Publications

Ngā Haeata Mātauranga - The Annual Report on Māori Education, 2008/09

Publication Details

Ngā Haeata Mātauranga is a series of annual reports that monitor the achievement of government’s key priorities for the education success of Māori learners.

Author(s): Education Information and Analysis Group / Group Māori [Ministry of Education]

Date Published: May 2010

Young People Engaged in Learning

Ngā Haeata Mātauranga 2008/09 focuses on monitoring progress in achieving the goals of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success: The Māori Education Strategy 2008–2012 from July 2008 to December 2009.

This section reports on progress in 2008/09 in the Young People Engaged in Learning focus area of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success.

Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success recognises that young people’s ongoing education success depends on developing strong learning foundations in early schooling. To achieve ‘Māori enjoying education success as Māori’, students must experience a successful transition to secondary school and effective teaching once there. They also require sound advice about subject choices that open up learning pathways and future opportunities.

Contents

This section includes:

How to achieve change?

Summary of progress against the Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success targets and actions.

Discussion for each goal including:

  • Why is this goal important?
  • What do the data say?
  • What progress has been made?

This section also includes a discussion about Success in Tertiary Education. All the goals and actions in Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success are ultimately focused on enabling Māori students to realise their potential in life through higher education. To monitor the effectiveness of its early childhood and school-based actions, Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success sets out specific targets for tertiary education.

Overarching strategic intent

Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success sets out the Ministry of Education’s approach to achieving educational success for and with Māori through to 2012. The overarching strategic intent of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success is:

‘Māori enjoying education success as Māori’.

The four goals for the Young People Engaged in Learning focus area are:

Goal 1increase the effectiveness of teaching and learning for Māori students in years 9 and 10
Goal 2support professional leaders to take responsibility for Māori students’ presence, engagement and achievement
Goal 3 improve support for year 9 and 10 Māori students to make decisions about future education pathways
Goal 4support Māori students to stay at school and stay engaged in learning

These goals all provide the foundations for participation in Tertiary education

How to achieve change?

Government’s actions to achieve the Young People Engaged in Learning goals of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success have been focused on supporting Māori youth to be present, engaged and achieving in their first years at secondary school (years 9 and 10).

This is a vital factor in ensuring that they remain engaged and go on to achieve the qualifications they require to enter tertiary education and gain worthwhile employment.

The actions in Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success are based on what evidence shows are the most effective ways to achieve system change for Young People Engaged in Learning:

  • Increasing professional learning and capability of teachers
    • high-quality teaching makes the most difference to student achievement across the sector
    • research has identified the characteristics of teaching and professional development that improve Māori learner outcomes.
  • Focusing on responsive and accountable professional leadership
    • principals and school leaders who focus on teaching and learning as the major part of their leadership role improve outcomes for learners.
  • Increasing whānau and iwi authority and involvement in education
    • parents, families and whānau play a critical role in supporting their children’s learning right from the start
    • learning is more effective when whānau and iwi are valued partners in the education process and when educators, whānau and iwi are open to learning from and with one another.

Ministry of Education Statement of Intent 2009-14

The Chief Executives of all six government education agencies are committed to collective strategic leadership to ensure that Government’s priority outcomes for education are achieved.

The priority outcomes inform the operating intentions of each agency.

Key priorities for Young People Engaged in Learning are:

Every young person has the skills and qualifications to contribute to their and New Zealand's future

  • increased student engagement and retention in education for target groups
  • fewer young people from target groups leaving education without worthwhile qualifications
  • reduced numbers of young people who are not in education, training or employment

Relevant and efficient tertiary education provision that meets student and labour market needs

  • greater levels of achievement for those learners who are currently leaving school without Level 2 NCEA
  • increased numbers of students from target groups completing tertiary qualifications at higher levels.

Summary

This section summarises progress achieving the goals of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success in the Young People Engaged in Learning focus area.

It reports on achievement of the

  • targets
  • actions.

Targets

Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success sets out key targets for measuring progress in achieving the goals for Young People Engaged in Learning:

  • increase Māori school leavers qualified to attend university from 14.8% in 2006 to 30% by 2012
Figure 7: Percentage of school leavers qualified to attend universityImage of Figure 7: Percentage of school leavers qualified to attend university.
  • improve the proportion of year 11 Māori students achieving the reading literacy and numeracy criteria for NCEA Level 1 from 59.4% in 2006 to be equal to or better than the proportion of non-Māori by 2012
Figure 8: Percentage of year 11 students meeting NCEA Level 1 literacy and numeracy requirements
Image of Figure 8: Percentage of year 11 students meeting NCEA Level 1 literacy and numeracy requirements.

* Estimated target based on most recent non-Māori figure

  • increase the proportion of Māori school leavers with NCEA Level 2 or above from 36.7% in 2006 to 55% by 2012
Figure 9: Percentage of school leavers with NCEA Level 2 or aboveImage of Figure 9: Percentage of school leavers with NCEA Level 2 or above.
  • reduce the truancy rate of Māori students in years 9 and 10 by 20% from 4.1% in 2006 to 3.3% by 2012Only base data (2006) available.
  • increase retention rates for 17½-year-old Māori students from 39.1% in 2007 to 50% by 2012

Figure 10: Retention rate of 17½-year-olds in school

Image of Figure 10: Retention rate of 17</strong><strong>½-year-olds in school.
  • increase the proportion of Māori participating in modern apprenticeships from 14% in 2006 to 18% by 2012

Figure 11: Modern apprenticeships

Image of Figure 11: Modern apprenticeships.

Data and method for calculating retention rates was improved subsequent to the publication of the Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success target. The values listed in the target are now very different to what the revised data shows.

  • increase the proportion of Māori school leavers entering tertiary education at Level 4 or above within two years of leaving school, from 28% in 2004 to 32% by 2012

Figure 12: School leavers to tertiary education at Level 4 within 2 years of leaving school

Image of Figure 12: School leavers to tertiary education at Level 4 within 2 years of leaving school.

Data and method for calculating retention rates was improved subsequent to the publication of the Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success target. The values listed in the target are now very different to what the revised data shows.

  • increase the first-year degree programme retention rate for 18–19-year-old Māori students from 81% in 2006 (based on the 2005 cohort) to 88% in 2012 (based on the 2011 cohort)

Figure 13: First-year degree programme retention rate

Image of Figure 13: First-year degree programme retention rate.

Data and method for calculating retention rates was improved subsequent to the publication of the Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success target. The values listed in the target are now very different to what the revised data shows.

  • increase the first-year diploma-level retention rate for 18–19-year-old Māori students from 54% in 2006 (based on the 2005 cohort) to 58% in 2012 (based on the 2011 cohort).

Figure 14: First-year diploma programme retention rate

Image of Figure 14: First-year diploma programme retention rate.

Data and method for calculating retention rates was improved subsequent to the publication of the Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success target. The values listed in the target are now very different to what the revised data shows.


Actions

Table 8: Outlining the goals and actions of the Young People Engaged in Learning focus area.
GoalActionProgress
July 2008–December 2009
Goal 1
Increase the  effectiveness of teaching and learning for Māori students in years 9 and 10
Integrate the  best evidence of what works for and with Māori students into all professional  development programmesProfessional development providers have been actively using Ka  Hikitia – Managing for Success to inform their planning and training  development.
Work with the New  Zealand Teachers Council to set initial teacher education standards that  increase effective teaching and learning for and with Māori studentsThe New Zealand Teachers  Council has focused on ensuring teachers can use culturally-responsive practice  through new requirements for entry to initial teacher training, followed by  support at provisional registration and again at full registration.
Investigate the  provision of language learning support for Māori students transferring from kura  Māori to English-medium schoolingThis has not been actioned yet.
Undertake an  analysis of the effectiveness of particular professional development  programmes that show significant improvements in Māori students’ achievement  and extend those programmes to all year 9 and 10 teachers in schools with  high proportions of Māori studentsBoth Te Kauhua and Te Kotahitanga have been evaluated in 2008/09. A  number of professional development programmes have directly incorporated  evidence about what works from those projects into their programmes. Te  Kotahitanga has been expanded with 17 new schools from the North Auckland,  Waikato, Tairawhiti and Bay   of Plenty regions to be  included in the programme from 2009 to 2012.
Require all  professional development evaluations to identify effectiveness of  professional development in improving outcomes for and with MāoriAll professional development programmes must focus and report on  effectiveness and outcomes for Māori students.
Goal 2
Support  professional leaders to take responsibility for Māori students’ presence,  engagement and achievement
Implement the  Kiwi Leadership for Principals programme, with a specific focus on improving  Māori student presence, engagement and achievementKiwi Leadership  for Principals was launched in August 2008 and contains a number of resources  to support a focus on Māori student presence, engagement and achievement.
Focus  professional leadership development on improving Māori student presence,  engagement, and achievementThe Experienced Principals  Development Project, First Time Principals’ Programme and He Kakano all have  a focus on improving Māori student  presence, engagement and achievement.
Ensure better  sharing of best practice by high-performing professional leaders who are  improving Māori student presence, engagement, and achievementThe Ministry’s school leadership website, Educational Leaders,  provides a means of sharing best practice through online forums and reviewed  professional readings on school leadership.
Strengthen school  planning and reporting processes by increasing the expectation that schools  will have an explicit focus on Māori student presence, engagement and  achievementThe Education  Review Office has embedded Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success into the  questions it asks all schools during its evaluations.
Ka Hikitia –  Managing for Success has also been embedded  in planning and reporting processes for 22 Schooling Improvement Initiatives  that focus on literacy and numeracy in decile-1-3 schools.
Goal 3
Improve support  for year 9 and 10 Māori students to make decisions about future education  pathways
Collaborate with  Career Services and other agencies to build on existing career  decision-making work with Māori. Consider and pilot new approaches to support  Māori students and their whānau to make decisions about future education  choices. Evaluate the effectiveness of these approachesThe Ministry of Education, Career Services and Te Puni Kōkiri have  developed, piloted and evaluated the Whānau Career Decision-making Pilot  Programme to support Māori students and their families to make decisions  about future education choices.
Increase parental  and whānau understanding of NCEA and the choices necessary for building  useful qualificationsPouwhakataki from South Auckland have  been holding presentations, workshops and forums with students, parents,  families and whānau about NCEA in most secondary schools in the Auckland region.
Goal 4
Support Māori  students to stay at school and stay engaged in learning
Strengthen existing communications programmes with whānau and highlight benefits of attending  school regularly and that staying at school for longer leads to better learning outcomes for their childrenTe Mana and TeamUp have been  discontinued. New support for parents, families and whānau is being developed.
Develop best  practice guidelines for student engagement, based on evidence, and support  schools to share information with each other and their Māori communitiesThis has not been actioned yet.
Provide schools  with resources to increase their capability to analyse and use student attendance  data to strengthen student engagement practicesA student attendance data system eAR is being used with schools in the Schooling  Improvement Initiative.
Identify schools  with high early-leaving exemptions, and implement strategies at years 9 and 10  to ensure that students remain engaged in educationThe Student  Engagement Initiative continues to target schools with high suspensions  and poor retention of students.
Investigate strategies to support engagement and achievement of Māori students in years 7  and 8 in order to determine future policy prioritiesIn 2009 the Ministry of Education funded a middle schooling research/literature review to  build the evidence base about middle schooling (years 7–10). In 2008,  the Ministry published a research  report on the transition of a diverse group of students from primary to  secondary school.
Support schools to include student voices in school improvement decisions by developing  innovative Information and Communication Technology (ICT) toolsThis has not been actioned yet.


