Education that fits: Review of international trends in the education of students with special educational needs
The purpose of this review is to outline international trends in the education of students with special educational needs, with the aim of informing the Ministry of Education’s current review of special education.
Author(s): David Mitchell PhD, College of Education, University of Canterbury, for the Ministry of Education.
Date Published: July 2010
This report is available as a download (please refer to the 'Downloads' inset box, top right). The "Where to Find Out More' inset box (right) has links to related publications/ information that may be of interest. Individual chapters are available as downloads ( please refer to the 'Sections' inset box, right).
Chapter 13: Teacher education
Many of the topics in this review have implications for the design and delivery of teacher education programmes so as to take account of the challenges of educating SWSEN. In this chapter, after outlining some of the main issues in teacher education, a series of country descriptions will be provided.
13.1 Issues in Teacher Education
Those responsible for the design and implementation of training programmes for professionals involved in the education of SWSEN have to give consideration to a range of factors, chief of which are the following:
- The nature of initial teacher education (ITE) for general education teachers and special education teachers. Issues here include: (a) should there be categorical or a non-categorical programmes for teachers of SWSEN? (b) what relationship should there be between ITE programmes for special education teachers and general education teachers? (c) should special education teachers be trained as general education teachers before being trained as special education teachers? (d) what should be the content of such training courses? (e) who should set expectations for such training?
- Specialist qualifications for professionals working in an advisory or consultancy capacity. Here consideration has to be given to such issues as (a) what roles are the various professionals expected to perform? (b) what prerequisite professional experience should they have before receiving their training? (c) at what level should such training be pitched? (d) what should be the content of such training courses?
- The training of paraprofessionals. Issues here include: (a) what roles are these people expected to perform? (b) what prerequisite qualifications and/or experience should they have? (c) at what level should their training be pitched? (d) who should deliver their training?
- Professional development for professionals working with SWNEN. Issues include: (a) should there be a prescribed set of professional development expectations for the various professional groups? (b) who should be responsible for setting such expectations? (c) who should design and deliver such professional development, in what locations?
In the remainder of this chapter, many, but not all, of the above issues will be traversed. Space and time limitations, as well as gaps in available information, preclude a systematic comparison of various countries’ approaches to the issues.
13.2 Country Descriptions
This section summarises some of the main features of teacher education programmes in nine countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Finland, Greece, Scotland, Sweden, England, and the United States. The latter two will be dealt with in more detail.
Australia. According to Forlin (2006), in her review of inclusive education in Australia, and citing Loreman et al. (2005), teachers have concerns about their perceived inability to cater for the needs of SWSEN when placed in regular classes. In particular, they feel they lack skills in modifying or differentiating the curriculum, providing suitable instruction, or using suitable assessment strategies. According to these authors, many of the four-year ITE courses in Australia included compulsory courses on inclusive education, but most of the post-graduate one- or two-year end-on courses did not. Of the total of 73 ITE courses reviewed, 45.5% included a compulsory element of study on an aspect of special or inclusive education, with a further 12% offering elective units.
Forlin pointed out the difficulties in obtaining consistency in ITE across Australia, with over 400 programmes in 36 universities. While some jurisdictions require registration of teachers (e.g., Queensland and NSW), others do not. In the former case, registration bodies have greater control over the content of training courses, being able to require specific units of study related to diversity. Other states rely on teacher education institutions to make their own decisions about the content of courses.
In the following, brief summaries of two states’ provisions will suffice. The source for this material is http://inca.org.uk/australia-initial-special.html#7.527
In Queensland, qualification as a special education teacher usually requires the completion of a pre-service teacher preparation programme, such as a Bachelor of Education specialising in special educational needs, or a pre-service programme, followed by completion of a postgraduate qualification in learning support, special needs or inclusive education. All ITE programmes in Queensland address issues of inclusivity and diversity of student need. There is only one initial teacher training programme focused exclusively on special educational needs, based at Griffith University. There are, however, a number of ITE programmes that provide a specialisation/major in special needs/inclusive education. In addition, there are a number of postgraduate programmes for established teachers. The Queensland Board of Teacher Registration Professional Standards for pre-service teachers include requirements that graduates will exhibit such as skills (a) creating supportive and intellectually challenging learning environments to engage all learners, (b) drawing upon pedagogical, curriculum and assessment knowledge and skills to engage all learners, and (c) using knowledge about learners, and (d) learning to create meaningful learning opportunities that lead to desired learning outcomes for individuals and groups.
