Retention of students in senior secondary schools

What We Have Found

In 2016, 83.6% of students remained at school to their 17th birthday. This is a decrease from 2015. However, retention rates have been steady since 2013 and differences remain between girls and boys, and Māori and non-Māori

Date Updated: July 2017

Indicator Description

Percentage of students staying on at school to age 17.

Why This Is Important

Completion of upper secondary education is associated with a range of economic and social benefits both in New Zealand and across the OECD. Retention to senior secondary schooling is linked to higher levels of skills and knowledge required for participation in our increasingly knowledge-based society and the wider global community (OECD, 2013).

According to Norton et al. (2000) the risk of unemployment for those with no school qualifications or only Year 11 qualifications is higher than for those with Year 12 or Year 13 qualifications. The positive effect of each additional year of schooling on incomes has been estimated to range from 5 to 10%.

Lashlie (2005) found that one of the factors important for successful school leaving for boys was merely staying at school until the end of Year 13. This is because it takes boys longer to achieve a high level of maturity and self-management than girls, and that boys' schools in particular can "hold boys steady while the chaos of adolescence sorts itself". Simply keeping boys at school (by making school relevant) until they have decided what they want their next step in life to be can reduce the chances of a boy "arriving at a prison gate".

How We Are Going

In 2016, 83.6% of students stayed at school to the age of 17. There has been a 4.3 percentage point increase in this number since 2009 (79.3%) and there has been a 1.0 percentage point decrease since 2015 (84.6%).

Female students (86.3%) were more likely to remain at school until age 17 than their male counterparts (81.0%).

Asian students had a considerably higher rate of retention to 17-years-olds than other groups, conversely Māori students had a considerably lower rate of retention.

Figure 1: Percentage of school leavers retained until age 17 (2009 to 2016)

Ethnic Group

In 2016, Māori students had the lowest proportion of students remaining at school to age 17 (70.9%). This compares with a retention rate of 82.9% for Pasifika and 85.4% for European/Pākehā. Asian students had the highest retention rate (94.9%).

The proportion remaining at school to age 17 has decreased for all students from 2015. The decrease was largest for European/Pākehā students which decreased 1.2 percentage points. Pasifika, Asian and Māori saw decreases of 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4 percentage points respectively.

Māori students displayed the largest improvement in the proportion of students remaining at school until age 17 since 2009 with an 8.3 percentage point increase. This was followed by Pasifika and European/Pākehā who saw increases of 3.9 and 3.8 percentage points respectively while Asian saw a 2.6 percentage point increase.

The gap in retention between Māori and non-Māori has closed by 4.4 percentage points since 2009. However, a significant disparity persists.

Figure 2: Percentage of school leavers aged 17 or older by ethnic group (2009 to 2016)


Girls are more likely to stay at school until 17 than boys (86.3% compared to 81.0%). Since 2015, girls have seen a 1.3 percentage point decrease while boys have seen a 0.8 percentage point decrease.

The size of this gender gap has decreased in 2016, from 5.8 percentage points in 2015 to 5.3 percentage points in 2016.

Figure 3: Percentage of school leavers aged 17 or older by gender (2009 to 2016)


There is a clear correlation between decile (the socio-economic mix of the school the student attended) and the percentage of school leavers aged 17 or above. Schools in the lowest quintile (deciles 1 and 2) draw their students from communities with the highest degree of socio-economic disadvantage. In 2016, 92.8% of students from schools in the highest decile (deciles 9 and 10) remained at school until the age of 17. This was 19.2 percentage points higher than schools in the lowest two deciles (73.6%).

Figure 4: Percentage of school leavers aged 17 or older by quintile and ethnicity (2016)

There is a large variation in the percentage of students remaining at school until age 17 amongst schools within each decile. While, on average, lower decile schools have poorer retention rates than higher decile schools, some decile 1 and 2 schools have higher retention rates than many of the decile 9 and 10 schools.

Figure 5: Percentage of school leavers who were retained at school aged 17 and above,
by school decile (2016)


Evidence about what works for this indicator can be found in:

  • Hutmacher, W. (2001). Introduction. In W. Hutmacher, D. Cochrane, N. Bottani (Eds). In Pursuit of Equity in Education: Using International Indicators to Compare Equity Policies.  Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Lashlie, C. (2005). He'll Be OK: Growing Gorgeous Boys Into Good Men.  Auckland: Harper Collins.
  • Norton, P.,Sanderson, K., Booth, T., & Stroombergen, A. (2000). A literature review of the effect of school resourcing on educational outcomes. Report to the Ministry of Education.  Wellington: Ministry of Education.
  • OECD (2001). Schooling for tomorrow: What schools for the future? Paris: OECD.
  • OECD (2013). Education at a glance 2013. Paris: OECD.

The Ministry of Education has established an Iterative Best Evidence Synthesis Programme to systematically identify, evaluate, analyse, synthesise and make accessible, relevant evidence linked to a range of learner outcomes.  Please visit the BES (Iterative Best Evidence Synthesis) Programme to find out more.

Further statistics related to school leavers are available on the School Leavers pages of Education Counts.