Discussion

For each Goal from the Young People Engaged in Learning focus area, this section discusses:

  • Why is this goal important?
  • What do the data say?
  • What progress has been made
  • Conclusion.

It also includes two case studies illustrating good education practice that contributes to ‘Māori enjoying education success as Māori’.

Case studies



 

Looking Ahead

In the next year the Ministry will continue focusing on actions to enhance education success for and with Māori. Some of those actions will focus on reallocating resources for professional development.

The ministry will consider the Te Kauhua evaluation and develop a revised Te Kauhua delivery model based on the lessons learnt, and research results of the Te Kauhua schools. This framework will include exemplars, resources, and mentoring and will be accessible to all schools.

A further 17 schools were included in Te Kotahitanga at the start of 2010, Meaning that approximately 7000 more students and 900 more teachers will be involved. The programme in the 17 additional schools will include a stronger emphasis on leadership and evidence-based practice at all levels. Schools will be supported for up to six years, as evidence suggests this time is necessary to achieve lasting change. Interim findings from the Victoria University of Wellington review will be used to inform Ministry decisions about the direction of Te Kotahitanga and possible improvements. The review is due in March 2010.

In 2010, Ako Panuku will provide support for:

  • Māori medium secondary wharekura teachers, based on a ‘visiting teacher – host school’ model
  • Māori teachers who are established in regional clusters
  • schools to work in partnership with iwi.

Support will ideally be delivered through a whole-school approach and tailored to align with iwi education goals.

Further relevant and useful information will be added to the Education Leaders website on leadership practices that support Māori to enjoy education success as Māori.

From term 2, 2010, He Kākano will begin to provide professional development for school leadership teams. School leaders who take part in He Kākano will:

  • challenge their own ideas about Māori learners’ engagement and achievement
  • gather, interpret and use a range of data and other evidence to develop a comprehensive profile of their Māori learners’ achievements
  • establish targets and tailored plans for sustainable improvement in the school’s performance for and with Māori learners
  • work together to analyse their leadership and wider school capability to lead and implement culturally-responsive pedagogical leadership practices and school processes (including governance) that build Māori achievement success
  • lead and manage change within their professional practices that responds to the needs of culturally-located Māori learners
  • build relationships, partnerships and networks that include whānau, hapū and iwi to support ongoing improvement in leadership, teacher, learner and school performance.

The Ministry intends to summarise the Best Evidence Synthesis (BES) findings for whānau and iwi, so they have the information they require to confidently support their children’s learning and achievement at home, in early childhood education and school settings. Contract negotiations are currently underway and the provider will begin work in January 2010.

Trades Academies and the Youth Guarantee will begin to be implemented, and evidence about their effectiveness will be available from 2011.

Key challenges ahead

Key challenges for the Ministry, other agencies and the education sector will be to:

  • better focus resources on improving the literacy and numeracy achievement of year 9 and 10 students so they can achieve the requirements for NCEA level 1 by year 11
  • increase the capability of teachers and school leaders to engage in culturally responsive practice through professional learning opportunities and support
  • ensure that Māori-medium learning opportunities are available to meet demand, and well-supported in terms of resources and opportunities for sharing good practice
  • increase the effectiveness of school/whānau engagement through better support for principals based on the evidence about effective practice
  • identify ways to improve the information available to Māori students, parents and whānau about subject and career choices so that they make choices that open up future opportunities
  • identify ways to improve the retention and progression of Māori students in tertiary education.
 
  

Goal 1: Increase the effectiveness of teaching and learning for Māori students in years 9 and 10

Why is this goal important?

Staying at school to achieve qualifications begins with staying engaged and achieving in years 9 and 10.

Teaching for engagement

Transition to secondary school

A recent study of the transition from primary to secondary school has found that participating students reported less positive attitudes towards subjects over time and showed lower levels of engagement in teaching and learning generally at school as they moved from year 8 to year 9, through year 9, and on into year 10.

Students are more likely to stay at school and stay achieving when they are engaged in meaningful learning: (Education Review Office, 2006)

  • when Māori students are engaged in meaningful learning, their attendance is similar to non-Māori students
  • when Māori students attend school regularly, they are more likely to become fully involved in learning and make informed decisions about their school work.

Within schools, teaching is the most important factor in student engagement and achievement, followed closely by principals’ leadership.

Students can become disengaged from school even earlier than years 9 and 10. For example, a study of the transition from year 6 (primary) to year 7 (intermediate) schools found that while the transition process was not a problem for most of the students, some of the Māori students found it hard to adjust to larger class settings. (Bicknell and Hunter, 2009)

Despite this, retention data suggest that disengagement escalates significantly in years 9 and 10. Evidence shows decreases in boys’ performance and attitudes at age 14 compared with age 12, particularly for Māori boys (Wylie and Hipkins, 2006). This coincides with emerging adolescence as well as the transition to secondary schooling.

Teaching for achievement

Effective teaching requires teachers to take responsibility for each student’s achievement, value diversity, have high expectations and build on students’ experiences. (Alton-Lee, 2003)

Teachers make the most difference

There is conclusive evidence from New Zealand and overseas that within schools teachers have the greatest impact on the learning outcomes of their students:

Notwithstanding the influence of factors such as socio-economic status, home and community, student learning is strongly influenced by what and how teachers teach.
  (Timperley, 2009)

“In any society with different ethnic or cultural groups, teachers from the dominant group will do what comes naturally to them. The result tends to (unintentionally) advantage children from their own group and disadvantage others.”
  (cited in Tuata, 2004)

As young people progress through school the degree of similarity and connection between their home and educational cultures strongly influences their success. Even teachers who have little specific knowledge of a student’s cultural background can plan teaching and learning to make effective connections with those cultures. (Robinson et al., 2009)

Literacy and numeracy

All students require strong literacy and numeracy foundations by early secondary school so they can learn effectively in all subjects and gain the literacy and numeracy requirements for the National Certificate in Education (NCEA).

In the Competent Children study, Wylie and Hipkins (2006) found that those 14-year-olds who had low scores in reading comprehension also had negative attitudes about mathematics and science. Wylie and Hipkins suggested that this was because literacy skills are essential in all subjects.

Literacy and numeracy are also essential to enable young
people to participate successfully in wider society.

The importance of literacy

Adolescents entering the adult world in the 21st century will read and write more than at any other time in human history. They will need advanced levels of literacy to perform their jobs, run their households, act as citizens and conduct their personal lives. They will need literacy to cope with the flood of information they will find everywhere they turn. They will need literacy to feed their imaginations so they can create the world of the future. In a complex and sometimes even dangerous world, their ability to read will be crucial.
(Moore et al., 1999)

The importance of numeracy

Making sense of the world in the 21st Century requires adolescents to develop the ability and inclination to make sense of mathematics in everyday contexts, as numbers saturate the modern world. They will need numeracy skills to interpret the many instances where mathematics is used to help us understand our world. Numeracy will equip adolescents with effective strategies for investigating, interpreting, explaining and making sense of this information in modern society.

What do the data say?

In 2008, 75.7% of Māori students achieved the literacy and numeracy requirements across all levels of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA).  However, only 60% of Māori students achieved the literacy and numeracy requirements for Level 1 of  NCEA by the end of year 11 (73% of all students) and only 53.2% of those Māori students actually achieved NCEA Level 1 by the end of year 11.

Achieving NCEA Level 1 in year 11 is a key starting point for achieving qualifications. While students can study for NCEA Level 1 in years 12 and 13, doing so means that they are unlikely to complete NCEA Level 3 or achieve university entrance by year 13.

Student attendance in year 11 (age 15–16) is one of the most significant factors influencing achievement in senior secondary school. (Ferguson et al., 2003) In 2008, 43% of all male students and 34% of all female students who left school in year 10 were Māori. Of those who left in year 11, Māori students made up 32.8%: 669 Māori boys and 465 Māori girls.

Table 9: Proportion of students achieving NCEA literacy and numeracy requirements across all levels, 2008
Ethnicity 2008
Māori75.7
Pasifika82.9
European/Pākehā89.9
Asian91.8
Other84.7
All Ethnic Groups86.9


Table 10: Estimated percentage of students staying on at school, by age and ethnic group, 2002–2008

Source: Ministry of Education

YearAge=16.5Age=17.5
MāoriTotalMāoriTotal
200262.480.536.857.6
200363.582.637.358.7
200464.482.040.361.4
200564.081.840.361.1
200661.581.239.761.3
200762.681.439.561.4
200865.882.440.462.3

 

Table 11: Number of students leaving secondary schools in 2008 by year of schooling, Māori and non-Māori

Source: Ministry of Education

Year of schoolingMāoriNon-Māori
MaleFemaleMaleFemale
Year  9 111
Year  1034164534
Year  115884271418784
Year  121331124342913278
Year  132573282316,12817,618
Total4526451021,88321,715

 

What progress has been made?

Action: Integrate the best evidence of what works for and with Māori students into all professional development programmes

Professional development is one of several factors that influence teacher capability, along with initial teacher education, conditions of employment and support materials.

