Annual Monitoring of Reading Recovery: 2016 Data

This page presents data on state and state-integrated schools that offered Reading Recovery in 2016 and the students who received support from this intervention.

Summary

Acknowledgements

The Ministry of Education would like to thank all the Reading Recovery tutors, teachers, and principals who completed their annual returns. We greatly appreciate the time and effort that went into providing the information. We would also like to thank National Reading Recovery for their feedback on the annual data analysis.

Introduction

Reading Recovery is an early literacy intervention that aims to reduce reading and writing problems by providing intensive, daily one-to-one literacy instruction to children who are falling behind in reading and writing after one year at school.

Reading Recovery was developed by the late Dame Marie Clay, previously Professor of Education at the University of Auckland.

Reading Recovery was designed to achieve two outcomes:

  1. To accelerate the reading and writing achievement of six-year-old children who are identified as having made less-than-expected progress after one year of classroom-based literacy teaching.
  2. To identify the small number of students who will need continued additional specialist literacy support.

All state and state-integrated schools can apply for funding from the Ministry of Education to help with the costs associated with the implementation of Reading Recovery.

Reading Recovery data has been monitored and reported on annually by the Ministry of Education since 1984. The purpose of the Annual Monitoring of Reading Recovery report is to provide information about access to the intervention (ie, schools that offered Reading Recovery) and to report on student outcomes and progress as a result of Reading Recovery.

For further information about Reading Recovery, contact National Reading Recovery, Faculty of Education and Social Work, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92601, Symonds Street, Auckland 1150 or visit the Reading Recovery website www.readingrecovery.ac.nz

Data Collection

Throughout the year, Reading Recovery teachers record student-level information on an electronic data collection system as students enter and exit the intervention. At the end of the year, when all individual student reports have been entered by the teacher(s), the principal of each Reading Recovery school is asked to confirm this information, as well as complete the end-of-year school report. These reports are submitted by state and state-integrated schools to the Ministry of Education.

School reports provide school-level information such as the number of students involved in Reading Recovery and the number of hours and teachers allocated to Reading Recovery for the year.

Individual student reports provide student-level information such as the ethnicity, gender and age of the student, the amount of time spent in Reading Recovery, outcome from Reading Recovery, and entry and exit scores on three assessment tools.

Key Findings

Reading Recovery Outcomes

Reading Recovery outcomes for students who exited the intervention in 2016 follow a similar pattern to previous years. Three-quarters (75%) of students who exited Reading Recovery were successfully discontinued from the intervention. A further 14% of students were referred on for specialist support; 7% left their school before completing their series of lessons and 4% were unable to continue their lessons.

The majority (92%) of successfully discontinued students were reading texts at, or above, the Turquoise level of Ready to Read (the New Zealand Curriculum Reading Standard for 'After two years at school') when they exited Reading Recovery. Seventy percent of these students had not yet completed two years of schooling when they exited Reading Recovery. (These results should be interpreted with care as classroom teachers will use a range of evidence (not just the text levels) when making judgements about student achievement in relation to the Standards.)

Data collected from the Burt Word Reading Test and the Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) provided additional evidence that overall, successfully discontinued students were reading and writing within the average band of performance expected for their age group when they exited the intervention.

A greater proportion of girls, NZ European and Asian students, and students from decile 8 to 10 schools successfully discontinued their series of lessons than boys, Māori, Pasifika, and students from decile 1 to 3 schools. However, a majority of students (ie, at least 68%) in these latter groups did achieve the levels required to successfully discontinue their Reading Recovery lessons.

Consistent with the long term trend, a greater proportion of students who entered Reading Recovery for the first time in 2016 successfully discontinued (77%) than students who were carried over from 2015 (75%) and students who had transferred from another school (64%).

Access to Reading Recovery

In 2016 schools reported 1,344 Reading Recovery teachers in 1,131 schools had 478,023 hours available to support 10,178 students. Trend data shows that the proportion of New Zealand six-year-old students entering Reading Recovery has gradually declined (from 15% in 2005 to 12% in 2016). The average number of hours potentially able to be delivered per student was 47 in 2016. (Note this data comes from the reports submitted by schools. Student reports were received from 1,139 schools for 10,046 students.)

In 2016, 58% of state and state-integrated schools with six-year-old students offered Reading Recovery. Sixty-nine percent of the total six-year-old population in state and state-integrated schools attended schools where Reading Recovery was offered. Twelve per cent of students attending state and state-integrated schools entered Reading Recovery in 2016. The percentage of students with access to Reading Recovery and the percentage entering Reading Recovery has been declining over the past decade.

Page Index

Section 1: Schools and students involved in Reading Recovery in 2016


Table 1: Reading Recovery resources 2005 to 2016

The average number of Reading Recovery hours allocated per student is calculated from the number of students that schools counted as having participated in Reading Recovery, and the number of hours the schools had allocated for these students. Thus these averages are an estimate of the number of hours each student may have had available for lessons.

