Annual ECE Census: Summary Report 2012
This page provides the annual ECE Summary reports for all licensed and licence-exempt groups. The ECE index page provides links to data tables about licensed enrolments, teachers, number of services or average hours.
It is important to note that this release reports on number of enrolments rather than number of children. A child may enrol in more than one ECE service, so statistics on rates of enrolment will over-estimate true rates of ECE participation in the population. Similarly, ECE teaching staff will be counted in each service they taught in during the census week.
Last Updated: February 2013
- There were 196,535 enrolments in licensed early childhood education services in July 2012, an increase of 1.3 percent (or 2,434) since 2011, and 22.7 percent (36,362) over the last decade.
- Enrolment growth is at its lowest rate since 2006. It coincides with a 1.7 percent decrease, or 4,300 fewer children aged under 4 years, in 2012.
- The rate of participation, however, is still increasing. Results from school data show that 95.0 percent of children starting school in the year ending June 2012 had attended ECE. This was up 0.3 percentage points, or 1,000 children, from the previous year. The number of ECE enrolments per population also increased in 2012 at every age.
- Children are continuing to be enrolled longer in ECE across all teacher-led service types. Average hours enrolled per week increased to 21.1 hours in 2012, which is an increase of 40 minutes from 2011. Forty percent of ECE enrolments attended for 20 hours or more in 2012.
- Of the total number of enrolments in licensed early childhood education services, 17 percent were aged 1 or below, 19 percent were aged 2, and 64 percent were 3 years or over.
- Education and care, and home-based services continue to grow faster than other parts of the sector. Both services and enrolments grew by over 3 percent, compared with declines of between 2 percent and 4 percent in other ECE service types.
- The number of services grew by 2.4 percent in 2012, compared with 2.9 percent the previous year, once mergers resulting from licensing changes in July 2011 are taken into account. Of the 152 new services opening in 2012, 143 were either education and care or home-based services.
- Excluding kōhanga reo1, there were 107,425 enrolments in 20 Hours ECE at July 2012. This made up 90 percent of all enrolments of 3-5 year-olds in licensed services, and is an increase of 3.4 percent from the previous year.
- In 2012, the 83 percent of playgroups (or 744 playgroups) that responded to the census reported 21,192 playgroup attendances. The total number of playgroups increased by 9.4 percent (or 77 playgroups) to 896 at July 2012. Around two-thirds of the children who attended playgroups were aged 2 years or under.
- Eighty-one percent of enrolled children attended ECE during the week of the 2012 ECE Census. Tuesday was the most attended day and Friday the least.
- Waiting times fell a little in 2012. Twenty-two percent of 3 year-olds had waiting times of more than three months, down from 26 percent in 2011.
- There was a total of 21,455 teaching staff in teacher-led ECE services in July 2012, up 811 (or 3.9 percent) from July 2011. Sixty-nine percent of teaching staff were full-time and 31 percent were part-time.
- The number and proportion of qualified and registered ECE teachers continued to increase. The proportion of teaching staff that was qualified increased from 69 percent to 71 percent in 2012. The number of qualified Māori ECE teachers increased by 12 percent to 1,221, while the number of qualified Pasifika ECE teachers increased by 5 percent to 1,179.
- Forty-nine percent of teacher-led services had at least 80 percent qualified teaching staff, an increase from 46 percent in July 2011.
- In 2012, 73 percent of teaching staff in teacher-led services were registered, up from 71 percent the previous year. This represented an increase of over 800 registered teachers, or 4 percent, since July 2011.
- The number of male ECE teachers has doubled since 2003 to 438 in 2012.
- On average, teachers had 27.9 contact hours per week.
- Almost 12 percent of all non-qualified teaching staff were studying for an ECE teaching qualification that leads to New Zealand Teachers Council (NZTC) registration.
- Māori was used as the language of communication for more than 80 percent of teaching contact time in 475 licensed services in 2012. This was similar to that for 2011.
- Pasifika languages were used as the language of communication for more than 80 percent of teaching contact time in 50 licensed services. Samoan and Tongan were the most used Pasifika languages in ECE services.
- Almost all education and care, kindergarten, and home-based services had internet access in 2012.