There is evidence from Ministry milestone reports that schools with high numbers of Māori learners are being prioritised for school support services. The providers, now part of the universities, have been actively looking at Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success to inform their planning and training development.

Effective professional development

Specific professional development programmes such as Te Kotahitanga and Te Kauhua have shown that professional development that has the most positive benefits for Māori learners are programmes that:

  • challenge teachers’ beliefs and the low expectations they hold of students
  • provide support for new strategies
  • include families and whānau as partners in developing teachers’ capability.

The recent evaluation of Te Kauhua showed that, while the programme was focused on improving outcomes for Māori students, it also improved outcomes across all student groups.


Action: Work with the New Zealand Teachers Council to set initial teacher education standards that increase effective teaching and learning for and with Māori students

The New Zealand Teachers Council has initiated a series of projects focused on three key entry points to the teaching profession that support the goals of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success. The aim is to influence and enhance the quality of (pouako/teachers) throughout their careers and, through that, enhance the learning outcomes of students.

These criteria also apply to teachers when they renew their practicing certificate every three years.

Action: Investigate the provision of language learning support for Māori students transferring from kura Māori to English-medium schooling

Not yet actioned.

Action: Undertake an analysis of the effectiveness of particular professional development programmes that show significant improvements in Māori students’ achievement and extend those programmes to all year 9 and 10 teachers in schools with high proportions of Māori students

Te Tere Aurataki is a Ministry of Education professional development strategy focusing on improving outcomes for Māori students in English-medium schools. It includes

Te Kauhua and Te Kotahitanga professional development programmes continue to show evidence of improved outcomes for Māori students. In 2008/09 both these programmes were evaluated.

Te Kauhua is a professional development programme that aims to improve teaching practice and, consequently, Māori students’ education outcomes as well as the engagement between families and whānau and schools. In six years, more than 30 schools and more than 350 teachers, principals and communities have participated in the programme.

Results from an analysis of student achievement in nine schools in 2008 indicate that there was wide variation in the effect of Te Kauhua amongst the sample of schools. Students in four of the schools showed significant gains of more than twice what could be expected from normal teaching and learning progress. The benefits of the programme were similar for Māori students and students of other ethnicities. (Evaluation Associates Ltd, 2008)

Te Kauhua success story

Lincoln High  School has experienced incredible success from implementing Te Kauhua.

In 2003, only 23% of Lincoln Māori students passed NCEA Level 1. In six years this has changed to 89%, and Māori students are staying at school and gaining increasingly high qualifications. This turnaround occurred because Lincoln took responsibility for the shocking results, and genuinely committed ourselves to changing the way the school serves our Māori students and whānau.

In 2009, eight Te Kauhua schools were involved in further action research projects that built on the original Te Kauhua programme. The final Te Kauhua evaluation report has been submitted by Unitec and is being peer reviewed. The results will be available from the website and will inform future professional development programmes.

Te Kotahitanga is a professional development and research programme for teachers in English-medium schools to support them to engage better with their Māori students. Facilitators help schools to develop and embed processes and professional practices that focus on improving outcomes for Māori students.

In 2008, the 33 schools in the Northland, Auckland, Waikato, and Bay of Plenty regions involved in Te Kotahitanga continued with the programme. Approximately 13,000 students and 2100 teachers were involved.

The NCEA gains made by the schools in 2006/07 were sustained in 2008. In 2008, literacy achievement was significantly higher for students in Te Kotahitanga schools than would normally be achieved.

The expansion of Te Kotahitanga announced in Budget 2009 will see 17 new schools from the North Auckland, Waikato, Tairawhiti and Bay of Plenty regions welcomed into the programme from 2009 to 2012. These 17 schools will be supported for up to six years to establish, embed and sustain the programme into school culture, systems and processes. Nearly 7000 Māori students and 900 teachers will join the programme from 2010.

Victoria University of Wellington has reviewed Te Kotahitanga to identify how well, and in what ways, it works towards the goal of improving Māori student achievement. Findings from the review will increase knowledge about effective teaching for and with Māori students. The findings will also be used to inform Ministry decisions about the direction of Te Kotahitanga and possible improvements. The review has been completed and is due for release in March 2010.

A DVD has recently been published to provide information about Te Kotahitanga, the change it has achieved, and why this programme is of critical importance for Māori students

Te Kotahitanga research is being used to inform other professional development programmes, such as the Secondary Literacy project.

Te Mana Kōrero – Relationships for Learning is also being reviewed to better align it with best evidence about effective teaching and learning for and with Māori students. In 2008, the Ministry provided additional training for 230 advisors through six interactive workshops. The Ministry is currently reviewing Te Mana Kōrero – Relationships for Learning and looking at aligning this with the latest Best Evidence Synthesis (BES) on leadership as well as lessons learnt from Te Kotahitanga and Te Kauhua. The Ministry is looking at producing an online resource focusing on realising Māori potential. This resource will use Te Mana Kōrero and Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success as the foundation and incorporate lessons from Te Kotahitanga, Te Kauhua, the BES research, and other projects from across the Ministry.

Action: Require all professional development evaluations to identify effectiveness of professional development in improving outcomes for and with Māori

In 2008/09, professional development contracts included a focus on improving the effectiveness of teaching for and with Māori students. Overall in 2008/09, the Ministry of Education has been strengthening and enhancing the way it evaluates professional development programmes to ensure it identifies how the programmes are improving outcomes for and with Māori learners.

Other activities

The new national curriculum is made up of two documents, The New Zealand Curriculum(NZC) for English-medium education, and Te Marautanga o Aotearoa(TMoA) for Māori-medium.

Te Marautanga o Aotearoa was launched in October 2008 as the curriculum for Māori-medium education. In 2008/09 the Ministry developed professional support materials to assist teachers to understand and deepen their knowledge of the learning areas of Te Marautanga o Aotearoa.

A key aim of these documents is to set the direction for student learning and provide guidance for schools as they design and review their school curriculum to be directly relevant to the requirements of their students and school communities. The curriculum is designed and interpreted in a three-stage process: as the National Curriculum, the school curriculum, and the classroom curriculum.

The development of school and classroom curriculum allows teachers to specifically reflect their students’ cultures and interests. This process also provides an opportunity and a clear purpose for teachers and schools to engage with parents, families and whānau. It also enables teachers to include the things which parents, families and whānau consider important in their classroom programmes and practices.

In 2008/09, professional development supported schools to develop their school curriculum, with a specific focus on developing culturally-responsive contexts for learning.

All National Curriculum documents (NZC and TMoA) support publications (online and in hard copy) are being developed to be culturally-inclusive and encourage teachers to recognise and meet the needs of Māori learners and their whānau. Particular case studies identify schools that are making progress in this. Further case studies focus on situations where schools are using both The New Zealand Curriculum and Te Marautanga o Aotearoa (and perhaps iwi curricula) to guide their school curriculum planning and review. These cases are being published on Te Kete Ipurangi to provide guidance for other schools. All implementation support is prefaced with the requirement that it be culturally responsive.

Case study: Ko wai au? Being Māori at Rotorua Boys’ High School

At Rotorua Boys’ High School, embedding te reo Māori me ōna tikanga throughout the school helps provide a basis for successful teaching and learning.

“It has certainly been a deliberate policy of mine to try and introduce Māori teachers, especially male Māori teachers, onto the staff so that they can bring that special connection we want with our young Māori men ”, says Chris Grinter, Principal.

“Te reo Māori me ōna tikanga is not just a subject but an integral part of the whole school,” says Director of Māori Achievement Wairangi Jones. Students hear their own waiata, their own mōteatea, their own haka, their own dialect, and the stories of their tūpuna. “Students have the opportunity to be Māori. When you have this incorporated into a school programme, as a Māori your own self-esteem is a lot stronger.”

All the programmes emphasise local knowledge, helping students understand the value of their local stories for their work and their learning.

Mike Green, Carving Teacher, has seen students’ self-esteem build as they gained credits in the course, giving them the confidence to make decisions about where they wanted to focus in the future. “The kaupapa for me is for students to find out who they are and where they come from, looking at the designs and carvings that are more specific to them giving them a chance to express themselves.”

Learning about their history, their families, and traditional and contemporary skills provides a strong foundation for students’ futures as Māori males within their whānau and the wider community.

The Secondary Literacy Project (SLP) is a Ministry of Education lead and funded professional development initiative in secondary schools across New Zealand. The Secondary Literacy Project aims to raise the achievement of year 9 and 10 students, specifically targeting Māori students and Pasifika students who require additional literacy teaching.

Participating schools receive funding for teacher professional development, to develop in-school literacy leadership over a two-year period. Thirty schools will participate in 2009/10, and another 30 will participate in 2010/11. The Woolf Fisher Research Centre in Auckland  University is responsible for the national coordination and research into the Secondary Literacy Project. External professional development support is delivered via regional school support services.

Approximately 6950 year 9 and 10 students were involved in 2009, of whom 1792 identified as being Māori. Student achievement data for this project is not yet available.

The 2009/11 project has made several shifts in focus in order to ensure more effective outcomes from the project. Changes include a stronger emphasis on research and the development of a common assessment tool to identify overall student improvement and effectiveness of the project.

Deliberate involvement of school leaders from the start is also a key focus, as evidence is clear that to be effective professional development must be strongly supported by school leaders, particularly the principal. The project fosters culturally-responsive practice, and draws on successful approaches developed through, for example, Te Kotahitanga research.
 
The Secondary Numeracy Project seeks to improve student performance in mathematics through improving the professional capability of teachers.

The Secondary Numeracy Project was first implemented by the Ministry of Education in 2005 as part of the Numeracy Development Project. Teachers are introduced to the Number Framework which describes strategies and knowledge that students use to solve numerical problems.

The Number Framework supports students to learn through systematically mastering increasingly more complex mathematical knowledge and strategies. Teachers conduct a Diagnostic Interview to assess students’ performance against this Framework, and use this information as a starting point for teaching. Facilitators introduce and model a teaching approach for developing mathematical understanding.