In Victoria, to become a special education teacher it is usually necessary to complete a postgraduate diploma or degree in special education, after completing an initial degree in teaching. The Victorian Department of Education and Training also requires special education graduates to have completed the equivalent of at least 45 days of appropriate practical experience, including a minimum of 30 days of supervised special education school experience and professional practice in a variety of settings. In addition, the Department runs teacher professional development programmes, which are specially designed for practising teachers. The duration of one such professional development course is seven hours per day over three days. The course provides participants with the skills and knowledge to enable them to write and implement an IEP for students with special needs. Topics covered include: (a) eligibility criteria for the Victorian Disabilities and Impairments Programme’s aims and responsibilities, (b) the impact of specific disabilities and impairments on learning, (c) writing long, intermediate and short term goals, (d) prioritising what needs to be taught, (e) assessment and evaluation of student progress, (f) teaching and learning strategies, and (g) developing behaviour management plans.
Belgium. Preparation in ITE in Belgium includes general information and basic knowledge about SWSEN, with some practical training in the final year. Training is very practical and includes knowledge about teaching techniques, curricular adaptations, knowledge about particular disabilities (sensory impairments, intellectual disabilities, etc.) and specific techniques such as sign language (Riddell et al., 2006).
Canada. Since education comes under the jurisdiction of Provincial governments, a description of two provincial arrangements for teacher education relating to special education will be sufficient to give some idea about Canadian arrangements. The source for this material is http://inca.org.uk/canada-initial-special.html37.5.
In British Columbia, to teach in the public school system or in a government agency, two qualifications are usually required. These are an undergraduate degree in education or in one of the social sciences, with a specialisation in working with people who are disabled, and a teaching certificate. ITE focused on special education is provided through a number of post-secondary institutions, such as the University of Victoria, which offers a Bachelor’s degree in education with a focus on special education, and UBC, which provides courses in special education within a undergraduate degree in education. The Ministry of Education works with professional organisations to set standards for specialists working in the education system, such as speech language therapists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, sign language interpreters and orientation and mobility instructors.
In addition, the Special Education Branch of the Ministry of Education has responsibilities to foster the professional development of teachers, administrators, and support staff related to meeting the educational needs of such students. School districts are expected to provide in-service training to ensure that all staff can develop the skills and understanding needed to work in an inclusive environment and that staff remain current in their knowledge and understanding of special education. The Ministry of Education supports school districts with in-service training through the provision of funds specifically for staff development. Teachers and other professionals are also expected to maintain and develop their knowledge.
In Alberta, special needs teachers generally have a Bachelor of Education degree with a specialisation related to special education. In addition, institutions such as the University of Alberta in Edmonton offer a one-year Diploma in Inclusive Education programme for teachers interested in the area of special educational needs. This programme contains such core subjects as: assessment and instruction of exceptional learners, behavioural management of severely disruptive children, consultation and collaboration in special education, and advanced assessment and instruction of exceptional learners.
Finland. According to Hausstatter & Takala (2008), universities offer a one-year special teacher training programme after a master’s degree (usually a Masters in Education) The core of the special education qualification includes consideration of (a) difficulties in learning to read, write and do mathematics, (b) socio-emotional and behavioural challenges, (c) communication challenges, (d) professional cooperation in the design of IEPs, and (e) cooperation with parents. However, inclusion is not prominently represented, but is embedded in many courses.
Greece. According to Riddell et al. (2006), in Greece, there are no central standards or regulations for ITE, each university determining its own programme. However, ITE usually includes some input on SWSEN or learning difficulties and visits to special schools. Five years of teaching experience is needed before teachers can apply to do specialist training in SWSEN. This is a thorough two-year programme and is aimed at primary teachers. Secondary teachers can do a forty-hour course that provides them with general information about SWSEN; some secondary teachers also have a postgraduate degree in SWSEN. The European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education (2001) indicated that there is a shortage of properly trained special needs teachers affecting the support available to mainstream teachers working in inclusive classrooms. Ordinary teachers, it was reported, have great difficulty in implementing the IEP, with the problem being particularly acute in rural areas.