These statistics provide a headcount of enrolments in ECE services, not a count of children. In other words, if a child is enrolled at more than one early childhood service he or she will be counted more than once. The majority of the report focuses on licensed ECE services. Unlicensed service (playgroups) attendance trends are more limited because of differences in reporting, and differences from year to year in the number of playgroups reporting data.
1. Slowing enrolment growth
There were 196,535 enrolments in licensed services in July 2012, an increase of 1.3 percent (or 2,434) since July 2011. In the same year, 21,192 playgroup attendances were reported by the 83 percent of playgroups (or 744 playgroups) that responded to the census. This is compared with 21,409 attendances at 730 playgroups in 2011.
Growth in ECE enrolments slowed to its lowest rate since before the introduction of 20 Hours ECE in 2007, and coincides with a 1.7 percent decrease or 4,300 fewer children aged under 4 years in the population in 2012.
Growth has been relatively high since 2007. This rise was partly due to the introduction of 20 Hours ECE, which allowed for all 3 and 4 year-old children to access ECE services for 20 hours a week at no charge. The growth also coincided with a marked growth in the population of those aged under 5 years, which has now begun to slow again. Around one-quarter of the rise in ECE enrolments since 2007 was due to population growth.
In 2010, enrolment growth peaked at 4.4 percent but fell to 1.3 percent in 2012. The number of children aged under 5 years is projected to remain flat or decrease over the next few years.
Figure 1: Population and number of enrolments by age group, 2003-2012
2. But increasing participation
Although there are currently fewer children than in recent years, more of them are likely to attend ECE and those that do are participating longer on average.
An enrolment rate is the total number of enrolments divided by the of the total population for each age group. This provides an estimate of the true ECE participation rates in the population, but is an over-estimate because current enrolment numbers double-count those children who attend more than one early childhood education service during the survey week.
Figure 2 shows the enrolment rate for under 1 year-olds to 4 year-olds was 62 percent in June 2012. This was up 0.5 of a percentage point from the 2011 rate and six percentage points from June 2003.
Since 1990, there has been a significant increase in the enrolment rate, with the 2012 enrolment rate showing a 53 percent increase over the 1990 rate. However, growth has been a lot slower this last decade (2003-2012), with 12 percent, than it was the decade before (1993-2002), with 28 percent growth. Most of this increase has been for children aged under 3, for whom enrolment rates have more than doubled since 1990.
Figure 2: ECE enrolment rates by year of age, 1990-2012
* The combined 0-4 enrolment rate for each year is standardised to the 2012 national 0-4 year-old age distribution. That is, the figures represent the rate this group would have had that year, if they had the same age distribution as in 2012.
While the true rates of ECE participation are not currently available, it is possible to look at a measure of population participation using prior ECE participation for children starting school. Table 1 shows the percentage of children starting school who attended early childhood education services for the years ending June 2002-20122. Prior ECE participation has been increasing steadily over the last 10 years, up from 91.2 percent for the year ended June 2002 to 95.0 percent for the year ended June 2012.
Government has as a current goal to increase ECE participation to 98 percent of all children starting school by 2016. A number of community-based initiatives and programmes have been, or are planned to be, implemented with an aim of achieving this goal, with a particular focus on those groups or communities where children are more likely not to participate in any ECE (see also table 2 below). As this measures the prior ECE participation of those starting school, it is expected that any positive impacts of these initiatives will begin to start being seen from 2013.
2.1. Education and care, and home-based services growing
Over the past year, and from 2003, the majority of enrolment growth in licensed services has been in education and care, and home-based services (see figures 3 and 4).
These types of services have had the largest rises since 2003 (49.1 and 92.1 percent, respectively), while enrolments in kindergartens, playcentres and kōhanga reo have fallen (see figure 4).
Figure 3: Number of enrolments in licensed services by service type, 2003-2012
Between 2011 and 2012, enrolments increased by 3.4 percent in education and care services and by 2.5 percent in home-based services. Enrolments in kindergartens fell by 2.1 percent over the period, by 5.4 percent in playcentres and by 2.8 percent in kōhanga reo services.
Since 2003, enrolments in licensed services have been increasing between 0.4 percent and 4.4 percent each year, which is a total of 22.7 percent since 2003. Over this period, there has been a 92.1 percent increase in enrolments in home-based services, and a 49.1 percent increase in education and care services. At the same time, enrolments in kindergartens have decreased by 19.7 percent, by 5.9 percent in playcentres and by 9.2 percent in kōhanga services.