Year Number of  Reading
Recovery Teachers
Total Reading
Recovery Hours
Number of Students in
Reading Recovery
Average Teaching Time
(Hours) Per Student
2005 1,386 401,624 11,054 36.3
2006 1,396 425,907 10,757 39.6
2007 1,456 446,804 10,777 41.5
2008 1,437 468,682 10,774 43.5
2009 1,433 480,142 11,085 43.3
2010 1,450 482,148 11,040 43.7
2011 1,452 484,222 10,768 45.0
2012 1,542 507,436 11,202 45.3
2013 1,518 531,002 11,057 48.0
2014 1,446 502,217 10,876 46.2
2015 1,405 489,668 10,693 45.8
2016 1,344 478,023 10,178 47.0


Table 2: Schools with Reading Recovery in 2016 by region

Between 2016 and 2015, 5 of the 16 regions experienced an increase in the percentage of 6-year-olds with access to Reading Recovery and in the percentage of schools offering Reading Recovery; and 10 regions experienced a decrease. Note that caution is required when looking at percentage changes between years in the regions with a low number of schools (ie, less than 35) with 6-year-old students.

Notes:
  1. Source: Ministry of Education, School roll returns at 1 July 2016.
  2. Data includes state and state integrated schools with 6-year-olds on roll only and excludes Partnership Schools and Te Kura/the Correspondence School.
  3. Chathams Islands' data are included with Canterbury.
Local Body Region Schools that Offered
Reading Recovery
Total Schools
with 6-Year-Olds
6-Year-Olds' Access to Reading Recovery
Number 6-Year-Olds
on Roll
Number 6-Year-Olds
on Roll
% of Schools % of 6-Year-Olds
2016 2015 2016 2015
Northland  59 1,725 125 2,578 47% 45% 67% 66%
Auckland  212 12,589 374 21,613 57% 60% 58% 62%
Waikato  120 4,123 249 6,506 48% 53% 63% 67%
Bay of Plenty  70 3,339 124 4,352 56% 55% 77% 75%
Gisborne  14 447 42 814 33% 41% 55% 71%
Hawkes Bay  49 1,693 94 2,515 52% 56% 67% 72%
Taranaki  54 1,364 77 1,740 70% 71% 78% 83%
Manawatu-Wanganui  63 1,784 158 3,313 40% 42% 54% 58%
Wellington  137 5,428 183 6,594 75% 78% 82% 86%
Tasman 22 579 29 633 76% 66% 91% 85%
Nelson 13 614 13 614 100% 86% 100% 93%
Marlborough 15 530 26 621 58% 62% 85% 88%
West Coast 15 312 29 410 52% 57% 76% 76%
Canterbury 164 6,111 229 7,339 72% 72% 83% 84%
Otago  79 2,145 117 2,565 68% 66% 84% 81%
Southland  42 1,171 70 1,439 60% 71% 81% 87%
Total 1,128 43,954 1,939 63,646 58% 60% 69% 72%


Table 3: Schools with Reading Recovery in 2016 by region Māori students

The main changes between 2016 and 2015 in the access of Māori 6-year-olds to Reading Recovery are seen in Gisborne and Southland - in both the decrease in the percentage of schools with Māori 6-year-olds offering Reading Recovery and the decrease in the pecentage of Māori 6-year-olds with access to Reading Recovery. Note that caution is required when looking at percentage changes between years in the regions with a low number of schools (ie, less than 35) with 6-year-old Māori students.

Notes:
  1. Source: Ministry of Education, School roll returns at 1 July 2016.
  2. Data includes state and state integrated schools with 6-year-olds on roll only and excludes Partnership Schools and Te Kura/the Correspondence School.
  3. Chathams Islands' data are included with Canterbury.
Local Body Region Schools with 6-Year-Old Māori
Students offering Reading Recovery
Total Schools with
6-Year-Old Māori Students*
6-Year-Old Māori Students'
Access to Reading Recovery
Number Māori
6-Year-Olds
on Roll
Number Māori
6-Year-Olds
on Roll
% of Schools % of Māori
6-Year-Olds
2016 2015 2016 2015
Northland  57 898 121 1,417 47% 46% 63% 60%
Auckland  201 2,237 351 3,943 57% 60% 57% 60%
Waikato  117 1,256 233 2,376 50% 54% 53% 55%
Bay of Plenty  69 1,227 123 1,890 56% 56% 65% 64%
Gisborne  14 309 41 559 34% 44% 55% 68%
Hawkes Bay  49 739 89 1,079 55% 55% 68% 71%
Taranaki  51 392 69 541 74% 73% 72% 78%
Manawatu-Whanganui  56 628 137 1,190 41% 46% 53% 57%
Wellington  129 1,036 171 1,420 75% 81% 73% 82%
Tasman  20 76 25 88 80% 67% 86% 73%
Nelson 13 94 13 94 100% 92% 100% 95%
Marlborough  15 111 24 130 63% 70% 85% 88%
West Coast  13 49 22 66 59% 61% 74% 70%
Canterbury  152 930 200 1,158 76% 78% 80% 81%
Otago  74 320 100 378 74% 73% 85% 85%
Southland 37 242 55 300 67% 83% 81% 89%
Total 1,067 10,544 1,774 16,629 60% 63% 63% 66%


Table 4: Schools with Reading Recovery in 2016: Pasifika students

Half of the 16 regions have a low number of schools (ie, less than 35) with 6-year-old Pasifika students, requiring caution when looking at percentage changes between years. Outside of these regions with low numbers of schools with six-year-old Pasifika students, in 2016 the Bay of Plenty experienced an increase in access, and Hawkes Bay experienced a decrease in access compared to 2015. Overall, access for Pasifika students has declined, as it has for all 6-year-olds.