Scotland. As with several of the countries reviewed, he primary source of information here is INCA (http://inca.org.uk/scotland-initial-special.html) In Scotland it is not possible to train specifically as a special needs teacher during ITE. Specialisation in this area is gained through continuing professional development courses. However, some ITE programmes do offer courses in SWSEN. All teachers working with children with SWSEN must be qualified initially to teach in mainstream primary or secondary schools and registered with the General Teaching Council Scotland as primary or secondary teachers. Further specialist qualifications can be gained following completion of the probationary period, although teachers can be employed in teaching children with special educational needs without these additional qualifications. However, teachers of deaf or partially deaf children in special schools or special classes are required by the Schools (Scotland) Code 195613 to be qualified teachers and to hold a special qualification to teach deaf children. Broadly similar requirements apply to teachers in special schools or special classes working with others, such as children who are blind or are mentally or physically handicapped. There is no mandatory requirement for an appropriate specialist teaching qualification where children are taught in a mainstream setting.
In-service professional development is offered in a variety of ways; nationally through Scottish Executive Education Department seminars, or courses offered by teacher training institutions, education authorities, and locally in consortia of schools or individual educational establishments. (All teachers in Scotland are required to undertake 35 hours of professional development per year, according to the General Teaching Council for Scotland.) Postgraduate courses in SWSEN are available at many faculties of education in Scottish universities. These range from a general Master's degree in Special Educational Needs to more specific specialistcourses, such as a Master's degree in speech therapy.
Sweden. According toRiddell et al. (2006), in Sweden the education of SWSEN is a priority area that permeates aspects of ITE programmes. The 2001 reforms of initial teacher training strengthened the position of special education needs within mainstream training. All students receive the equivalent of half a term training in special educational needs and should also be offered the opportunity to study special educational needs as an area of specialisation. However, government policies requiring extensive knowledge of the education of SWSEN have been ‘difficult to implement because of an overly full curriculum’ (Emanuelsson et al., 2005, p.127). In addition, students can take further specialised options in SWSEN. In-service training is compulsory for teachers and courses available in SWSEN offer support on working with pupils with particular needs and on classroom strategies for inclusion. Sweden also has also training programmes for begeleiders (special needs coordinators).
Norway. In a recent article, Hausstatter & Takala (2008) compared special teacher education in Finland and Norway. They noted that in Norway some 21 university colleges and universities offered some kind of special needs teacher training, with 13 of them offering a masters-level qualification in this area. The major training in special education is at the master’s level, but these do not have a common core of content, although perspectives on inclusion are often present.
United Kingdom (England and Wales28). As mentioned earlier, developments here will be explored in some detail, given their particular relevance to New Zealand. Special educational needs teachers are specifically employed to work with SWSEN For example, they may work with students who are physically disabled, sensory impaired (i.e., deaf/blind), have speech and language difficulties such as dyslexia, have a mental disability such as autism, are emotionally vulnerable, have behavioural difficulties, or have a combination of these disabilities. They may also work with gifted and talented individuals.
A key aspect of their work is to identify individual needs and be responsible for creating a safe, stimulating and supportive learning environment that enables students to succeed in their learning, and it may involve the following work activities:
- teaching either individuals or small groups of pupils within or outside the class;
- preparing lessons and resources;
- marking and assessing work;
- developing and adapting conventional teaching methods to meet the individual needs of pupils;
- using special equipment and facilities, such as audio-visual materials and computers, to stimulate interest in learning;
- using specialist skills, such as teaching Braille to pupils with visual impairments or sign language and lip reading to students who have hearing impairments;
- collaborating with the classroom teacher to define appropriate activities for the pupils in relation to the curriculum;
- assessing children who have long or short-term learning difficulties and working with colleagues to identify individual pupils' special needs;
- liaising with other professionals, such as social workers, speech and language therapists, physiotherapists and educational psychologists;
- liaising closely with parents and guardians;
- organising learning outside the classroom in activities such as community visits, school outings or sporting events;
- assisting in severely disabled pupils' personal care/medical needs;
- administration, including updating and maintaining records on pupils' progress;
- attending statutory annual reviews, or other related meetings such as Looked After Child (LAC) reviews, regarding students with an SEN, which may involve reviewing statements of special educational needs;
- receiving in-service training;
- behaviour management.