Figure 4: Growth in licensed service enrolments by service type between 2003-2012 and 2011-2012
Enrolments in education and care services now make up almost 59.9 percent of all enrolments in licensed services (an increase of 10.6 percentage points), while kindergartens now comprise 18.4 percent of all licensed service enrolments (down from 28.2 percent a decade ago).
2.2. Enrolments by age
In 2012, almost one-third of all enrolments in licensed services were made up of children who were 4 years of age (32.3 percent), followed by children aged 3 (30.0 percent), 19.4 percent of those aged 2 years, and 12.8 percent of those aged 1 year. Those aged less than 1 year accounted for 4.3 percent of all enrolments, while those aged 5 years made up 1.3 percent (see figure 5). These relative proportions have not changed significantly over the last decade.Figure 5: Distribution of enrolments by year of age, 2003-2012
Between 2010 and 2012, enrolment growth for children aged 1 and 2 years increased, while this group’s population decreased. This may be a reflection of a change in parental preference toward enrolling younger children in ECE. This was indicated in the previous section, where enrolments in services that catered for younger children were also rising over the period. In contrast, the population and enrolment growth of children aged under 1 year decreased between 2010 and 2012.
Figure 6: Changes in population and enrolments by year of age, 2010-2012
In 2012, two-thirds of the 21,192 children that were enrolled in playgroups were aged 2 years or under.
2.3. Enrolments by ethnic group
About 61.0 percent of enrolments in licensed services identified as European/Pākehā. Māori children comprised 21.4 percent of all enrolments, 6.9 percent were Pasifika, 8.1 percent were Asian and 2.6 percent belonged to other ethnic groups (see figure 7).
Figure 7: Distribution of enrolments by ethnic group, 2003-2012
The number of Asian enrolments increased by 10.9 percent from 2011, while Pasifika and Māori enrolments increased by 4.9 percent and 2.5 percent, respectively (see figure 8). From 2003, the largest increase in enrolments (aside from the other ethnic group) was in the Asian ethnic group, which grew by 78.4 percent. Pasifika and Māori enrolments grew by 54.4 percent and 31.9 percent, respectively. In 2012, there were 10,145 more Māori enrolments in ECE compared with 2003, which represents the second largest numerical gain of any ethnic group.
While European/Pākehā enrolments have always accounted for the majority of children in ECE, it is also the ethnic group that had the second largest fall in their share of ECE enrolments between 2003 and 2012 (9.8 percent).
Although Māori children account for around one-quarter of all children aged under 5 years in New Zealand, they made up between 19.9 and 21.4 percent of all enrolments between 2003 and 2012. Their share of ECE enrolments was second largest across the ethnic groups but they were the only ethnic group to have a decline in enrolment share, of 7.5 percent. The Pasifika share of enrolments also grew over the period by around one-quarter, from 5.5 to 6.9 percent.
In 2012, there were 1,020 more Māori enrolments and 643 more Pasifika enrolments than in 2011. Prior ECE attendance for these groups remained lower at 90.9 and 86.8, respectively. However, growth in participation remains higher for these groups and the gap between these ethnic groups and others continues to reduce.
The share of enrolments by Asian children grew by 78.4 percent between 2011 and 2012. Across this period, this group’s enrolment share ranged from 5.6 percent to 8.1 percent of all enrolments.
Figure 8: Growth in enrolments by ethnic group, 2003-2012 and 2010-2012
While prior ECE participation rates were lower for Māori and Pasifika children, growth for these groups has been higher than for other groups. Prior participation rates have increased 3.7 percentage points for Pasifika children (from 83.1 percent in 2003 to 86.7 percent in 2012), while prior participation rates for Māori children have increased by 4.2 percentage points (from 86.7 percent to 90.9 percent) over the same period. By comparison, the overall prior participation rate grew from 92.5 percent to 95.0 percent over the 10-year period.