Notes:

  1. Source: Ministry of Education, School roll returns at 1 July 2016.
  2. Data includes state and state integrated schools with 6-year-olds on roll only and excludes Partnership Schools and Te Kura/the Correspondence School.
Local Body Region Schools with 6-Year-Old Pasifika
Students offering Reading Recovery
Total Schools with
6-Year-Old Pasifika Students*
6-Year-Old Pasifika Students'
Access to Reading Recovery
Number Pasifika
6-Year-Olds
on Roll
Number Pasifika
6-Year-Olds
on Roll
% of Schools % of  Pasifika
6-Year-Olds
2016 2015 2016 2015
Northland 22 38 34 55 65% 61% 69% 68%
Auckland 194 3,031 323 4,568 60% 64% 66% 71%
Waikato 62 188 97 273 64% 65% 69% 69%
Bay of Plenty 42 103 52 119 81% 74% 87% 78%
Gisborne 4 13 6 15 67% 75% 87% 82%
Hawkes Bay 24 101 40 144 60% 76% 70% 90%
Taranaki 13 17 18 25 72% 85% 68% 89%
Manawatu-Whanganui 31 86 58 131 53% 58% 66% 73%
Wellington 113 598 133 656 85% 89% 91% 94%
Tasman 10 13 11 14 91% 78% 93% 85%
Nelson 10 27 10 27 100% 91% 100% 91%
Marlborough 12 30 13 32 92% 100% 94% 100%
West Coast  7 7 7 7 100% 100% 100% 100%
Canterbury 83 312 102 365 81% 82% 85% 85%
Otago 38 94 44 102 86% 84% 92% 91%
Southland 17 36 22 41 77% 100% 88% 100%
Total 682 4,694 970 6,574 70% 73% 71% 75%


Table 5: Students who entered Reading Recovery in 2016 by region

Twelve per cent of six-year-old students enrolled in state and state-integrated schools entered Reading Recovery in 2016. In 2016, the Taranaki region had the highest rate of student entry into Reading Recovery (18%), and the Auckland region had the lowest entry rate (10%).

Notes:
  1. Source: Ministry of Education, School roll returns at 1 July 2016.
  2. Data includes state and state integrated schools with 6-year-olds on roll only and excludes Partnership Schools and Te Kura/the Correspondence School.
Local Body Region 6-year-olds who Entered Reading Recovery in 2016 Total 6-year-old
School Population*
Number % of total
2016 2015 Number
Northland 331 13% 13% 2,578
Auckland 2,055 10% 11% 21,613
Waikato 730 11% 12% 6,506
Bay of Plenty 503 12% 11% 4,352
Gisborne 129 16% 16% 814
Hawkes Bay 331 13% 15% 2,515
Taranaki 319 18% 17% 1,740
Manawatu-Whanganui 384 12% 11% 3,313
Wellington 907 14% 15% 6,594
Tasman 107 17% 14% 633
Nelson 94 15% 12% 614
Marlborough 81 13% 16% 621
West Coast 67 16% 21% 410
Canterbury 843 11% 12% 7,339
Otago 393 15% 14% 2,565
Southland 238 17% 19% 1,439
Total 7,512 12% 12% 63,646


Table 6: Implementation of and access to Reading Recovery 2005–2016

This table shows the gradual decline in the level of access to Reading Recovery at both the school level (from 67% to 58% over the period shown) and student level (78% to 69%) over the last decade or so; also - but less markedly - in the percentage of 6-year-old students entering Reading Recovery (this has ranged from 15% to 12% over the period shown).

Year % of 6-year-olds
with access to
Reading Recovery
% of schools with
6-year-olds offering
Reading Recovery
% of 6-year-olds
who entered
Reading Recovery
2005 78% 67% 15%
2006 76% 65% 14%
2007 76% 67% 14%
2008 76% 66% 14%
2009 77% 67% 15%
2010 75% 66% 15%
2011 75% 64% 14%
2012 75% 64% 14%
2013 76% 65% 14%
2014 73% 62% 13%
2015 72% 60% 12%
2016 69% 58% 12%


Table 7: Students' and schools' involvement in Reading Recovery by grouped decile 2015 and 2016

As has been observed over a number of years in the Reading Recovery monitoring data, while students attending decile 1 to 3 schools have lower levels of access to Reading Recovery, where Reading Recovery is offered in decile 1 to 3 schools, students enter the intervention in greater numbers than students attending higher decile schools.