The Secondary Numeracy Project had a consistently positive impact on year 9 student achievement from 2005 to 2008. For schools new to the project in 2007, significant shifts in the performance of Māori students between the beginning and the end of the year were achieved, shown by the proportion of the student population that could perform in the top three stages of the additive domain (41% to 61%), the top two stages of the multiplicative domain (16% to 32%), and the proportional domain (25% to 39%). (Thomas and Tagg, 2009)

Kaiako pāngarau working in wharekura also report student gains on the numeracy strategy framework.

Māori teachers often carry a significant workload in their schools, providing support to Māori students, liaison with families and whānau and advice to other teachers to better support Māori students.

The Māori Secondary Teacher Workload programme is designed to support Māori secondary school teachers, particularly Māori-language teachers. It provides classroom and management resources, professional development programmes and networking opportunities. Te Hiringa i te Mahara provided professional support for teachers under this programme for 10 years from 1998 to 2008.

In 2009 a new provider, Haemata Ltd, launched Ako Panuku, which builds on past successes in meeting the needs of Māori secondary teachers. Through Ako Panuku teachers can access support through resources, professional development and career guidance. Since the new provider began, a series of Wānanga Reo, Raising Māori Student Achievement workshops, and professional development planning courses for teachers have been delivered in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch.

Six regional professional learning communities were established/supported in 2009 – Wellington, Manawatū–Horowhenua, Central Auckland, West Auckland, Hawke’s Bay and Northland. Three national online professional communities will be developed in 2010. The first will focus on supporting teachers around The New Zealand Curriculum and Te Marautanga o Aotearoa.

The resources developed over the past 10 years were archived and made available through a searchable database on the Te Tere Auraki website and 73 online and print resources were published along with monthly pānui issued to the target teachers.

The Education Review Office has incorporated Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success into its evaluation criteria for school evaluations. It has also focused on effective teaching for Maori students in its overall reports. For example, in its report, Schools’ Provision for Students at Risk of Not Achieving, the Education Review Office (2008e) sought evidence about how schools responded to their Māori students at risk of poor outcomes.

Commentary

While some schools are significantly improving their performance for and with Māori students, overall, NCEA results for Māori students are not improving fast enough to meet the targets of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success.

Work by the New Zealand Teachers Council and Education Review Office to ensure teachers can and do focus on Māori achievement should make a difference over time.

The recent expansion of Te Kotahitanga and incorporation of best evidence into professional development programmes in secondary schools should make an immediate contribution to increasing the effectiveness of teaching and learning for Māori students in years 9 and 10.

Improved overall NCEA achievement for Māori students in participating schools should be clearly evident in the next couple of years if professional development programmes have succeeded in improving teaching.

The specific focus of the Secondary Literacy and Numeracy projects on years 9 and 10 should see an improvement in the proportion of Māori students achieving NCEA literacy and numeracy requirements in 2010 and beyond.

Progress should also become more apparent at the national level.



Goal 2: Support professional leaders to take responsibility for Māori students’ presence, engagement and achievement

Why is this goal important?

In Aotearoa New Zealand, the difference in student achievement within a school is very high and cannot be explained by outside factors such as socio-economic status. (Harker, 2007)

Effective principals can address differences within a school by creating the conditions to ensure learning success for all students. For example, they can do this by mentoring teachers, establishing a collegial environment and/or providing professional support.

If principals focus primarily on teaching and student achievement rather than administration, the benefits are significant.

When school leaders promote or participate in teacher professional development they can double the benefits across a whole school, not just one class.

In reviewing work to enhance teaching and learning in Wairoa, Gorinski and Fraser (2007) concluded that improved student achievement outcomes only occurred once school leadership and management moved their focus from operational matters to student achievement.

Curriculum goals, requisite resources and appropriate pedagogical and assessment practices needed to become the focus before enhanced student achievement outcomes were realised.

Learning Partnerships

Home–school partnerships can make a significant difference to student learning. (Education Review Office, 2008a) One of the most effective ways to enhance engagement and learning is to help students connect their school work with their family, cultural, and community experiences, knowledge and skills.

School leaders have an important role in identifying what works best to support connections between home and school. School leaders can promote powerful connections between home, school and community by using opportunities that arise out of everyday teaching and learning.

Iwi hold the knowledge and expertise in terms of the identity, language and cultural needs, interests and aspirations of their families and whānau.

Iwi can therefore make a powerful contribution to education success both at the policy level and on the ground in terms of investing in initiatives and supporting families and whānau and schools.

In its 2008 report, Schools’ Provision for Students at Risk of Not Achieving, the Education Review Office sought evidence about how schools responded to their Māori students at risk of poor outcomes.

Making powerful connections

The latest Best Evidence Synthesis on school leadership has identified that the most effective home–school relationships are where parents and teachers are involved together in children’s learning.

When homework involves collaboration in learning, it also has large positive effects. However, not all homework is good. Homework practices that involve parental surveillance and checking actually have negative effects on achievement.

The third most effective home–school activity is incorporating family and community knowledge into the curriculum and teaching. (Robinson et al., 2009)

Making connections to students’ lives is one of four mechanisms that facilitate learning and enhance achievement in the social sciences.

Similarly, effective mathematics teaching makes links to the prior knowledge and experiences of diverse learners.

The Education Review Office (2008) found that inclusive, well-structured programmes for Māori students helped those who were at risk of not achieving. These programmes reinforced the importance of accurate assessment and identification, focused teaching, timely and veracious reporting, and parent and whānau involvement

The role played by parents and whānau was essential in developing a two-way partnership for learning.
 When the school saw a child’s whānau and community as valued partners in the education process and recognised that, together, there was a lot to learn from and teach one another, the likelihood of constructive learning relationships was more assured.

Whānau had a strong role in working with school leaders to ensure the pedagogy was culturally relevant and responsive to their children, and that it was focused on improving outcomes for Māori learners.

As part of its overall recommendations, the Education Review Office recommended that principals and senior leaders:

  • ensure that programmes for Māori and Pasifika students include culturally-relevant and responsive pedagogy with a focus upon potential
  • involve parents and whānau in supporting their children and reinforcing the work done at school.

What do the data say?

National Standards

The introduction of National Standards from 2010 and Ngā Whaneketanga Rumaki Māori for Māori-medium settings from 2011, will provide a new way for teachers and principals to report to parents and communities about the achievement of students at their school. The Foundation Years and Māori Language in Education sections discuss the National Standards in more detail.

Teachers, leadership and governance

While it is essential that all teachers can work effectively to enable Māori students to achieve success, the presence of Māori teachers and principals in schools can contribute to this by improving the school culture and awareness of Māori learner requirements. In 2009, in state and state integrated schools there were 4943 Māori school teachers out of a total of 51974.

Table 12: Māori teachers as a percentage of total teachers, April 2004–2009
 200420052006200720082009
Total9.29.59.39.39.49.5
Male9.29.39.29.29.39.5
Female9.29.59.49.49.49.5

Figure 15: Māori principals as a percentage of all principals in state schools by sector, April 2001–2009

Image of Figure 15: Māori principals as a percentage of all principals in state schools by sector, April 2001–2009.

Figure 16: Māori as percentage of total appointed, co-opted and elected to board of Trustees 1998–2008

Image of Figure 16: Māori as percentage of total appointed, co-opted and elected to board of Trustees 1998–2008.

Source: Ministry of Education  


In 2009, 12.9% of all school principals were Māori: 12.1% of primary school principals, 8.9% of secondary school principals, and 44.6% of principals in composite schools (years 1–13). This is an overall increase from 10.2% in 2001.

Ideally, governance of schools should match the communities they serve. In 2008, the proportion of Board of Trustee members who were Māori decreased slightly after a steady increase since 2000.

Educational leadership

On average, New Zealand principals do more administration and provide less educational leadership than their international colleagues.

The leadership Best Evidence Synthesis has found that, in New Zealand, principals report high satisfaction with their jobs but also high workloads and stress levels.

Balancing the focus on leading teaching with general management and administration is a major source of stress.

In mid-2006, only 17% of secondary principals thought they had enough time for professional leadership.

The tension between the leadership and management aspects of their role is a recurring theme in New Zealand research on the work of principals.

It is also an issue for middle managers, such as heads of department in secondary schools, but there has been little research into their roles.

 

School leadership and student outcomes: Identifying what works and why: Best evidence synthesis iteration (BES)

The Ministry of Education’s new BES provides a synthesis of 134 New  Zealand and overseas research studies or reviews and sets out eight key dimensions of effective leaders.

  1. Establishing goals and expectations / Whaia te iti kahurangi
  2. Resourcing strategically / Mā te huruhuru ka rere te manu
  3. Planning, coordinating and evaluating teaching and the Curriculum / Kia pai te whakatere i te waka
  4. Promoting and participating in teacher learning and development / Ko te waka mātauranga, he waka eke noa
  5. Ensuring an orderly and supportive environment / Ka tika ā muri, ka tika ā mua
  6. Creating educationally powerful connections / Ehara taku toa i te toa takitahi engari he toa takitini
  7. Engaging in constructive problem talk / He kaha ki te whakahaere i ngā raruraru
  8. Selecting, developing, and using smart tools / Ngā tapu ngaio. Whiria, mahi

 

What progress has been made?

Action: Implement the Kiwi Leadership for Principals programme, with a specific focus on improving Māori student presence, engagement and achievement.

Kiwi Leadership for Principals was released in August 2008. This provides a model on which to build strong professional leadership in schools. It emphasises the role of the principal in leading for learning, using learner achievement data to inform practice and reducing disparity. This focus is supported by a professional leadership plan, launched in May 2009 that seeks to embed the knowledge of what improves outcomes for every student into the daily practices of school leaders. This plan involves ongoing work to strengthen cultural responsiveness in all leadership initiatives.

The foundation of the plan is the educational leadership model from the Kiwi Leadership for Principals.

Leading change

The leadership Best Evidence Synthesishas identified that when school leaders promote and/or participate in effective teacher professional learning, this has twice the impact on student outcomes across a school of any other leadership activity.

However, New Zealand principals spend less time on leading teaching and learning than many of their international peers.