3. Hourly attendance rising
3.1. Children now spending 21 hours, on average, a week in ECE
Children are continuing to be enrolled longer in ECE across all teacher-led service types. Average hours enrolled per week increased to 21.1 hours in 2012, which is an increase of 40 minutes from 2011. Forty percent of ECE enrolments attended for 20 hours or more in 2012 (see figure 9).
Between 2003 and 2012, the most sustained rises in average number of hours per week attendance were for education and care, and kindergarten services types. Increases in average hours for these service types drove the overall increase over this period, with rises of 30.5 and 32.2 percent, respectively. These service types are also the only ones to experience growth in attendance hours of above two percent since 2010 (2.5 and 5.3 percent, respectively).
Figure 9: Average number of hours per week of child attendance by service type, 2003-2012
Average weekly hours of attendance at playcentres has remained largely constant since 2003 at around 4.6 hours. Average weekly hours also fell for home-based services from 2008 to slowly become level from 2010. These may, in part, reflect impacts of the global economic crisis and resultant increases in parental care of children at home.
3.2. Growth in hourly attendance highest for older children
Growth in average weekly attendance hours grew for children of all ages to 5 years between 2003 and 2012 (see table 4).
Under 1 year
The highest growth in weekly attendance hours was for 3 year-old children, whose hours of attendance grew by 50.0 percent or 6.7 hours. They were followed by children aged 4 years (6 hours), then those aged 2 years (4.9 hours) and 1 year (4.6 hours) (see table 4 and figure 10).
Much of the increase in hours for children who were 3 or 4 years of age occurred from 2007, which coincides with the introduction of 20 Hours ECE for older children. However, the average hours of attendance for children aged 5 years either fell or levelled off from 2007. In fact, around one-third of the growth in this group’s hourly attendance occurred between 2011 and 2012.
Figure 10: Growth in average number of hours per week of child attendance by year of age, various periods to 2012
In 2003, over 60 percent of ECE enrolments were made up of children who attended ECE for an average of up to 15 hours per week (see figure 11). By 2012, this pattern had reversed so that just over 60 percent of ECE enrolments were made up of children who attended ECE for an average of 21 hours or more per week. However, these trends have been relatively flat since 2010.
Figure 11: Distribution of enrolments by grouped hours per week of child attendance, 2003-2012
4. 20 Hours ECE enrolments
The 20 Hours ECE scheme was introduced in July 2007. It meant that 3 and 4 year-old children who were enrolled in participating teacher-led ECE services, as well as some kōhanga reo services, could receive up to 20 hours free ECE per week. Playcentres and 5 year-olds, and all remaining kōhanga reo, became eligible for 20 Hours ECE on 1 July 2010 (note that data for kōhanga reo is not available for inclusion in this analysis).
The 107,425 enrolments in 20 Hours ECE accounted for 89.9 percent of all enrolments for children aged 3-5 years in 2012, which is an increase of 1.4 percentage points from 2011. In line with this rise, the number of enrolments for this age group in 20 Hours ECE also increased in 2012 by 3.4 percent. This is compared with an increase of 1.8 percent for all enrolments for this age group.
Note: Data on 20 Hours ECE for kōhanga reo is not available. 20 Hours ECE was only available to playcentres from 2010.
20 Hours ECE
20 Hours ECE
Education and care
20 Hours ECE was introduced to playcentres in 2010. By 2012, over 21 percent of enrolled 3-5 year-olds were in 20 Hours ECE. This was an increase of 287 enrolments or almost one-quarter (23.7 percent) over the period, while overall playcentre enrolments decreased by just over the same number – 312 enrolments (5.5 percent).
In 2012, 3,615 services were eligible to offer 20 Hours ECE to children aged 3-5 years. Of these, 3,229 services (or 89.3 percent) reported 20 Hours ECE enrolments.
Figure 12: Services that are eligible to, and services that do, provide 20 Hours ECE by service type, 2012
Note: Services are eligible for 20 Hours ECE if they are licensed services and have 3-5 year-old children enrolled.
The greatest difference between the number of 20 Hours ECE eligible services and the number of the scheme’s enrolments by service type was for playcentres. Only one-third of all eligible playcentres (32.7 percent) reported that their enrolments fell under 20 Hours ECE (see figure 12). All kindergarten enrolments were 20 Hours ECE enrolments, while there was only a three percentage point difference for home-based and education and care services types.