School Involvement in Reading Recovery 2015 Year 2016 Year
Decile
1 to 3
Decile
4 to 7
Decile
8 to 10
Decile
1 to 3
Decile
4 to 7
Decile
8 to 10
% of schools that implemented Reading Recovery 53% 63% 65% 51% 59% 64%
% of students attending schools where Reading Recovery is offered 68% 74% 72% 65% 70% 71%
% of students who entered Reading Recovery 16% 13% 10% 15% 12% 10%


Table 8: Involvement in Reading Recovery by school decile 2016

The average number of Reading Recovery hours allocated per student is calculated from the number of students that schools counted as having participated in Reading Recovery, and the number of hours the schools had allocated for these students. Thus these averages are an estimate of the number of hours each student may have had available for lessons

Decile Proportion of students who
entered Reading Recovery (%) 
Average Reading Recovery
hours allocated per student
Number of teachers
delivering the intervention
1 15% 52 155
2 14% 53 146
3 15% 47 135
4 13% 44 125
5 11% 43 124
6 13% 47 122
7 10% 45 122
8 11% 46 128
9 10% 46 136
10 9% 45 147

Section 2: Students involved in Reading Recovery 2016


Table 9: Students' entry into Reading Recovery in 2016

This table lists students' first method of entry into Reading Recovery for the 2016 year. Some students who were carried over from 2015, or who entered Reading Recovery for the first time in 2016 transferred to another school at some point during 2016. To avoid double counting, only the first method of entry into Reading Recovery is included. Percentages are similar to those reported over the past several years.

Students Entry into Reading Recovery Number of Students Proportion of Students
Entered for the first time 7,550 75%
Carried over from 2015 2,394 24%
Arrived from another school 101 1%
Total 10,045100%


Table 10: Proportion of New Zealand 6-year-olds in Reading Recovery by ethnicity and gender in 2016

Sixty-one percent of all 6-year-olds in Reading Recovery were boys (n=6,117) and 39% were girls (n=3,913). Out of the total 6-year-old population, 18% per cent of boys and 12% of girls were involved in Reading Recovery in 2016 (the same percentage as in 2015).

Note:
Source: Ministry of Education, ENROL data as at 1 July 2016.

Ethnicity 6-Year-Old Boys in Population 6-Year-Old Girls in Population
Total In Reading Recovery Total In Reading Recovery
Number Number % Number Number %
Māori 8,601 1,935 22% 8,142 1,296 16%
NZ European 15,040 2,629 17% 14,280 1,602 11%
Tokelauan 76 27 36% 67 12 18%
Fijian 261 59 23% 252 37 15%
Niuean 173 37 21% 180 21 12%
Tongan 843 223 26% 834 167 20%
Cook Island Māori 493 150 30% 432 67 16%
Samoan 1,353 374 28% 1,334 256 19%
Other Pacific Islands 165 41 25% 149 25 17%
South East Asian 763 87 11% 700 71 10%
Indian 1,248 155 12% 1,158 93 8%
Chinese 1,219 61 5% 1,142 32 3%
Other Asian 709 76 11% 670 33 5%
Other 913 127 14% 958 96 10%
Other European 1,236 136 11% 1,195 105 9%
Total 33,093 6,117 18% 31,493 3,913 12%


Table 11: Proportion of New Zealand 6-year-olds in Reading Recovery by ethnicity and gender 2013 to 2016

Consistent with the long standing trend, in 2016 a greater proportion of Māori and Pasifika students were involved in Reading Recovery than New Zealand European and Asian students.

Ethnicity 2013 2014 2015 2016
Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
Māori 28% 18% 25% 18% 24% 17% 22% 16%
NZ European 21% 12% 20% 12% 19% 11% 17% 11%
Pasifika 33% 20% 30% 19% 30% 19% 27% 18%
Asian 10% 7% 10% 6% 11% 7% 10% 6%

Section 3: Student outcomes from Reading Recovery in 2016

At the end of the year, students involved in Reading Recovery are assigned one of five outcomes: Successfully discontinued - the student is able to work effectively with their cohort without additional support; Carried over - the student is unable to complete their series of lessons in the current year and has had their lesson series continued into the following year; Referred on - the student has not reached the expected level and further specialist or long-term literacy support is required; Left the school - the student leaves the school before completing their series of lessons (and may or may not have continued at their new school); Unable to continue - the student leaves the intervention before completing their support for various reasons.

Table 12: Students' Reading Recovery outcomes in 2016

Outcomes for all students in 2016 remain consistent with long term trends.

Type of Outcome 2016 2015
N % %
Student successfully discontinued lessons 5,712 57% 59%
Student's series of lessons carried over to 2017 2,431 24% 24%
Student referred for specialist help or long-term literacy support 1,083 11% 10%
Student left the school before completion 535 5% 4%
Student unable to continue 267 3% 2%
Missing data 18 0% 0%
Total 10,046 100% 100%


Table 13: Exiting students' Reading Recovery outcomes in 2016

Of those students exiting Reading Recovery in 2016, three-quarters were successfully discontinued from their lessons.

Existing Students' Reading Recovery Outcomes N %
Student successfully discontinued lessons 5,712 75%
Student referred for specialist help or long-term literacy support 1,083 14%
Student left the school before completion 535 7%
Student unable to continue 267 4%
Total7,597100%


Table 14: Outcomes for students exiting Reading Recovery 2005 to 2016

The decrease in the percentage of students successfully discontinued from Reading Recovery in 2016 compared to 2015 was affected by the increase in the proportion of students who left the school before completion, and the increase in the proportion of students who were unable to continue.