To become a special educational needs teacher in England and Wales, Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) is required. There is a one-year statutory induction for all newly qualified teachers, which includes those who start teaching in special educational needs as their first position after qualifying.
From 2002, those awarded QTS must demonstrate that they can: (a) understand their responsibilities under the Special Educational Needs Code of Practice, and know how to seek advice from specialists on less common types of special educational needs, (b) differentiate their teaching to meet the needs of pupils, including those with special educational needs, and (c) identify and support pupils who experience behavioural, emotional and social difficulties. Standards for the Induction Support Programme require that those awarded qualified teacher status must: (a) understand the duties and responsibilities schools have under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 to prevent discrimination against disabled pupils, (b) spend time with the school’s Special Educational Needs Coordinator (SENCO)29 to focus on specific and general special educational needs matters, and (c) demonstrate that they plan effectively to meet the needs of pupils in their classes with special educational needs, with or without statements.
There are additional mandatory requirements for special educational needs teachers who specialise in teaching pupils with visual, hearing or multi-sensory impairment. These qualifications are available only from specific approved institutions and can be completed full time or part time. Courses are also available for qualified teachers to teach pupils with other special educational needs. Some of these focus generally on special educational needs, while other courses are more specific, focusing on a particular learning difficulty, such as dyslexia or autism. These courses are generally part-time, lasting several months.
Further postgraduate professional development is possible. Options include certificates as well as a Diploma or Masters in Special Educational Needs. Course content and titles vary according to the type of special education or disability being covered. Courses are usually offered part-time but some full-time courses are also possible. In-service training is also available. Many local authorities provide special needs courses for teachers working in the field. There is a special educational needs element to all ITE courses.
As well as the development of a SENCO award (see Chapter Fourrteen), the Department of Children Schools and Families has taken steps such as the following to develop workforce knowledge, skills and understanding of SWSEN (Rose, 2009):
Working with the Training and Development Agency for Schools:
- Encouraging initial teacher training providers to build on their coverage of SWSEN by offering specialist units for primary undergraduate ITE, launched in June 2008 to aid dissemination. These include a Unit entitled ‘Learning and teaching for dyslexic pupils’. Similar units for secondary undergraduate courses and for post-graduate teacher training courses were rolled out in September 2009.
- Developing materials enabling subject/curriculum tutors to check their knowledge of SWSEN and disability in relation to their subject area.
- Promotion of enhanced opportunities for student teachers to gain experience of working in special schools or other specialist provision.
- Promoting the use of specialist materials for the induction of new teachers’.
Working through the National Strategies:
- Investing further in the Inclusion Development Programme, which started in 2008, to raise the knowledge, awareness and confidence of teachers and other school staff in working with children with SWSEN. Materials issued so far have focused on training on children’s communication difficulties (including dyslexia), autism, with materials focused on students with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties to be issued in 2010.
- Developing Trusts to promote best practice in relation to dyslexia, communication needs and autism, in partnership with voluntary sector organisations.
- Encouraging special schools to provide outreach services to mainstream schools.
Finally, in this outline of developments of teacher education in England and Wales, the conclusions of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2004) publication, Removing barriers to achievement, is worth describing in some detail. After noting that since every teacher should expect to teach SWSEN, they must be equipped with the skills to do so effectively. This will require action at three levels:
- Core skills for ALL teachers in ALL schools
- Specialist skills in SOME local schools
- Advanced skills for SOME teachers in ALL schools
Level I. Improving core skills – for all teachers. ITE should provide a good grounding in the core skills needed for teaching in today’s diverse classrooms, including: (a)planning and teaching for inclusion and access to the curriculum, (b) behaviour management and awareness of the emotional and mental health needs of pupils, (c) assessment for learning, and (d)an understanding of where professional advice may be needed.The DfES undertook to work with (what became) the Training and Development Agency for Schools to explore the scope for introducing practical guidance on how inclusive practice might be embedded across the ITE curriculum.It also recommended that newly qualified teachers continue to develop the skills of inclusive teaching during their induction year.