5. 81 percent of enrolled children attended ECE during the 2012 ECE Census
This section looks at the number and percentage of the regular roll in licensed services (excluding kōhanga reo) that attended during the survey week (June 25 – July 1, 2012). Regular roll refers to children enrolled on a regular, on-going basis. Even if the service was closed during the survey week, data on the regular roll were still provided by the services.
Figure 13: Number of enrolments regularly enrolled and those that attended during 2012 ECE Census by service type and day of week, 2012
On average, 81 percent of the regular roll attended ECE on any given day. Tuesday was the day with the highest number of enrolments and attendance (see figure 1). This pattern was repeated in kindergarten and home-based services, and for attendance in education and care services. Playcentres reported higher enrolment and attendance on Monday.
1. Number of licensed services continues to grow
There were 5,159 early childhood education services in July 2012, 99 (or 1.9 percent) fewer than in July 2011. These included 4,263 licensed early childhood education services and 896 playgroups. The number of licensed services decreased by 176 (or 4.0 percent) since July 2011, while the number of playgroups grew by 77 (or 9.4 percent).
The fall in the number of licensed services does not reflect a real decline in the sector. It reflects a change to licensing rules in July 2011, where the maximum number of places any one service could be licensed for, increased from 50 to 150. As a result, over 250 services decided to merge their previously separate services.
Figure 1: Growth in number of licensed services, 2003-2012
Once adjustments are made for these mergers, the number of services grew by 2.4 percent between 2011 and 2012, and by 28.7 percent between 2003 and 2012 (see figure 1). Of the 152 new services opening in 2012, 143 were either education and care or home-based services.Figure 2: Number of licensed services and playgroups, 2003-2012
The number of unlicensed playgroups rose by 9.4 percent (or 77 services) to 896 services between 2011 and 2012. The number of playgroups has kept within a relatively small range of between 729 (its lowest number, in 2007) and its highest number, reported in this year’s census, of 896 services (see figure 2).
Figure 3: New and closed services and net growth in licensed services, 2003-2012
The proportion of services operating as all-day services increased slightly from the previous year (0.3 percent), but has increased by 30.4 percent since 2003. All-day services now form 85.8 percent of all licensed services.
2. Waiting times fall between 2011 and 2012
Waiting times are one indication of the capacity of services to provide ECE to children. The capacity of services to provide ECE to children improved between 2011 and 2012, as indicated by the drops in the proportions of these services with waiting times of more than three months for all age groups.
The proportion of services with waiting times of more than three months was 28 percent for 2 year-olds, and 22 percent for 3 year-olds (see figure 4). This proportion was lower for 4 year-olds (16 percent), as well as for those under 1 year of age and 1 year-old children, with 14.1 percent and 14.6 percent, respectively.
Figure 4: Proportion of licensed services with waiting times of more than three months by year of age of child, 2011 and 2012
The percentage decreases in the proportion of services with waiting times of more than three months for different age groups ranged from 11 percent to 18 percent.
The proportion of education and care services with waiting times of more than three months ranged from 19 percent to 24 percent for children of any age. In contrast, kindergartens had a higher proportion of 2 year-olds waiting for more than three months (80 percent), but a much lower proportion of 4 year-olds in this waiting time category (8 percent).
These results suggest that capacity for providing places to children has improved a little in education and care and in kindergarten service types. But this is dependent on an array of factors such as service type format, age of the children waiting for a space, and other influences on place supply and demand.Figure 5: Waiting times by age group for education and care, and kindergarten services, 2012
Notes: Waiting times for under 3 year-olds in kindergartens are not reported due to small numbers.
Kindergartens also tend to prioritise older children’s applications to enrol over those of younger children. This tendency affects children up to the age of 3 years, who are more likely to be ‘waiting’ for an available place. This skews the figures so that analysis shows 35-40 percent of kindergartens have waiting lists of three months or more for 3 year-old children, and at least three-quarters of all kindergartens do so for younger children.
3. Internet access
In 2012, 88 percent (or 3,799) of all licensed services (excluding kōhanga reo) had internet access. This is an increase of 14 percent from the 3,325 services with internet access in 2011. Almost all education and care, kindergarten, and home-based services had internet access in 2012.Figure 6: Proportion of services that have internet access by service type, 2011 and 2012
These statistics provide headcounts of teachers and non-teachers in teacher-led ECE services as at 1 July 2012. This includes education and care services, kindergartens, home-based services, casual education and care services, hospital-based services and the Correspondence School.