Year Successfully
Discontinued
Referred On Left the School
Before Completion
Unable to Continue Total
2005 79% 11% 7% 2% 100%
2006 79% 12% 7% 2% 100%
2007 78% 12% 8% 2% 100%
2008 78% 13% 7% 2% 100%
2009 78% 13% 7% 2% 100%
2010 80% 13% 5% 2% 100%
2011 82% 12% 5% 1% 100%
2012 81% 12% 5% 2% 100%
2013 79% 13% 5% 3% 100%
2014 79% 13% 5% 3% 100%
2015 78% 14% 6% 3% 100%
2016 75% 14% 7% 4% 100%


Table 15: Exiting students' Reading Recovery outcome by entry status, 2016

Consistent with the long term trend, a greater proportion of students who entered Reading Recovery for the first time in 2016 were successfully discontinued from Reading Recovery (77%) than students who were carried over from 2015 (75%) and students who had transferred from another school (64%).

Outcome Entered for the first time Carried over from 2015 Arrived from another school Total
N % N % N % N %
Successfully discontinued 3,911 76% 1,751 73% 50 63% 5,712 75%
Referred on 631 12% 439 18% 13 16% 1,083 14%
Left the School Before Completion 359 7% 164 7% 12 15% 535 7%
Not able to continue 229 4% 33 1% 5 6% 267 4%
Total 5,130 100% 2,387 100% 80 100% 7,597 100%


Table 16: Exiting students' Reading Recovery outcome by gender, 2016

A higher proportion of girls successfully discontinued their series of lessons in 2016 than boys – a result that has been observed over many years.

Outcome Girls Boys Total
Number % Number % Number %
Successfully discontinued 2,317 79% 3,395 73% 5,712 75%
Referred on 317 11% 766 16% 1,083 14%
Left the School Before Completion 208 7% 327 7% 535 7%
Not able to continue 103 3% 164 4% 267 4%
Total2,945100%4,652100%7,597100%


Table 17: Exiting students' Reading Recovery outcome by ethnicity, 2017

A higher proportion of New Zealand European and Asian students successfully discontinued their series of lessons in 2016 than Māori and Pasifika students. This pattern of results has been observed over many years.

OutcomeMāoriPasifikaNZ EuropeanAsianOtherTotal
N%N%N%N%N%N%
Successfully discontinued1,65368%80875%2,58180%38583%27579%5,70275%
Referred on40317%15915%42413%5011%4513%1,08114%
Left the School Before Completion26211%828%1505%204%206%5347%
Not able to continue1225%353%893%112%103%2674%
Total2,440100%1,084100%3,244100%466100%350100%7,584100%


Table 18: Exiting students' Reading Recovery outcome by school decile, 2016

As with previous years, in 2016 a higher proportion of students from higher decile schools were successfully discontinued from Reading Recovery.

School
Decile
Successfully Discontinued Referred On Left the School
Before Completion
Not Able to Continue Total
N % N % N % N % N %
1 626 66% 153 16% 107 11% 58 6% 944 100%
2 521 68% 141 18% 72 9% 32 4% 766 100%
3 584 71% 116 14% 82 10% 36 4% 818 100%
4 560 73% 131 17% 56 7% 25 3% 772 100%
5 529 77% 98 14% 38 6% 22 3% 687 100%
6 466 77% 88 14% 33 5% 21 3% 608 100%
7 559 80% 93 13% 28 4% 20 3% 700 100%
8 577 79% 89 12% 38 5% 27 4% 731 100%
9 631 82% 78 10% 40 5% 21 3% 770 100%
10 639 83% 92 12% 33 4% 5 1% 769 100%
Total 5,692 75% 1,079 14% 527 7% 267 4% 7,565 100%


Table 19: Further support for students referred on, as reported by schools, 2016

In 2016, 1,083 students were referred on from Reading Recovery for specialist help or long-term literacy support. As shown in Table 18, students were most commonly referred to Resource Teachers of Literacy (61%). A further 22% of students were referred to Resource Teachers Learning and Behaviour (RTLB). The number of students referred on to other support in 2015 was similar in 2015 - 1,106.

Type of Support N %
Resource Teachers of Literacy 663 61%
Resource Teachers: Learning & Behaviour 240 22%
Other Learning Support programmes 15 1%
Other within School and External Support165 15%
Total 1,083100%


Table 20: Reasons why students were unable to continue, 2016

Reasons for students being unable to continue in 2016 are similar (in proportion) to 2015; however the proportion of students being unable to continue because of schools not offering Reading Recovery in 2016 has increased (33% in 2015).

Reason Number Percent
%
School no longer offering 106 40%
Teacher related 64 24%
Attendance 26 10%
Funding 14 5%
Other 12 4%
Behaviour 11 4%
Moved 8 3%
Reached maximum time in programme 8 3%
Parental request 7 3%
Health 6 2%
Poor progress 3 1%
Age 2 1%
Total 267 100%


Table 21: Proportion of exited students successfully discontinued and referred on by region 2016

In 2016, most regions experienced a decrease in the percentage of students successfully discontinued from Reading Recovery compared to 2015. Regional rates of successfully discontinued students ranged from 84% in Southland to 64% in Gisborne. Regional rates of students referred on for further support ranged from 20% in Northland to 7% in Southland.