If they are to lead teacher and student learning and manage changing teacher practices, school leaders must:

  • communicate in ways that enable teachers to understand and become committed to the change
  • take account of what staff want and integrating this with the new approach
  • get the relationships right and tackle the educational challenges at the same time – incorporating both, simultaneously, into their problem solving
  • invite the school community to discuss, set and communicate clear goals for teaching and for students’ learning.
  •  

Action: Focus professional leadership development on improving Māori student presence, engagement, and achievement

Support for experienced principals is currently offered through the Experienced Principals Development Programme. This involves 10 providers offering individual programmes, which will be evaluated to inform any future professional development for experienced principals. The providers have attended training days that have involved presentations on how to integrate the principles of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success within their programmes.

The First Time Principals’ Programme is a nationwide 18-month induction programme for new school principals from all regions, sectors and school types. There is a priority focus on leadership practices that improve outcomes for Māori students.

Since 2002 more than 1200 first-time principals have participated in the programme. The number of first-time principals is increasing and around 17% of recent groups have been Māori principals. In 2009, 174 principals participated, of whom 9.3% identified as Māori. This is a lower proportion than usual. In 2010, the Ministry of Education expects at least 200 first-time principals to participate.

The contract for this programme is due to be renewed in June 2010. It will then include an even stronger focus on culturally-responsive leadership and raising Māori achievement.

He Kākano is a new national professional development programme for up to 100 area and secondary school leaders, with a focus on improving their performance and raising achievement for and with Māori students. Professional Leadership Plan in 2010.

Action: Ensure better sharing of best practice by high-performing professional leaders who are improving Māori student presence, engagement, and achievement

The Ministry’s school leadership website, Educational Leaders, was launched in 200X. It contains online forums and reviewed professional readings on school leadership, as well as links to policies, guidelines and forms.

Action: Strengthen school planning and reporting processes by increasing the expectation that schools will have an explicit focus on Māori student presence, engagement and achievement.

The Education Review Office has embedded Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success into the questions it asks all schools during its evaluations, and then reports on these publicly. This sets up a strong expectation that schools must understand and implement Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success, and that education success for Māori must be a high priority for all schools.

Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success has been embedded in planning and reporting processes for 22 Schooling Improvement Initiatives that focus on literacy and numeracy in decile-1–3 schools. This means that those schools are all focused on planning and reporting for their Māori students.

Successful schools for Māori boys

Effective leaders create the conditions to ensure that all students in their schools experience success. (Robinson et al., 2009)

In July 2008, the Education Review Office (ERO) published a report on how 10 secondary schools successfully supported boys’ education. (Education Review Office, 2008)

The ERO found that there are complex issues of male identity and role modelling connected to educational issues for Māori boys. For example, while the schools in the study were developing particular approaches to all their boys becoming ‘young men’, they were only beginning to identify what becoming a young Māori man meant compared to becoming a young pākehā man.

Many of the schools were developing some useful approaches specifically to support the education of Māori boys. For example

  • using high-achieving Māori students as peer leaders and role models
  • employing Māori staff, who could not only teach subjects relevant to Māori boys, but were also role models and linked whānau and the school.

The challenge is to build on these approaches to support the achievement of Māori boys as young Māori men.

Commentary

Evidence about the critical importance of effective school leadership for student outcomes has only recently been given greater prominence. This has led to a new emphasis on the role of professional leaders in enhancing Māori education outcomes.

In order to achieve these outcomes, school leadership professional support programmes must ensure principals develop their capability and confidence to act. .

Evidence about student outcomes suggests that there is a need for a significant step up by many school leaders.

The focus by the Education Review Office in its reviews on Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success and effective teaching for Māori students will provide an incentive for school leaders to directly focus on improving their practice and that of their staff.


 

Goal 3: Improve support for year 9 and 10 Māori students to make decisions about future education pathways

Why is this goal important?

The choice of subjects at secondary school can open up or close off future opportunities for young people. In many cases, the choice of subjects in years 9 and 10 can limit students’ options for gaining the qualification they require to achieve their future aspirations. A large proportion of parents (30%) and students want more guidance in making decisions about subjects in years 9 and 10 before it is too late. (Wylie and Hipkins, 2006)

However, many parents, families and whānau do not fully understand the NCEA system, thereby making it difficult to make the right choices early on. (Meyer at al., 2006; Madjar et al., 2009)

For example, the implications of certain choices on future options can be unclear. Students who choose or are directed into applied versions of core subjects or unit standards courses can find that this pathway ‘fizzles out’ with no higher-level study options. (Madjar et al., 2009)

Māori students are more likely than most to choose or be directed by teachers into these courses. This may be because of assumptions made by teachers or guidance counsellors, along with the tendency of Māori students to be influenced by the decisions of their peers. (Meyer et al., 2006; Madjar et al., 2009)

Importance of early subject choices

In a response to the consultation with young people on Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success, a Māori secondary school student said:

“Year 10 is important because the year after, most students start NCEA Level 1. ... However most teachers do not notify students that you are required to take certain courses in year 10 in order to get into a certain course the next year. Many teachers leave 'blanks' where NCEA is concerned, which makes it harder on the student in the future. If I knew then what I know now, I would have planned my year 10 course a lot better.”

National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA)

NCEA requirements

To get NCEA Level 1, students must gain 80 credits, including 8 from numeracy standards and 8 from literacy standards. NCEA Level 2 requires a minimum of 60 credits at Level 2 or above and 20 other credits. For NCEA Level 3 students need 80 credits, of which 60 must be at Level 3 or above, and 20 at Level 2 or above. To gain entry to a New Zealand university, students need 42 credits at Level 3 or above from a set list of subjects, as well as some literacy and numeracy requirements.

Certain subjects are also eligible to be scholarship subjects, meaning that students who achieve very high NCEA marks are granted a ‘scholarship’ qualification, with associated financial rewards.

A significant development is that in 2008, te reo Rangatira became an NCEA scholarship subject from the 2008 examination round onwards. This enabled high-achieving students to achieve scholarship in this subject.

To enter degree-level tertiary education, students need to achieve NCEA Level 3 with subjects that meet the requirements for entering university.

While the broader choice of subjects in NCEA can encourage students to stay at school, the choices can also be confusing. Information from schools is often inadequate to enable parents, families and whānau to feel confident about making informed decisions. (Madjar et al., 2009)

Students who base their subject choices on external factors such as peers are less likely to gain achievement standard credits or gain Merit or Excellence. They have a lower grade average and study more unit standards rather than achievement standards. (Meyer et al., 2006)

What do the data say?

Māori students tend to choose less academic subjects for NCEA and fewer from the list of courses approved for entering university. (Madjar et al., 2009) This makes it more difficult for Māori students to then enter university if they so desire.

In making subject choices, Māori students are more influenced by external factors such as peers, parents or family than by interest or career goals. These motivators are associated with poorer achievement.

What progress has been made?

Action: Collaborate with Career Services and other agencies to build on existing career decision-making work with Māori. Consider and pilot new approaches to support Māori students and their whānau to make decisions about future education choices. Evaluate the effectiveness of these approaches.

The Ministry of Education has been collaborating with Career Services and Te Puni Kōkiri to pilot and evaluate a new programme Whānau Career Decision-Making Pilot Programme: He Hanga Riki Kaupapa Hei Mahi ā Whānau to support Māori students and their families to make decisions about future education choices. The pilot programme consists of three groups of families cohorts. Work with the first group was undertaken in 2008/09, finishing in July 2009. Initial findings were that Career Services’ career consultants (kaitohutohu) were able to engage with families that are normally inaccessible to government and mainstream services.

Action: Increase parental and whānau understanding of NCEA and the choices necessary for building useful qualifications

Career Services has a website specifically to assist parents in helping their children make decisions.

Career Planning

In 2008/09, Career Services reached 3683 Māori students through its customised career planning group events: Taiohi Tū Taiohi Ora and Te Whakamana Taitamariki (career hui).

The results of its independent yearly evaluation also illustrate that these events instil a strong sense of motivation among the students to stay in school and/or pursue other learning options, with 94% of Māori students indicating this in the evaluation.

New approaches are being piloted to improve support for Māori students and their whānau to make decisions about future education choices and pathways.

Pouwhakataki are Māori liaison officers who aim to better connect families and schools. In 2008/09pouwhakataki focused on providing face-to-face engagement with families around particular learning activities specifically connected to other Ministry of Education initiatives. Pouwhakataki from South Auckland have been holding presentations, workshops and forums about NCEA with students, parents, families and whānau in most secondary schools in the Auckland region. Pouwhakataki are aiming to equip parents of Māori children in years 9–13 with the information and confidence to engage better with school staff and, more importantly, to help their children make informed career choices.

In 2008, the New Zealand Qualifications Authority introduced Tīkarohia Te Marama, a road show targeting a range of teachers and tutors in wharekura, kura Māori, and English-medium secondary schools. The road show promoted what the National Qualifications Framework has to offer, and how Māori teachers and kaiako can contribute to the success of Māori students, making them more aware of:

  • assessment support material and design
  • moderation and quality assurance processes
  • unit standards and Te Waharoa.

To improve secondary school teachers’ assessment practices, NZQA has set up workshops where NCEA moderators directly engage with teachers in developing a shared understanding of the National Standards. In these workshops student work is professionally discussed by teachers to ensure an informed understanding of the National Standards.

Other activities

The Ministry of Education, the New Zealand Qualifications Authority, sector representatives and subject experts are reviewing all curriculum-related standards so that they are aligned to The New Zealand Curriculum and Te Marautanga o Aotearoa.

This review is also looking at possible duplication between standards and ensuring that all standards are similar in level and requirements.

Level 1 standards were consulted on in June 2009, and have been amended in light of the feedback. Level 2 and 3 standards will be consulted on in 2010 and 2011.

The reviewed standards will be implemented over three years with Level 1 introduced in 2011, Level 2 in 2012, and Level 3 in 2013.

NZQA has been working on a new design for the online delivery of secondary school achievement data that will enable users to view data on student achievement at individual schools, groups of schools, and nationally. This will support decision-making at all levels.

Commentary

Well-informed decisions about subject and qualification choices in years 9 and 10 are essential if Māori students are to achieve worthwhile qualifications that open up future opportunities.

The outcomes from the new Whānau Career Decision-making Pilot seem positive. However, the scale of this work is still small. Wider implementation will be needed in order to assess the actual impact on student decision-making.