Level II. Developing advanced skills – in all schools. In order to support their colleagues in delivering improvements for children with SWSEN in the classroom, the Department wanted to develop staff with advanced skills in special educational needs (i.e., SENCOs), describing them as key members of the senior leadership team, able to influence the development of policies for whole school improvement. As welllocal authorities were encouraged to create a new cadre of staff with particular expertise in special educational needs and dealing with students’ emotional, mental and behavioural difficulties.
Level III. Developing specialist skills – within each community of schools. In order to support the inclusion of children with increasingly complex difficulties, the Department wanted to build up the specialist expertise within each community of schools. It proposed doing this by working with higher education institutions to support the development of specialist qualifications for those wishing to specialise in special education needs in the mainstream or special sectors. It was envisaged that these qualifications would cover both the theory and practice of working with children with particular needs, such as behavioural, emotional and social difficulties or severe learning difficulties.
As well, the Department noted that it had developed induction-training materials on special educational needs for teaching assistants working in both primary and secondary schools.
United States. According to INCA (http://inca.org.uk/usa-initial-special.html)and Ackerman et al. (2002), around 700 colleges and universities in the US have ITE programmes to prepare students to become special education needs teachers. Most states require special education teachers to complete a Bachelor's Degree programme, although some will require a Master's Degree for special education licensure. Other states require licensure in general education first, then additional coursework in special education. All are designed to ensure that students meet the requirements of state licensing regulations. Colleges and universities are not only accredited by their state, but those providing the teacher training programmes at these institutions may also choose to seek accreditation from the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). In addition, during general ITE, trainee teachers normally have the option of undertaking specific optional courses relating to special education.
Training institutions accredited by NCATE have to meet rigorous standards established by those working in the field. The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), the professional organisation representing those who work with children with disabilities, has developed guidelines for special education teacher training programmes that are used by the NCATE. These require students in special education teacher training programmes to study the following areas30:
- Philosophical, historical and legal foundation of special education
- Characteristics of learners
- Assessment, diagnosis and evaluation
- Instructional content and practice
- Planning and managing the teaching and learning environment
- Managing student behaviour and social interaction skills
- Communication and collaborative partnerships
- Professionalism and ethical practice
- Experience with children, including a student teaching placement lasting between eight to 10 weeks.
As INCA (2010) points out, there is a great deal of variation in individual states' requirements and standards for the licensing of special needs teachers. Some require teachers of SWSEN to have a categorical licence, while some expect them to hold a non-categorical/generic licence. The holder of a latter can teach a student with any disability, while a categorical licence enables a teacher to teach children with a particular disability, such as hearing impairments or physical disabilities. Most states use a blend of both types of licence. To take one example, the state of Kentucky, requires a categorical licence. Teachers of students with special educational needs usually have an ‘Exceptional Children Licence’, which allows them to teach or collaborate with teachers to design and deliver programmes for children from primary to Grade 12. Their training usually includes one or more of the following specialisations: (a) learning and behaviour disorders, (b) moderate and severe disabilities, (c) hearing impaired, (d) hearing impaired with sign proficiency, (e) visually impaired, or (d) communication disorders.
Ackerman et al. (2002) noted that there is debate over categorical or non-categorical licensure, with proponents of the former arguing that each disability category is substantially different from others and that teachers should be highly specialised in that area, while proponents of the latter arguing that teachers should be prepared to teach all children and should have the expertise to address differing abilities and disabilities.
Ackerman et al. pointed to two other controversial issues in US approaches to teacher education in special education. Firstly, given the critical teacher shortage in special education, alternative licensure programmes have evolved in recent years. Thus, for example, army personnel are being trained for a second career in teaching and drastically intensified and accelerated summer programmes are replacing four-year licensure programmes. Also, some districts have been filling special education positions with teachers who have either no prior education experience or have only general education experience and providing provisional or conditional licensure to these newly hired teachers. (For a review of best practices in these ‘alternative route’ special education teacher preparation programmes, see Wasburn-Moses & Rosenberg, 2008). Secondly, there have been moves in higher education to merge special education teacher education programmes into the general education programmes, doing away with special education altogether. As argued by Arthaud et al. (2007), the move towards inclusive education requires greater collaboration among general education and special education teachers, and this should be reflected in teacher preparation programmes The arguments for and against this teacher education structure are similar to those for categorical versus non-categorical licensure.