Local Body Region Students Successfully
Discontinued from
Reading Recovery
Students
Referred On
Students left
the School
Before Completion
Students not able
to Continue
Total 
2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015
N % % N % % N % % N % % N N
Northland  225 68% 75% 67 20% 13% 24 7% 7% 13 4% 5% 329 329
Auckland  1,513 72% 72% 362 17% 18% 166 8% 7% 67 3% 3% 2,108 2,319
Waikato  552 73% 76% 91 12% 13% 54 7% 8% 62 8% 3% 759 809
Bay of Plenty  406 78% 82% 41 8% 11% 44 8% 6% 29 6% 1% 520 489
Gisborne  82 64% 73% 24 19% 17% 12 9% 7% 10 8% 4% 128 120
Hawkes Bay  245 71% 80% 55 16% 13% 30 9% 3% 13 4% 5% 343 350
Taranaki  268 82% 87% 27 8% 7% 21 6% 3% 11 3% 3% 327 316
Manawatu Wanganui 262 72% 78% 47 13% 10% 32 9% 8% 23 6% 4% 364 359
Wellington  721 79% 82% 130 14% 12% 44 5% 5% 15 2% 2% 910 957
Tasman  75 84% 87% 7 8% 7% 6 7% 6% 1 1% 1% 89 104
Marlborough  73 81% 89% 10 11% 7% 7 8% 4%
0% 0% 90 96
West Coast  60 78% 76% 15 19% 20% 2 3% 2%
0% 1% 77 84
Canterbury  635 78% 79% 119 15% 16% 48 6% 4% 11 1% 1% 813 906
Nelson  67 79% 83% 13 15% 15% 5 6% 1%
0% 0% 85 71
Otago  291 80% 81% 52 14% 12% 14 4% 3% 7 2% 4% 364 361
Southland  215 84% 84% 18 7% 9% 18 7% 5% 5 2% 2% 256 252
Total 5,690 75% 78% 1,078 14% 14% 527 7% 6% 267 4% 3% 7,562 7,922


Table 22: Average (mean) number of lessons and weeks in Reading Recovery for successfully discontinued and referred on students by entry status, 2016

On average, referred on students attended more half-hour lessons than students who were successfully discontinued from Reading Recovery.

Note:
Table based on students' initial entry type, and final outcome from Reading Recovery (where more than one school was attended during the year). Excludes data from students with missing information about their entry into Reading Recovery.

Entry Status Successfully Discontinued Referred On
N Mean Number of N Mean Number of
30 Minute Sessions Calendar Weeks 30 Minute Sessions Calendar Weeks
Entered for the first time 3,911 73.3 18.0 631 83.7 21.6
Carried over from 2015 1,751 88.7 22.1 439 90.2 23.2
Arrived from another school 50 84.0 22.6 13 88.2 22.9
Total5,712 78.1 19.3 1,083 86.4 22.3


Table 23: Average (mean) number of lessons and weeks in Reading Recovery by ethnicity and gender, 2016

The average (mean) number of lessons received by various groups of students are shown in Table 23 and Table 24.

Ethnicity Successfully Discontinued Referred On
Mean Number of
30 Minute Sessions
Mean Number of
Calendar Weeks
Mean Number of
30 Minute Sessions
Mean Number of
Calendar Weeks
Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
Māori 80.4 76.7 20.1 19.3 83.1 84.0 22.3 22.0
Pasifika 81.6 77.9 20.7 20.1 92.7 84.9 24.0 22.8
NZ European 78.3 75.2 19.0 18.2 87.1 89.3 21.7 22.1
Asian 77.9 77.3 19.0 19.3 85.9 98.4 21.8 24.8
Total79.4 76.3 19.6 18.9 86.3 86.8 22.3 22.3


Table 24: Average (mean) number of sessions and calendar weeks in Reading Recovery by school decile
School
Decile
Successfully Discontinued Referred On
Mean Number of
30 Minute Sessions
Mean Number of
Calendar Weeks
Mean Number of
30 minute sessions
Mean Number of
Calendar Weeks
1 78.1 20.3 87.6 24.0
2 82.2 20.7 86.4 23.3
3 78.2 19.5 87.0 22.5
4 78.6 19.5 85.0 21.8
5 76.1 18.6 83.4 21.0
6 78.2 18.9 87.6 22.2
7 78.1 18.9 86.4 21.0
8 76.3 18.6 83.7 21.3
9 76.7 18.7 87.3 21.4
10 79.0 19.2 90.8 22.7
Total 78.1 19.3 86.5 22.3

Section 4: Students' Learning Gains Reading Recovery, 2016

Shift in instructional text Levels over the course of Reading Recovery

Successfully discontinued students typically start Reading Recovery with higher average (mean) levels across the range of measures used and make more progress during the intervention than students who are referred on (Figures 1 to 6). Figures 1 and 2 present instructional text levels at entry to and exit from Reading Recovery for successfully discontinued and referred on students. The equivalent colours of the Ready to Read colour wheel are stated on the horizontal axes. The majority of successfully discontinued students (94%) entered the intervention reading texts ranging from level 1 (Magenta 1) to level 11 (Blue 3). On exit, almost all successfully discontinued students were reading texts at or above level 15 (Orange 1) - most of these students (92% of those exiting) were reading texts at or above the Turquoise level of Ready to Read. In comparison, 98% of referred on students entered Reading Recovery reading texts at or below level 8 (Yellow 3), with the majority (87%) entering the intervention reading texts between level 1 (Magenta 1) and level 5 (Red 3). Referred on students were reading texts from a wider range of levels when they exited Reading Recovery compared to successfully discontinued students exiting. 91% of referred on students were reading texts between level 6 (Yellow 1) and level 16 (Orange 2) when they ended their Reading Recovery lessons.