Teaching staff are counted in any service they worked in during the survey week, so headcount numbers given in this report will tend to overstate true numbers, in particular in the home-based sector. Full-time equivalent numbers provide an alternative view of the ECE workforce. A full-time equivalent teacher has been defined as someone with 25 hours or more child contact time per week.
A ‘qualified’ teacher holds a New Zealand Teachers Council (NZTC) recognised ECE teaching qualification that leads to registration with the NZTC. Statistics about teachers who are ‘in-study’ only include non-qualified teachers who are studying one of these qualifications. Home-based data in this section relates to home-based coordinators only and excludes other home-based staff such as educators and caregivers.
1. Number of qualified teachers has grown 140 percent since 2003
Education and care services had a higher proportion of teaching staff (79 percent) compared with kindergarten services (76 percent). In contrast, kindergartens had a higher proportion of support staff than education and care services (see table 1).
*Total includes all teacher-led services.
Teaching staff (%)
Education and care
1.1. Numbers of qualified part-time teaching staff rising faster than full-time staff
In 2012, 28,486 staff worked in teacher-led services. Just over three-quarters of these (21,455) were teaching staff. Almost two-thirds of the non-teaching staff (66.7 percent or 4,691 staff) were support staff, who provide maintenance, cleaning, food preparation or administrative support. Just under one-third (31.1 percent or 2,189 staff) were managers, which can include service managers, directors, senior staff, professional leaders, parent liaison and curriculum planning staff. The remaining 151 staff members were specialists, who were primarily engaged in the care and education of children, such as psychologists and physiotherapists.
Figure 1: Number of teachers in teacher-led services by qualification status and type of work, 2003-2012
Of the qualified teaching staff, 71.3 percent were reported as being qualified and 61.2 percent were employed full-time (see figure 4). Overall, the number of qualified ECE teachers grew by 137.7 percent between 2003 and 2012, and 7.1 percent between 2011 and 2012. However, the largest rise was for qualified part-time teaching staff – which made up 30.8 percent of all teaching staff. The number in this group rose by 259.0 percent over the period. It also maintained the highest growth, of 9.7 percent, between 2011 and 2012. This trend amongst part-time teachers has meant that the proportion of this group who are qualified has grown 91.6 percent from 2003, compared with a growth rate in qualifications amongst full-time teachers of 36.2 percent.
1.2. Almost all kindergarten teachers are qualified
Education and care services had the largest rise in qualified teacher numbers between 2003 and 2012. The number of qualified teachers in this service type rose by 180 percent but growth began to slow slightly from 2010. Kindergartens also experienced growth from 2007 – when 20 Hours ECE was introduced – of 51.3 percent (see figure 2).
Figure 2: Number of qualified teachers in teacher-led services by service type, 2003-2012
Home-based coordinators are required to be qualified and registered, which is reflected in growth of this group’s qualified rate; this grew over the period from 313 to 606, or 93.6 percent. Home-based coordinators also had the highest increase in numbers between 2011 and 2012 – of 124 qualified coordinators, or 25.7 percent. This more recent rise was primarily driven by an increase in the number of qualified coordinators in PORSE services, which made up more than 22 percent of all home-based services in the country.
These increases meant that almost all teachers in kindergartens, and almost all coordinators in home-based services, were qualified in 2012. The proportion of qualified staff in these service types rose from 40.4 percent in 2003 to 66.7 percent in 2012. The rise was smaller for home-based services – from 88.2 to 99.7 percent. By contrast, two-thirds (66.6 percent) of teachers in education and care services were qualified in 2012, compared with 40.3 percent in 2003.
Figure 3: Distribution of teachers qualified in teacher-led services by service type, as at July (2003-2012)
Figure 3 shows that teachers in education and care services made up two-thirds to three-quarters of all qualified ECE sector teachers between 2003 and 2012. This happened despite the growth in number of qualified teachers in kindergartens over the period. Note that these figures are not the same as the proportion that services use for funding purposes, which is based on registered teacher hours for regulated (ratio) staff.