Finally, in this section on US teacher education, attention should be drawn to the recommendations of the influential President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education (2002). In a hard-hitting criticism of existing teacher education programmes in the US, the Commission argued that ‘curricula and methodologies utilised in colleges of education are not empirically connected to improved student achievement’ (p.53). As a consequence, ‘the current system of pre-service and in-service education is not sufficient to produce personnel who can ensure students with disabilities achieve satisfactory outcomes’ (ibid.). To correct this situation, the Commission urged colleges of education to ‘move from folk wisdom, weak research and opinion on what are important characteristics of effective teachers and begin to focus on helping to strengthen the teacher competencies that have clear data for producing student gains’ (ibid.). Further, ‘both pre-service and professional development training must ensure that instruction in pedagogy is research-based and linked directly to student learning and achievement’ (ibid.).
On the basis of these and other arguments, the Commission advanced a range of recommendations, including the following:
‘Recruit and train highly qualified general and special education teachers. States and districts must devise newstrategies to recruit more personnel who are highlyqualified to educate students with disabilities.State licenses and endorsements for all teachersshould require specific training related to meetingthe needs of students with disabilities and integratingparents into special education services.States must develop collaborative, career-long professional development systems that conform to professional standards.
Create research and data-driven systems for training teachers of special education. Formal teacher training should also bebased upon solid research about how studentslearn and what teacher characteristics are mostlikely to produce student achievement. State Education Agencies (SEAs) and institutions that train teachers and administrators should implement data-driven feedback systems to improve how well educators educate children with disabilities.
Institute ongoing field experiences. Post-secondary institutions and state and private organizations that train teachers should require all students to complete supervised practicum experiences in each year of their training.These practices provide them with a comprehensive view of the full range of general education, special education and inclusive settings or service delivery models for students with disabilities.
Require rigorous training in reading. States and school districts must implementmore rigorous requirements for trainingeducators in scientifically based assessment andintervention in reading. General and specialeducation teachers must implement research-based practices that include explicit and systematic instruction in phonemic awareness, decoding, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension.
Require public reporting. Title II of the Higher Education Act should require programs for teacher education, administrative personnel to publicly report the performance of general education and special education program graduates relative to educating students with disabilities.
Increase special education and related services faculty. Institutions of highereducation should recruit and train more fully qualifiedprofessors of special education to address theshortage of special education and related servicesdoctorate holders who are qualified to teach ournation’s future educators and prepare them toachieve better results for diverse learners.
Conduct research. The Department of Education, in collaboration with other federal agencies, should conduct research to identify the critical factors in personnel preparation that improve student learning and achievement in schools. While recent research has begun to determine critical factors in instruction, more high-quality research is needed on instructional variables that improve achievement by students with disabilities’ (pp.50-51).
- Teacher education in the field of SWSEN involves consideration of four main areas:
- The nature of initial teacher education (ITE) for general education teachers and special education teachers.
- Specialist qualifications for professionals working in an advisory or consultancy capacity.
- The training of paraprofessionals.
- Professional development for professionals working with SWNEN
- There is considerable variability with respect to all of these issues between and even within countries.
- Many countries are adapting their teacher education programmes to take account of the recent emphasis on inclusive education.
- Many jurisdictions are prescribing in considerable detail what is expected of various training programmes.
- In England and Wales, a three-level model of teacher education is being implemented. This involves developing the following:
- Core skills for ALL teachers in ALL schools
- Specialist skills in SOME local schools
- Advanced skills for SOME teachers in ALL schools
- In the US, there is debate over categorical vs non-categorical licensure and the extent to which special and general teacher education should and can be merged.
- In the US, the 2002 President’s Commission was highly critical of colleges of education for not ensuring that their curricula and methodologies were empirically connected to improving student achievement and, accordingly, recommended sweeping reforms in teacher education.
- Training programmes for SENCOs (in England) and educational psychologists are covered in Chapter Thirteen.
- This source is INCA, the International Review of Curriculum and Assessment Frameworks: Internet Archives, a website funded by the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency in England and managed and updated by the International Information Unit at NFER. It is the primary source of several of the countries’ provisions summarised in this chapter.
- Sources include:
- See Chapter Fourteen for further information about SENCOs.
- In its 'red book', the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) sets out detailed standards for special education teachers, available online at: http://www.cec.sped.org/bk/catalog2/Red_book_5th_edition.pdf
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