Figure 1: Instructional text levels at entry and exit for successfully discontinued students

Figure 1

Figure 2: Instructional text levels at entry and exit for referred on students

Figure 2


Shift in Burt Word Reading Test scores over the course of Reading Recovery

Most (90%) successfully discontinued students entered Reading Recovery with a Burt Word reading level of 21 or below and almost all (97%) students exited the intervention with a Burt level of 22 or higher. The majority (91%) of referred on students entered Reading Recovery with a raw Burt Word level of 10 or less (below the 5.10–6.04 age band). At exit, the majority (91%) of referred on students exited Reading Recovery with a Burt Word level between 7 (below the 5.10–6.04 age band) and 28 (equivalent age band 6.06–7.00 years).

Figure 3: Burt Word Reading leels at entry and exit for successfully discontinued students

Figure 1

Figure 4: Burt Word Reading levels at entry and exit for referred on students

Figure 2


Table 25: Shift in instructional text levels over the course of Reading Recovery, 2016

Successfully discontinued students had an average Burt Word level of 29 when they exited the intervention. The equivalent age band for a level of 29 is 6.07–7.01 years/months. Given that the average chronological age for successfully discontinued students at exit was 6 years 11 months, this result provides additional evidence that, on average, successfully discontinued students obtained Burt Word Reading Test levels at the expected level for their age group when they exited the intervention. Referred on students exited Reading Recovery with an average Burt Word level of 17. The equivalent age band for a level of 17 is less than 5 years 10 months. The average age of referred on students at the time of exit from Reading Recovery was 7 years. Thus, while many referred on students made gains in relation to the Burt Word test over the course of their Reading Recovery lessons, the aggregated results for this group of students suggest that on average, students obtained Burt Word Reading Test levels below the expected level for their age group when they exited the intervention.

Table 25: Average age of students, average Burt Word level and equivalent age bands
Note:
  1. *A small proportion of students did not have correct date of birth information and could not be included in the calculation of average age. Thus, this figure is the best estimate of the average age of students as they entered and exited the intervention.

At Entry to Reading Recovery Upon Exit from Reading Recovery
Average Age* Average
Burt
Level
Equivalent
Age Band
Average Age* Average
Burt
Level
Equivalent
Age Band
Successfully discontinued
n=5,666
6 yrs 5 mths 12.9 Less than 5.10 yrs 6 yrs 11 mths 29.1 6.07–7.01 yrs
Referred on
n=997
6 yrs 5 mths 5.8 Less than 5.10 yrs 7 yrs 16.6 Less than 5.10 yrs

Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) over the course of Reading Recovery

The majority (86%) of students who were successfully discontinued had Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) levels between 5 and 37 when they started their lessons; when they exited Reading Recovery, most (80%) had levels between 46 and 70. Most referred on students (92%) had Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) levels between 1 and 21 when they started their lessons; when they exited most (82%) had levels between 13 and 50.

Figure 5: Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) levels at entry and exit for successfully discontinued students

Figure 1

Figure 6: Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) levels at entry and exit for referred on students

Figure 2


Table 26: Average age of students, average Writing Vocabulary Task score and equivalent age bands

Successfully discontinued students exited Reading Recovery with an average Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) score of 60. This score falls into the 6th stanine, which is above the mean for the 6.51–7.00 years age group. This data shows that on average, successfully discontinued students tended to exit the intervention with Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) scores that were above, or close to, the average level for their age group. Referred on students exited Reading Recovery with an average Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) score of 32. This score falls into the 3rd stanine, which is below the mean for the 6.51–7.00 years age group. This result shows that on average, referred on students exited the intervention with Writing Vocabulary Task (Clay) scores that were below the average level for their age group.

Note:
  1. *A small proportion of students did not have correct date of birth information and could not be included in the calculation of average age. Thus, this figure is the best estimate of the average age of students as they entered and exited the intervention.
  2. ** Stanines are a method of standardising test scores using a nine-point scale (with a mean of five and a standard deviation of two). In this method, test scores are ranked and assigned to a stanine according to the percentile they fall into.

At Entry to Reading Recovery Upon Exit from Reading Recovery
Average Stanine
Group for
6.01-6.50
Years
Average Stanine**
Group for
6.51-7.00
Years
 Age* Writing
Vocabulary
Task (Clay)
Score
Age* Writing
Vocabulary
Task (Clay)
Score
Successfully discontinued
n=5,706
6 yrs 5 mths 22 Stanine 3 6 yrs 11 mths 59.6 Stanine 6
Referred on
n=1,066
6 yrs 5 mths 9.9 Stanine 2 7 yrs 31.5 Stanine 3


Table 27: Shifts in reading and writing gains for successfully discontinued and referred on students by decile

Students from lower decile schools tend to enter the intervention with slightly lower reading and writing levels than students from higher decile schools, however, successfully discontinued students tend to exit Reading Recovery at a similar level regardless of school decile.