Strengthening student and parent knowledge and demand with regard to subject choices is only one part of the picture. An area not currently explored is the attitudes and expectations of deans and career guidance counsellors who guide students in their decisions. The influence of these professionals on the options chosen or available to students is huge. It is unclear how well they ensure Māori realise their potential through these decisions.


Case study – With a little help from your MATES

Realising the potential of students to make it in senior secondary and tertiary education is the key purpose of MATES, the Mentoring and Tutoring Education Scheme run by Great Potentials and the University of Auckland.

MATES targets promising school students who are at risk of falling short of their potential. Schools select 12 students to be matched with a friendly personal mentor – a university student who helps develop academic skills as well as providing role modelling and encouragement for around three hours each week after school.

Started in 2002, MATES is now active in 12 secondary schools and one intermediate school in poorer areas of Auckland. Project leader Tanya Heti believes MATES raises aspirations, achievement and self-confidence among high-school students. “There is so much ability in South  Auckland schools, in sports, the arts and in academia. I have seen so many successful kids come out of this programme, some who didn't think they would ever go to university.”

Parents have reported significant improvements in students’ attitude to school and to higher learning, as well as self-confidence and academic achievement. In 2006, over 90% of students in MATES had improved academic achievement and higher NCEA results than other students from the same schools. Around three quarters of MATES students go on to university.


 

 

Goal 4: Support Māori students to stay at school and stay engaged in learning

Why is this goal important?

Staying at school is important for overall success, with a strong positive effect on later income (5–10%). (Earle, 2009)

Generally, the longer a student stays at secondary school the more likely they are to move into tertiary education once they leave school (Ussher, 2007). In addition, one of the important success factors for boys is simply staying at school until the end of year 13. This is because it takes boys longer than girls to achieve a high level of maturity and self-management. (Lashlie, 2004)

In a 2006 study, over half (56%) of early school leavers said they had fallen behind in their school work because of truancy, sickness, or moving around (both houses and schools). (Ministry of Education, 2006) Poverty increases the likelihood of housing transience

If students leave school early, they do not have the opportunity to achieve the learning they need for higher education or skilled work. This sets them at an immediate disadvantage. Going back to learn foundation skills as an adult is now more common, but the costs are high, both in terms of study costs and lost opportunities.

Supporting Māori students to stay engaged at school is therefore essential for them to realise their potential in life.

What do the data say?

In general, good engagement in school is necessary for good achievement. (Wylie et al., 2009b; Education Review Office, 2008a) In 2008, 40.3% of Māori students stayed at school until 17½ years, up from 36.7% in 2003 and 39.1% in 2007. This compares with 68.2% for other students in 2008.

While the retention rate for Māori is slowly increasing, many Māori students become disengaged with schooling quite early. In many cases, this is strongly linked to poor relationships with teachers and low achievement.

In 2008, 43% of all male students and 34% of all female students who left school in year 10 were Māori. Māori students made up 32.8 of those who left in year 11. This demonstrates the importance of focusing on early secondary schooling to ensure Māori stay at school long enough to achieve education success.

In 2008, 53.4% of Māori students who undertook NCEA study had achieved Level 3 by the end of year 13. This is an increase from 49.9% in 2004, and is a greater increase than the improvement for pākehā students (73.5% in 2004 to 75.7% in 2008).

Māori girls are doing significantly better than boys. In 2008, 1115 Māori female students left school with NCEA Level 3, compared with only 630 Māori male students.

STAR

The Secondary Tertiary Alignment Resource (STAR) enables schools to better meet the needs of students. STAR enables students to access tertiary-type courses and learning experiences while remaining enrolled in school. This helps students to make a smooth transition to the workplace or further study. STAR provides all state secondary schools with additional funding to access courses that provide greater opportunities for students.

There has been a substantial increase in the STAR funding formula effective for the 2009 school year. The additional funding is intended to enable schools to offer even more opportunity for students to access tertiary education courses through STAR.

Changes have also been made to enable schools to purchase a greater range of possible learning. These changes are effective for the 2009 school year.


Gateway

Gateway supports senior secondary students (years 11–13+) to undertake structured workplace learning across a range of industries and businesses while continuing to study at school. It is available to state and state-integrated secondary schools. There is no cost to learners. Gateway delivery involves arranging structured workplace learning that provides:

  • a formalised learning arrangement set in the workplace
  • clear understandings about the knowledge and skills to be attained by learners
  • clear understandings about the assessment method used (workplace learning).

 

Table 13: Age standardised expulsion, exclusion, suspension and stand-down percentages by ethnicity, 2008
 Ethnic  group
 MāoriPasifikaPākehā
Expulsions2.55.10.8
Exclusions4.62.91.4
Suspensions13.17.23.9
Stand-downs53.633.720.8

 

Table 14: Percentage of students who undertook NCEA study and achieved Level 1 by end of year 11, 2004–2008
 20042005200620072008
Pākehā73.9%74.7%76.6%79.9%79.5%
Asian69.0%71.0%75.1%74.1%74.4%
Māori44.4%45.2%51.4%54.3%53.2%
Pasifika37.1%37.2%40.4%48.0%47.9%
Other49.6%54.2%62.7%67.6%64.1%

 

 Table 15: Percentage of students who undertook NCEA study and achieved Level 3 by end of year 13, 2004–2008 
 20042005200620072008
Pākehā73.5%74.1%75.8%76.9%75.7%
Asian66.7%71.4%74.2%76.8%76.4%
Māori49.9%49.8%54.1%58.9%53.4%
Pasifika40.5%39.5%39.6%46.6%40.5%
Other59.6%62.8%64.7%58.4%61.4%


Table 16: Numbers of Māori students involved in Gateway, 2008
    AgeMāori  female studentsMāori  male studentsTotal  Māori students
14 and under102232
15205271476
165585611119
17363336699
18274774
19 and over426
Total116712392406

The Secondary Tertiary Alignment Resource (STAR) and Gateway are both programmes designed to support students to progress from secondary to tertiary education and/or work.

In 2008, around 25% of all students participating in Gateway were Māori students. Of these, 1167 were female Māori students and 1239 were male Māori students.

In 2008, 74 students in kura Māori and wharekura participated in Gateway in 12 different schools.

Discussion

What progress has been made?

Action: Strengthen existing communications programmes with whānau and highlight benefits of attending school regularly and that staying at school for longer leads to better learning outcomes for their children.

The advertising campaigns Te Mana and Team-Up provided information for parents and families to support their children’s learning. The key focus of Te Mana was on giving tips to parents, families and whānau about everyday ways of supporting their children's learning. In 2008, Te Mana refocused its advertising campaign on the critical role of families in their children’s learning, education and school. Both advertising campaigns ended in June 2009 following Government’s decision to move from national advertising campaigns to a more targeted approach. The Ministry of Education website now includes a section providing advice and support for parents, families and whānau.

Action: Strengthen existing communications programmes with whānau and highlight benefits of attending school regularly and that staying at school for longer leads to better learning outcomes for their children

The main national communications and engagement campaigns and programmes Te Mana and TeamUp have concluded. Work is underway to develop a new resource for parents, families and whānau on the Ministry of Education website.

The Best Evidence Syntheses gather and analyse the most robust evidence about influences on student achievement.

The BES project is designed to strengthen the evidence base that informs education policy and practice in New Zealand. A Ministry project now underway seeks to gather the key messages from the BES and communicate them to parents and whānau. This will enable parents and whānau to better engage in an education conversation with teachers and school leaders.

Action: Develop best practice guidelines for student engagement, based on evidence, and support schools to share information with each other and their Māori communities

In 2008/09,Te Tere Auraki continued to be a major professional development strategy to improve teaching practice and the engagement and achievement of Māori students in English-medium settings. Te Tere Auraki includes professional development programmes Te Kotahitanga and Te Kauhua.

The Quality Teaching Research and Development programme was designed to improve the quality of teaching and learning for Māori and Pasifika students. It was completed in 2008. The 2008 evaluation and reports from the English- and Māori-medium settings are available to teachers on Education Counts.

Whānau engagement practices

While schools know that parent and family and whānau engagement is important, many do not know how best to go about establishing learning partnerships.

Schools have invested considerable time, energy and resources engaging in practices that not only fail to establish relations with whānau but have minimal impact on students.

Such results can lead to misunderstandings between parents and educators, scepticism about whether whānau can contribute to the formal education of their children, and increased possibility of negative consequences for students.
(Kessler-Sklar and Baker, 2000)

Tahuri (2007) identified key characteristics of effective engagement of Māori whānau in English-medium schools. These include:

  • mana whenua – the unique and rightful place of Māori as an equal partner, where whānau, hapū, and iwi expertise is respected and drawn upon
  • tikanga – the validation of Māori language, culture and knowledge
  • whakawhānaungatanga – nurturing sustainable partnership relationships
  • mahi tika – getting it right by doing things in a collaborative way
  • ma te katoa te mahi – shared responsibility with everyone working together for shared outcomes
  • ma te mahi tahi ka ea – collaboration that leads to realised potential: a shared vision focused on learning and raising achievement (through negotiation).

Action: Provide schools with resources to increase their capability to analyse and use student attendance data to strengthen student engagement practices.

Student Engagement Initiative (SEI) activities within schools to increase student attendance have included support for introducing the electronic attendance register (eAR). eAR enables schools to collect accurate attendance data so they can clearly identify their attendance issues and respond with interventions in a timely manner.

Action: Identify schools with high early leaving exemptions, and implement strategies at years 9 and 10 to ensure that students remain engaged in education.

The Student Engagement Initiative (SEI), which now includes the Suspension Reduction Initiative started in 2001, aims to reduce the disproportionate number of Māori learners being suspended.

The focus is on schools with the highest suspension rates, to increase their student engagement.

In 2008 the Ministry of Education supported 100 schools and 72,163 students through SEI. For Māori students in the original cohort of SEI schools, age-standardised suspension rates have decreased by 66% between 2000 and 2008. This has contributed to 31% reductions in the age-standardised rates of suspensions for all Māori students since 2000.

Action: Investigate strategies to support engagement and achievement of Māori students in years 7 and 8 in order to determine future policy priorities.

In 2009 the Ministry funded a middle schooling research/literature review to build the evidence base about middle schooling (years 7–10). In 2008, the Ministry published a research report on the transition of a diverse group of students from primary to secondary school (Author??, 2008)

Action: Support schools to include student voices in school improvement decision by developing innovative Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools.