In 2012, almost all coordinators and teachers in home-based and kindergarten services were registered with the NZTC (99.7 and 95.4 percent, respectively). Kindergarten services have always retained high teacher registration rates, but home-based rates rose sharply from around half in 2003 to peak in 2007. By 2012, the registration rate for home-based coordinators was 93.4 percent (see figure 4).
Figure 4: Proportion of qualified teachers in teacher-led services by service type, 2003-2012
Teacher registrations for teachers in education and care services have had the highest increase, of 182.4 percent, between 2003 and 2012. However, the rate of registration for teachers in this service type still sits at around two-thirds (68.8 percent).
1.3. Number of male ECE teachers doubled to 438 between 2003 and 2012
The number of male ECE teachers doubled from 1.0 percent (129 teachers) to 2.0 percent (438 teachers) of all ECE teachers between 2003 and 2012. This is a growth rate of 239.5 percent. In contrast, the number of female ECE teachers grew by 62.8 percent (from 12,908 to 21,017) over the period.
1.4. At least 60 percent of teachers in all ethnic groups are qualified
The majority of teachers came from the European/Pākehā ethnic group across the 2003-2012 period. In 2012, they numbered 14,775 and made up 68.9 percent of all ECE teachers. This is a rise of 44.8 percent from 10,203 in 2003 (see figure 5).
Figure 5: Number of teachers (qualified and unqualified) in teacher-led services by ethnic group, 2003-2012
Māori and Pasifika teachers made up around the same proportions of all teachers in 2012 – 9.4 and 8.3 percent, respectively. This equates to 2,009 and 1,780 teachers, respectively. Between 2003 and 2012, the number of teachers that identified with these two ethnic groups increased by 97.7 and 67.4 percent, respectively. Asian teachers made up 10.2 of all ECE teachers in 2012.
By 2012, between 60 and 74 percent of all teachers across ethnic groups were qualified (see figure 6). Again, there were more qualified European/Pākehā teachers than teachers in other ethnic groups between 2003 and 2012. However, the high rate of growth in qualified Asian teachers, from 162 in 2003 to 1,609 in 2012, meant that the Asian ethnic group had a slightly overall higher rate of qualified teachers (73.9 percent) compared with European/Pākehā teachers (73.3 percent).
Figure 6: Proportion of qualified teachers in teacher-led services by ethnic group, 2003-2012
By 2012, between 60 and 74 percent of teachers across all ethnic groups were qualified. Again, there were more qualified European/Pākehā teachers than teachers in other ethnic groups between 2003 and 2012. However, the high rate of growth in qualified Asian teachers, from 162 in 2003 to 1,609 in 2012, meant that the Asian ethnic group had a slightly higher overall rate of qualified teachers (73.9 percent) compared with European/Pākehā teachers (73.3 percent).
The proportion of qualified Māori and Pasifika teachers also rose markedly over the period. The Māori rate rose from 36.2 to 60.8 percent between 2003 and 2012, while the Pasifika rate rose from 34.9 to 66.2 percent. However, the rate for qualified Māori teachers has gone from the second highest across the ethnic groups in 2003 to the lowest in 2012.
1.5. 12 percent of non-qualified ECE teaching staff in ECE study in 2012
In 2012, 11.6 percent of all non-qualified teaching staff were in study towards a recognised ECE teaching qualification. The majority of non-qualified teaching staff in ECE study between 2005 and 2012 taught in education and care services. The number of non-qualified teaching staff in ECE study in this service type rose steadily between 2005 and 2010, but then decreased by 30.0 percent – from 3,563 in 2010 to 2,491 in 2012.
Figure 7: Number of teaching staff in teacher-led services in study by service type, 2005-2012
Education and care
Casual education and care
2. Services using Te reo Māori
Māori language was used as the language of communication for at least 12 percent of teaching contact time in 32.3 percent (or 1,269) of all licensed ECE services that reported using Te Reo Māori (including kōhanga reo3). This was down by eight services when compared with the previous year, but there was an increase of 309 services (32 percent) from July 2003.
Māori was used as the language of communication for over 80 percent of teaching contact time in 12.1 percent (or 475) of all licensed services that reported using Te Reo Māori. Of these, 465 were kōhanga reo and 10 were Māori immersion services. In 2011, there were 474 Māori immersion services; 463 of these were kōhanga reo and 11 were other Māori immersion services.