 Decile Instructional Text levels Burt Word Reading test Writing Vocabulary (Clay)
Score
on Entry
Score
on Exit
Gain Score
on Entry
Score
on Exit
Gain Score
on Entry
Score
on Exit
Gain
Successfully Discontinued Students
1 5.2 18 12.8 10.2 29.2 19 18.1 59.5 41.4
2 5.4 18.2 12.8 10.4 28.9 18.4 18.9 58.7 39.9
3 6.1 18.2 12.2 12.1 29.1 17 21 59.4 38.4
4 6.1 18.2 12.1 12.4 28.4 16.1 21.7 58.6 36.9
5 6.5 18.1 11.6 13 28.6 15.6 22.6 58.9 36.3
6 6.8 18.4 11.6 13.4 29.1 15.7 24.2 60 35.8
7 6.5 18 11.5 13.2 28.8 15.6 23.6 59.4 35.8
8 6.8 18.5 11.7 13.9 29.6 15.7 22.7 60.2 37.6
9 7.1 18.5 11.4 14.3 29.2 15 23.6 60.3 36.7
10 7.1 18.7 11.6 14.4 29.6 15.2 23.6 60.4 36.9
Overall Average 6.4 18.3 11.9 12.8 29.1 16.3 22 59.6 37.6
Referred on Students
1 2.2 11.1 8.9 4 15.5 11.5 7.9 32 24.2
2 2.6 10.7 8.1 4.1 14.5 10.4 7.6 29.4 21.8
3 2.7 11 8.3 5.1 16.2 11.2 9.2 29.6 20.4
4 2.8 11.1 8.3 5.5 15.9 10.4 10.5 29.8 19.3
5 3.2 11.1 7.9 5.3 15.8 10.5 9.9 31.4 21.5
6 3.3 11.3 8 5.6 16.4 10.9 10.2 31.9 21.7
7 2.9 11.3 8.3 5.6 16.3 10.7 10.3 32 21.7
8 3.3 12.2 8.8 6.6 17.5 11 12.6 34.3 21.7
9 3.6 11.8 8.2 7.6 17.6 9.9 11.7 32.5 20.8
10 3.3 11.8 8.4 6.2 17.4 11.2 10.7 31.8 21.1
Overall Average 2.9 11.3 8.4 5.3 16.2 10.8 9.8 31.3 21.5


Table 28: Shifts in reading and writing for successfully discontinued and referred on students by ethnicity

Entry and exit scores in the three assessments were similar amongst successfully discontinued students of various ethnicities; and similar amongst the referred on students of various ethnicities.

Ethnicity Instructional Text levels Burt Word Reading test Writing Vocabulary (Clay)
Score
on Entry
Score
on Exit
Gain Score
on Entry
Score
on Exit
Gain Score
on Entry
Score
on Exit
Gain
Successfully Discontinued Students
NZ Māori 5.9 18.1 12.2 11.4 28.7 17.3 20.7 59.1 38.4
Pasifika 5.6 18.3 12.8 11.7 29.8 18.1 20.4 60.4 40
NZ European 6.9 18.4 11.4 13.6 28.8 15.2 23.1 59.1 36.1
Asian 6 18.4 12.4 14 30.1 16.1 22.3 60.9 38.6
Other 6.4 18.6 12.2 14 30.4 16.4 22.8 61.5 38.7
Overall Average 6.4 18.3 11.9 12.7 29.1 16.3 22 59.6 37.6
Referred on Students
NZ Māori 2.6 10.6 7.9 4.5 14.6 10.1 8.8 29.4 20.7
Pasifika 2.4 11.7 9.3 4.9 17.6 12.7 9.2 34.2 25
NZ European 3.4 11.7 8.3 6.3 16.7 10.4 11 31.7 20.7
Asian 2.6 11.5 8.8 5.8 17.4 11.6 9.9 33.2 23.3
Other 2.6 11.1 8.5 4.9 18 13.2 8.6 30.6 21.9
Overall Average 2.9 11.2 8.3 5.3 16.1 10.8 9.8 31.2 21.5


Table 29: Reading achievement for exiting students in relation to the New Zealand Curriculum Reading Standards

Table 29 shows the proportion of students who were reading at the level specified by the New Zealand Curriculum Reading Standard for 'After two years at school' (Turquoise level of Ready to Read), disaggregated by Reading Recovery outcome. (Note that 70% of successfully discontinued students had not yet completed 2 years of schooling when they exited Reading Recovery.)

Note:
  1. This table shows the proportion of students who were reading at the level specified by the New Zealand Curriculum Reading Standard for 'After two years at school' (Turquoise level of Ready to Read), disaggregated by Reading Recovery outcome. (Note that 70% of successfully discontinued students had not yet completed 2 years of schooling when they exited Reading Recovery.)
Ready to Read levels Successfully Discontinued Referred on Left the School
Before Completion
Not able
to Continue
Total
N % N % N % N % N %
Not yet reading at the Green level of Ready to Read  4 0% 523 48% 316 59% 151 57% 994 13%
Reading at or above the Green level, but not yet at the Turquoise level 444 8% 517 48% 199 37% 99 37% 1,259 17%
Reading at or above the Turquoise level of Ready to Read  5,264 92% 43 4% 20 4% 17 6% 5,344 70%
Total 5,712 100% 1,083 100% 535 100% 267 100% 7,597 100%

References

  • Clay, M.M. (2013). An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement (3rd Edition). Auckland: Pearson.
  • Gilmore, A., Croft, C., & Reid, N. (1981). Burt Word Reading Text: New Zealand Revision. New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Wellington