

58.8

Table 3.6: Number and proportion of 18-year-olds with NCEA Level 2 or above, by ethnicity (2009-2015)

Year

 

Māori

non-Māori

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

2011

7,888

57.1

40,291

78.9

2012

8,196

60.9

40,721

81.7

2013

8,602

63.3

41,161

82.8

2014

8,947

67.7

41,490

84.8

2015

9,476

71.1

41,823

86.7

Table 3.7: Number and proportion of schools with fair Māori representation on their Board of Trustees (1997-2014)

Notes:   

  1. "Total schools" is the number of schools in New Zealand with a sufficient number of Māori students to expect at least one Māori parent representative on the board.               
  2. This indicator is a snapshot of the composition of boards of trustees as at 1 December of each year.

Year

Total schools1

Schools with fair representation

Number

Number

Proportion

1997

1,756

588

33.5%

1998

1,756

553

31.5%

1999

1,727

567

32.8%

2000

1,738

547

31.5%

2001

1,760

642

36.5%

2002

1,807

705

39.0%

2003

1,834

686

37.4%

2004

1,786

672

37.6%

2005

1,798

690

38.4%

2006

1,775

672

37.9%

2007

1,738

643

37.0%

2008

1,868

679

36.3%

2009

1,870

654

35.0%

2010

1,800

667

37.1%

2011

1,877

673

35.9%

2012

1,902

708

37.2%

2013

1,889

748

39.6%

2014

1,910

758

39.7%

Tertiary Education

Table 4.1: Number and proportion of 25 year olds who have completed a qualification at Level 4 or above through the New Zealand tertiary system, by ethnicity (2007-2014)

Year

Māori

non-Māori

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

2007

2,085

20%

18,502

40%

2008

2,260

21%

19,332

41%

2009

2,460

22%

20,416

43%

2010

2,735

23%

21,490

46%

2011

2,930

24%

22,223

48%

2012

3,170

25%

23,495

51%

2013

3,530

28%

24,694

51%

2014

3,880

30%

25,560

50%

Table 4.2a: Employment and unemployment rate, all ages, Māori and total New Zealand (2008-2015)

Source: Statistics NZ
Table Reference HLF180AA, HLF031AA

Year (Sep, Q3)

Māori

Total

Unemployment rate

Employment rate

Unemployment rate

Employment rate

2008

8.2

61.6

4.1

65.4

2009

13

57.5

6.3

63.3

2010

13.7

56.9

6.3

63.5

2011

13.2

57.1

6.4

63.6

2012

15.2

55.8

7.2

63

2013

12.4

57.6

6.2

63.9

2014

12.4

58.1

5.5

64.6

2015

12.9

57.5

6.0

64.1

Table 4.2b: Employment rate for people aged 15 years and over with a post-school qualification, Māori and total New Zealand (2007-2014)

Source: Statistics New Zealand, Household Labour Force Survey (customised data)                                         
Average for year to December

 Year

Rate of employment

Māori

Total

2007

76%

76%

2008

75%

76%

2009

71%

75%

2010

71%

75%

2011

70%

75%

2012

69%

75%

2013

72%

75%

2014

71%

76%

2015

71%

76%

Table 4.3: Median earned annual income ($000s): one year after completing study, by qualification level and ethnic group

Source: Mahoney, P. (2014). The outcomes of tertiary education for Māori graduates. Ministry of Education

Level of study

Māori

non-Māori

Doctorate

C

57.526

Masters

39.461

40.733

Bachelors/pg dip or cert

44.586

46.084

Graduate certificate or diploma

46.236

44.607

Bachelors degree

37.484

37.214

Diploma

25.679

26.321

Certificate at level 4

23.041

23.596

Certificate at levels 1-3

21.959

22.752

Table 4.4: Median earned annual income ($000s): two years after completing study, by qualification level and ethnic group

Source: Mahoney, P. (2014). The outcomes of tertiary education for Māori graduates. Ministry of Education           

See technical notes for more information    

Level of study

Māori

non-Māori

Doctorate

63.768

64.463

Masters

41.438

49.423

Bachelors/pg dip or cert

48.272

49.508

Graduate certificate or diploma

47.735

48.123

Bachelors degree

42.556

43.911

Diploma

30.848

32.046

Certificate at level 4

27.350

27.731

Certificate at levels 1-3

25.516

26.081

Table 4.5: Median earned annual income ($000s): five years after completing study, by qualification level and ethnic group

Source: Mahoney, P. (2014). The outcomes of tertiary education for Māori graduates. Ministry of Education           

See technical notes for more information    

Level of study

Māori

non-Māori

Doctorate

80.313

70.943

Masters

56.993

60.282

Bachelors/pg dip or cert

58.496

62.343

Graduate certificate or diploma

57.583

59.366

Bachelors degree

50.093

52.045

Diploma

37.386

39.528

Certificate at level 4

33.286

35.851

Certificate at levels 1-3

31.256

34.458

Table 4.6: Median and quartile annual earnings of young domestic graduates, one, two and five years after study by ethnic group and qualification level

Source:

Mahoney, P. (2014). The outcomes of tertiary education for Māori graduates. Ministry of Education
See technical notes for more information

Level of studyMeasureMāori - Years after studynon-Māori - Years after studyMāori earnings as a
percentage of non-Māori earnings %
OneTwoFiveOneTwoFiveOneTwoFive
Doctorate level degreeUpper quartileC..C..C..$69,529$73,173$81,964N/aN/aN/a
MedianC..$63,768$80,313$57,526$64,463$70,943N/a99113
Lower quartileC..C..C..$35,056$52,711$52,667N/aN/aN/a
Masters degreeUpper quartile$51,196$52,264$66,597$52,928$59,910$74,447978789
Median$39,461$41,438$56,993$40,733$49,423$60,282978495
Lower quartile$24,624$26,601$46,547$24,929$36,271$45,2449973103
Bachelors honours /pg dip or  certUpper quartile$56,041$57,752$74,958$53,391$57,252$75,91410510199
Median$44,586$48,272$58,496$46,084$49,508$62,343979894
Lower quartile$33,993$35,070$41,334$35,109$37,698$46,745979388
Graduate cert or diplomaUpper quartile$50,318$52,400$68,180$49,400$54,006$70,0351029797
Median$46,236$47,735$57,583$44,607$48,123$59,3661049997
Lower quartile$39,394$40,436$42,179$32,436$39,870$44,30612110195
Bachelors degreeUpper quartile$45,967$49,198$61,098$46,141$52,269$64,6621009494
Median$37,484$42,556$50,093$37,214$43,911$52,0451019796
Lower quartile$26,669$31,543$34,096$25,543$33,898$38,0941049390
DiplomaUpper quartile$34,613$39,498$47,336$34,362$41,712$49,4631019596
Median$25,679$30,848$37,386$26,321$32,046$39,528989695
Lower quartile$17,319$20,298$22,982$16,684$20,438$28,0521049982
Certificate at level 4Upper quartile$30,163$34,043$41,394$30,534$34,666$43,234999896
Median$23,041$27,350$33,286$23,596$27,731$35,851989993
Lower quartile$15,513$18,330$23,638$15,052$17,955$25,82810310292
Certificate at levels 1 to 3Upper quartile$30,804$33,622$40,789$31,081$33,520$43,3699910094
Median$21,959$25,516$31,256$22,752$26,081$34,458979891
Lower quartile$13,543$16,393$20,113$13,635$16,167$24,2429910183