Māori was the language of communication for 12 – 80 percent of teaching contact time in 794 services. Of these services, 601 were education and care, 117 were kindergartens, 69 were playcentres, six were casual education and care, and one was a hospital-based service. This is a decrease of nine services (1 percent) from July 2011.
Figure 8: Distribution of services by the amount of time Te Reo Māori used, 2003-2012
3. Samoan and Tongan most used Pasifika languages
Some services cater specifically to children from Pasifika backgrounds and aim to build young children’s knowledge of their own Pasifika language and culture. They may include Pasifika cultures from countries such as Samoa, Tonga, Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau, Tuvalu and Fiji. There is no specific Pasifika service ‘type’. Rather, Pasifika services can be defined in several ways including by the cultural background of their students and teachers, and the use of Pasifika languages. For the purposes of this report, they have been defined as services that use Pasifika language(s) more than 50 percent of the time.
Commentary will also include analysis of ‘bilingual’ (defined as services that use a language more than 12 percent of the time) and ‘immersion’ services (those that use a language more than 80 percent of the time) to align with other Pasifika-based analysis.
3.1. 88 services use Pasifika languages more than half the time
Between 2011 and 2012, the number of Pasifika services decreased by one service. However, the number of enrolments in Pasifika services increased by 4 percent (or 196 enrolments) over the same period.
Figure 9 shows that, of the 464 services that reported using Pasifika languages, 88 (or 19.0 percent) used them more than 50 percent of the time. The 88 services that reported using these languages more than 50 percent of the time had a total of 2,901 enrolments. Education and care services made up the majority of these services, followed by kindergartens. Only education and care services reported immersion formats (55 services). The 2012 ECE Census also shows that almost one-quarter (24.3 percent) of all education and care services used Pasifika language(s) more than 50 percent of the time, in contrast with 1.1 percent for kindergartens.
Figure 9: Number of services that use Pasifika languages less or more than 50 percent of the time, 2012
Samoan and Tongan were the languages most used in these services; 55 reported using Samoan over 50 percent of the time and 21 percent reported using Tongan. The services that used the Samoan language had 1,766 enrolments, while the services that reported using Tongan more than 50 percent of the time had 710 enrolments. The remaining services reported using Cook Island Māori, Niuean, or Tokelauan. These patterns reflect the composition of the Pasifika population.
The patterns were mirrored for immersion services. Of the 50 Pasifika immersion services, 31 used Samoan and 14 used Tongan. The Samoan services had 1,002 enrolments while the Tongan services reported having 442 enrolments. Again, the languages of Niue and Tokelau made up the remainder of the languages used by these Pasifika services.
3.2. 37.0 percent of Pasifika services were Pasifika immersion
Figure 10 shows that Pasifika languages were used at least 12 percent of the time in 135 licensed services. Well over half of these services (86) were located in the Auckland region.
Of these 135 services, 50 (or 37.0 percent) were immersion services – those involving Pasifika language for more than 80 percent of the time – that had 1,629 enrolled children. Of these, 31 immersion services used Samoan, 14 used Tongan, two Cook Island Māori, one Niuean, and two services used Tokelauan.
Figure 10: Number of services that use Pasifika languages by bilingual/immersion status, 2012
The remaining 85 services were identified as bilingual – those involving Pasifika language between 12 and 80 percent of the time – and had 3,372 enrolments. Fifty-nine bilingual services used Samoan, 11 used Cook Island Māori, eight Tongan, four Niuean, one used Tokelauan, and two used Central Pacific language(s) that were not identified.
Of the 135 bilingual and immersion Pasifika language services, 128 were education and care services and the remaining seven services were kindergartens.
These are available in the download of this report, located as a MS Word document in the right hand column under "Downloads/Links".
- Kōhanga reo data on enrolments in 20 Hours ECE is not available.
- The number of students with unknown attendance has been excluded (from both the numerator and denominator) when calculating participation rates. Also, those with ethnicities not stated are excluded. This data is sourced from school ENROL and roll return collections.
- Kōhanga reo services are Māori immersion, as they teach in Māori for 100 percent of teaching contact time.