Not actioned yet.

Other activities

STAR enables secondary school students to access tertiary-type courses and learning experiences while remaining enrolled in school. There has been a substantial increase in the STAR funding formula effective from the 2009 school year. Changes have also been made to enable schools to purchase a greater range of possible learning. These changes were effective from the 2009 school year.

Trades Academies are being established through new government policy to provide students with a pathway into a trade while still at school. This will provide alternative pathways that might better engage some young people in learning. A Trades  Academy will do this by:

  • delivering trades and technology programmes
    • to students in years 11–13
    • that take account of local and national workforce needs
    • that are aligned to allow students to achieve dual qualifications (NCEA Level 2 and Tertiary, Levels 1–3 on the National Qualifications Framework)
  • developing viable working partnerships between secondary schools, tertiary organisations and industry that promote education, welfare and safety of students
  • providing high-quality
    • teaching programmes that engage young people in education
    • career advice and guidance so that students, their parents, families and whānau can manage career development.

The five Trades Academies selected to start work on their establishment plans were:

  • Northland College
  • Waikato Institute of Technology and Cambridge High School
  • Wellington Institute of Technology
  • Taratahi Agriculture Centre
  • Catlins Area School.

The Ministry will work with six other potential Trades Academies in 2010:

  • Christchurch Polytechnic and Linwood  College
  • Trident High School
  • Education Taranaki Incorporated
  • Greymouth High School
  • Eastern Institute  of Technology
  • Forest Industries Training and Education Council and Agricultural Industry Training Organisation.

Commentary

Well-informed decisions about subject and qualification choices in years 9 and 10 are essential if Māori students are to achieve worthwhile qualifications that open up future opportunities.

It is positive that the new evidence about what works for Māori students and the importance of professional leadership is being used to strengthen and develop initiatives for principals. This has the potential to make a real difference if principals bring this into the everyday practice of their schools.

The retention rate and achievement of Māori students in secondary school is improving, but not fast enough to achieve the targets. While the Student Engagement Initiative (SEI) is having a significant effect on reducing suspensions that is perceptible at the national level, there is no clear indication of improved learning outcomes. Reducing suspensions is only the beginning of ensuring Māori students enjoy education success as Māori.

The rate of Māori school students transitioning directly into tertiary education is far too low, as is the number eligible to enter degree level study. This reflects both the achievement of students in secondary schools (and previously in primary schools), and the choices that students are making (or the opportunities that are made available to them by teachers).

Engagement of years 7 and 8 students in learning is an area that requires further work. It is only indirectly addressed through more general professional development to improve teaching practice.

The new possibilities for Māori student success through Trade Academies are likely to provide opportunities for some Māori students to strengthen achievement and support transitions from school and into tertiary study or employment. It will be important to identify clearly what works for Māori and ensure this is embedded more generally in programmes for this age group.


 

Tertiary Education

Introduction

Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success focuses its goals and actions for early childhood and school education on securing the learning foundations necessary for Māori students to be able to enter higher level tertiary education. While the immediate focus is on years 9 and 10, the importance of success in tertiary education is reflected in four targets.

To monitor the effectiveness of its early childhood and school-based actions, Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success sets out specific targets for tertiary education.

This section monitors progress against the targets for tertiary education

  • Increase the proportion of Māori participating in modern apprenticeships from 14% in 2006 to 18% by 2012.
  • Increase the proportion of Māori school leavers entering tertiary education at level 4 or above within two years of leaving school, from 28% in 2004 to 32% by 2012.
  • Increase the first year degree programme retention rate for 18–19-year-old Māori students from 81% in 2006 (based on the 2005 cohort) to 88% in 2012 (based on the 2011 cohort.)
  • Increase the first year diploma level retention rate for 18–19-year-old Māori students from 54% in 2006 (based on the 2005 cohort) to 58% in 2012 (based on the 2011 cohort).

Tertiary Education Strategy 2010–2015

The Tertiary Education Strategy 2010–2015sets out Government's vision for tertiary education. One of the four key components of that vision is drawn from the strategic outcome of Ka Hikitia - Managing for Success:

‘Enable Māori to enjoy education success as Māori.’

Māori have a unique place as tangata whenua and partners to the Treaty of Waitangi. Tertiary education has a particular responsibility to maintain and develop Māori language and culture to support Māori living as Māori in both te Ao Māori and in wider society.

Māori business and development are making a major contribution to New Zealand’s economy and society. The tertiary education system assists Māori learners to gain the knowledge and skills to lead social, cultural and economic development, manage Māori assets and grow Māori innovation and creativity. In particular, tertiary education plays a major part in promoting the revitalisation of te reo Māori.

The tertiary education system helps to develop the skills, competencies and knowledge needed for Māori to participate in the economy and in society. Evidence shows that acknowledging and advancing Māori language, culture and identity is important in providing a basis for Māori success in all forms of education. Given that one in five tertiary students is Māori, outcomes for Māori students are a critical measure of quality for all tertiary education providers and the success of this Strategy. Effective transitions into tertiary education are critical for Māori students to reach their full potential.

Tertiary sector research, particularly by Wānanga, will help to support development of the knowledge base needed to manage cultural and economic assets and to maintain strong and prospering whānau, hapū and iwi.
(Ministry of Education, 2010)

Why it this important?

Higher education is closely linked to higher income and general well-being, as well as labour productivity. (Earle, 2009; Callister and Didham, 2008) This is important not just for the individual’s well-being, but also for the family, whānau, iwi and wider community, as well as Aotearoa New Zealand.

Successfully completing a tertiary education qualification early in adult life also provides better employment opportunities, income and associated benefits to quality of life. Diploma or degree level qualifications provide the greatest benefits. (Earle, 2009; Ministry of Education, 2008; Ministry of Education, 2010)

This is why the Government is focusing on increasing the proportion of students achieving higher-level qualifications before they are 25.

Students who enrol in tertiary education directly from school have higher retention and completion rates, and are more likely to go on to higher levels of study than students who come back as adults. (Scott & Smart, 2005)

Tertiary Education Strategy 2010-2015

The Government's tertiary education priorities for targeting priority groups in the next 3–5 years include:

  • more young people (aged under 25) achieving qualifications at Levels 4 and above, particularly degrees
  • more Māori students enjoying success at higher levels
  • more young people moving successfully from school into tertiary education
  • improving literacy, language and numeracy and skills outcomes from Level 1–3 study
  •  

More Māori students enjoying success at higher levels

All tertiary education organisations need to take responsibility for strengthening Māori education, creative activity and research outcomes.

The participation rate for Māori students in Levels 1–3 qualifications (10%) was nearly double that of the other ethnic groups in 2007. By contrast, participation rates for Māori aged 18 to 19 in degree-level study remain at less than half the rate for all students, and the completion rates for Māori at bachelors -level study are also lower.

Tertiary providers and ITOs need to focus on improving their pastoral and academic support, the learning environment, and must adopt teaching practices that are culturally responsive to Māori students. Particular emphasis is needed to improve progression to, and achievement at, higher levels of study.

We also want to strengthen the delivery of high-quality te reo Māori provision. Improving the quality of te reo Māori in initial teacher education programmes will be important in helping Māori to achieve success throughout the education system.
(Ministry of Education, 2010)

Overall participation

What do the data say?

Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success focuses on improving engagement and achievement in early secondary school to enable Māori students to go on to tertiary education, particularly at higher levels.

In 2008, 22% of Māori females over the age of 18 were in tertiary education and 16% of Māori males. Of those enrolments, the majority of Māori students were enrolled in institutes of technology and polytechnics with 31,848 students, followed by Wānanga with 22,460 students.

Despite the slight decline in tertiary education participation by Māori, the numbers of Māori students entering higher-level tertiary education has been increasing, while the numbers entering lower level tertiary education have declined significantly.

Student loans and allowances are intended to make tertiary education more accessible. However, many Māori students have difficulty paying the loans back. This is probably due to the fact that lower-level courses (which continue to attract large numbers of Māori) have far lower wage benefits than higher-level tertiary education, making it harder to pay back loans.

Going back to those students who took out a loan in 1997, Māori students made up 42% of those borrowers who had made no progress in paying off their loan by 2007 compared with 23% Pākehā.

Considering that Māori students make up a much smaller proportion of loan borrowers per year than Pākehā, this shows that paying back loans is a significant issue for Māori students, with implications for their families and whānau.

Table 17: Proportion of Māori and Pasifika students enrolled in tertiary education, 2006–08
Proportion  of EFTS 2006 2007 2008
Māori 19.6%19.0%19.1%
Pasifika 6.8%7.3%7.5%

 

Table 18: Enrolments of domestic Māori students by level of education, 2004-2008

   Level
20042005200620072008
Certificates 1–353,79653,4064815346,67043,836
Certificates 419,39319,00018,04717,16816,725
Diplomas 5–711,40412,16911,80111,66611,854
Bachelors14,16513,79513,28013,58713,487
Graduate certificates/ diplomas10361049980953993
Honours & postgrad. cert/dips.1361143717481686
Masters10981167124411011094
Doctorates259275279308349
Total90,67690,35885,56883,91480,604

Target: Increase the proportion of Māori participating in modern apprenticeships

What do the data say?

Industry training provides an important opportunity to gain formal qualifications and upgrade work-related skills while in the workforce.

Modern Apprenticeships is an industry training programme for 16 to 21 year olds. Unlike ordinary industry training, Modern Apprenticeships include mentoring support for students.

Māori students make up around 15% of all Modern Apprenticeship trainees. However, Māori trainees have a much lower completion rate for Modern Apprenticeships than Pākehā. The reasons for this are unclear.

In 2008, the likelihood of participating in work rather than industry training was higher for Māori male students from low-decile schools than for European male students from low-decile schools.

In general, the proportion of school leavers moving into industry training reached a peak for students with a Level 1 qualification and then decreased for those school leavers with higher-level school qualifications (Ussher, 2007). However, high-achieving Māori secondary school students are more likely than other high achievers to go on to industry training rather than bachelors-level study. (Ministry of Education, 2008)

With regard to industry training in general, in 2008 Māori made up 12.4% of the workforce but were over 18% of all industry trainees, with 34,030 participating. This is an increase from 33,348 in 2007. Although total numbers increased in 2008, there was a one percent decrease in women and Māori industry trainees each as a proportion of total trainees. In addition, for a number of industries, the rate at which women and Māori peoples access industry training is lower than the rate at which they are employed in the relevant industries. Of the Māori trainees in 2009, 11.9% were male and 5.6% female. (TEC, 2009).

Māori trainees tend to be in lower level programmes. In 2008, 59% of Māori trainees were in level 3 or higher. This compares with 65% for all trainees. In 2007, 60% of Māori trainees were in Level 3 or higher industry training programmes compared with 67% of all participating trainees. This may be due to the fact that more Māori trainees had no prior qualifications: 33% compared with 20% of all participating trainees.

Table 19: Proportion of students in Modern Apprenticeships by ethnic group in 2008

   Ethnicity
Proportion of students
Pasifika 3.1%
Māori 14.8
Pākehā 76.8
Other 3.3

http://www.tec.govt.nz/upload/downloads/industry-training-report-2007.pdf

Table 20: Completion rates for Modern Apprenticeships by ethnic group - 2002 and 2003 Starters

   Ethnic Group
2002 starters 5 year (%) 6 year (%) 2003 starters5 year (%)
Pasifika7029346313
European 2910 34 41294935
Māori 575 23 2757921
Other 87 41 46 7235
Not Stated 15 13 133027
Total 3657 32 393693 33

http://www.tec.govt.nz/Documents/Publications/industry-training-guide-2008-final.pdf

What progress has been made?

The main action for achieving the targets of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success in tertiary education has been the new investment plan system. This was introduced in 2008 to focus tertiary education organisations on the achievement of high quality outcomes. Government specifies priorities for tertiary education organisations (TEOs) through the Tertiary Education Strategy. These priorities are expected to be reflected in the performance commitments in TEOs’ investment plans, which are then approved by TEC for funding.

For 2008-2010, these commitments included specific targets for increased participation and achievement by Māori peoples. For Industry Training Organisations (ITOs), Government priorities were to improve trainee achievement and strengthen their leadership in managing the delivery of industry training to meet industry needs.
In their 2008-2010 investment plans, ITOs committed to a modest improvement in trainee success.

The new Tertiary Education Strategy 2010-15 expects ITOs and providers delivering industry training courses to focus on improving pastoral and academic support, the learning environment, and teaching practices that are culturally responsive to Māori students.


 


 

Target: Increase the proportion of Māori school leavers entering tertiary education at level 4 or above within two years of leaving school

What do the data say?

Table 21: Participation in modern apprenticeships

* figures are to 30 Sept 2009 only and do not represent a full year

YearNumber  of modern apprenticesProportion  who are Māori
MāoriNon-MāoriTotal
20061,4308,0369,46615.1%
20071,5949,25610,85014.7%
20081,79710,35212,14914.8%
2009*1,82811,02612,85414.2%

In 2008, a higher proportion of Māori students enrolled in tertiary education than any other group. However, Māori are among those least likely to go into tertiary education straight from school. This means that they lose the opportunities to gain benefits from tertiary education early in their working lives.

Although Māori students enter tertiary education at a higher rate than other groups, their numbers declined in 2008, with 80,604 Māori students enrolled in tertiary education. This is down from 83,914 in 2007 and the high point of 90,616 in 2004.

This decline may be due to labour market conditions. When low-skilled work is more plentiful, as in recent years, then young people may choose to work rather than enter tertiary education.

This trend may change in 2009 due to the recession, which has seen overall enrolments in tertiary education increase significantly as work opportunities reduce.

Of those Māori students who did go into tertiary education from school in 2008, most enrolled in Level 1 to 3 certificates. Once in tertiary education, they had the lowest rates of progression from Level 1 to Level 3, and lowest first-year retention and five-year completion rates.

Of the students who studied for NCEA in year 13, Māori students were less likely than Pākehā and Asian students to gain university entrance through that study. And unlike achievement of NCEA qualifications, this has not improved since 2004. Students with higher NCEA results are more likely to go on to bachelors-level study and pass their first-year courses than those with lower NCEA results.

Table 22: Percentage of population aged 16 years and over enrolled in tertiary education, 2004–08
 20042005200620072008
Pākehā73.5%74.1%75.8%76.9%75.7%
Māori49.9%49.8%54.1%58.9%53.4%
Pasifika40.5%39.5%39.6%46.6%40.5%
Asian66.7%71.4%74.2%76.8%76.4%
Other59.6%62.8%64.7%58.4%61.4%


Table 23: Percentage of students who achieved university entrance through NCEA study at year 13, 2004–08
 20042005200620072008
Pākehā70.0%69.4%71.6%72.9%71.7%
Māori45.6%44.1%46.9%50.6%45.4%
Pasifika37.7%34.5%33.9%39.5%32.1%
Asian63.3%68.3%70.5%73.1%73.4%
Other54.4%59.4%62.2%54.8%56.0%

What progress has been made?

The keys to increasing the proportion of Māori school leavers entering tertiary education at level 4 or above within two years of leaving school is:

  • achievement at school; and
  • subject decisions that lead to further learning opportunities at level 4 and above.

These are being addressed through actions in the Young People Engaged in Learning focus area.

Youth Guarantee is a new tertiary education initiative for students who have left school before achieving the essential learning required for work and further education.

The scheme is targeted at 16- and 17-year-olds who enrol to study for a full year. Students that have achieved NCEA Level 1 and have some credits towards, but have not achieved Level 2,are eligible for Youth Guarantee in 2010.

Its purpose is to reduce the costs of study to these students to encourage them to continue their education in a non-school context.

The objectives of the Youth Guarantee initiative are to:

  • increase the educational achievement of targeted 16- and 17-year-olds not currently engaged in education by providing them with improved access to study towards qualifications at Levels 1– 3 on the National Qualifications Framework in tertiary education; and
  • improve transitions between school, tertiary education and work.

From 2010, Government will fund 2000 fee-free places annually for 16- and 17-year-olds at polytechnics, institutes of technology, private training establishments, and Wānanga.

The providers will be from areas with high youth unemployment rates. The courses offered will be vocationally focused courses at Levels 1– 3, with literacy and numeracy embedded in the course content.


 

Target: Increase the first year degree programme retention rate for 18–19-year-old Māori students

What do the data say?

Analysis of background and achievement data from first year tertiary education students shows that success during the first year of study is only partially explained by student demographics, school background, and subject.

A complex set of factors influence a learner’s success, including readiness for degree study, commitment to reaching a goal, an ability to fit into the institution, and the institution’s ability to adapt to individual students.

Improved support for Māori engaged in degree level study is important to ensure success, particularly in a learner’s first semester.

A key factor for Māori learner success is the extent to which they are able to maintain their cultural identity, access social and support networks outside of the institution and feel their experiences are valued within the learning context.
(Earle, 2008)

Table 24: The first year degree retention rate for 18-19 year-old students
Year startedMāoriAll students
200582.3%90.0%
200683.2%90.4%
200780.9%89.3%

 
What progress has been made?

The new Tertiary Education Strategy 2010-15 sets out governments expectations for tertiary education organizations receiving government funding. The strategy has a clear focus on increasing the proportion of students achieving level 4 and above qualifications before they are 25. It also has a key focus on more Māori students enjoying success at higher levels.

To achieve this, the Tertiary Education Strategy expects tertiary providers and Industry Training Organisations (ITOs) to focus on improving their pastoral and academic support, the learning environment, and must adopt teaching practices that are culturally responsive to Māori students. Particular emphasis is needed to improve progression to, and achievement at, higher levels of study.

The main action for achieving the targets of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success in tertiary education has been the new investment plan system. This was introduced in 2008 to focus tertiary education organisations on the achievement of high quality outcomes. Government specified priorities for tertiary education and types of organizations. These priorities were expected to be reflected in the performance commitments in organisations’ investment plans, which are then approved by TEC for funding.

For 2008-2010, these commitments included specific targets for increased educational success for young New Zealanders (under 25) studying at National Qualification Framework (NQF) level four or higher, and increased participation and achievement by Māori and Pacific peoples. Overall, providers’ investment plans have a strong focus on increasing the rates at which their students successfully complete their courses and their qualifications. Universities, Private Training Establishments (PTEs) and Wānanga showed strong improvement in successful course completion rates for Māori in 2008.

Providers’ investment plans included commitments to improve the retention of students in their study. Retention rates for Māori students was an area of particular focus for 2008-2010. TEC therefore expects to see a clear improvement in retention for Māori students over the next year.

Universities also committed to increased participation and success for Māori people at degree and post-graduate levels, however relatively modest targets were set, generally less than 1% growth in the proportion of Māori students with the highest being 3%.

Collectively in their plans Wānanga committed to modest improvement in participation and completion rates for students under the age of 25 studying at level 4 and above. In their plans they also committed to decreased attrition rates and improved course and qualification completions for students over the age of 25 - the majority of students studying at Wānanga.

In the first year of the 2008-2010 investment plans, there was a noticeable improvement in successful course completion rates in Wānanga.



Target: Increase the first year diploma level retention rate for 18–19-year-old Māori students

What do the data say?

The retention rate of Māori students in diploma-level study has increased significantly more than for the general student population between 2006 and 2008.

Recent research suggests that a number of factors are involved in retention of first year tertiary education students.

Table 25: The first year diploma retention rate for 18-19 year-old students
Year startedMāoriAll students
200559.6%73.5%
200660.7%73.2%
200763.6%74.0%

 
What progress has been made?

In addition to the focus in investment plans on retention and completion for students under 25 years, and Māori students in particular, the New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA) has been working on providing support for capability development for Māori tertiary education organizations (TEOs), primarily private training establishments (PTEs) delivering certificates and diplomas. The work:

  • assists TEOs to develop a robust quality management framework to meet the requirements for registration, accreditation and course approval, and Adult and Community Education (ACE) delivery
  • develops TEO capability to utilise the new quality assurance framework.
  • provides information and feedback on how NZQA practices and processes can best meet the needs of TEOs and their learners.

The new Tertiary Education Strategy 2010-15 sets out governments expectations for tertiary education organizations receiving government funding. The strategy has a clear focus on increasing the proportion of students achieving level 4 and above qualifications before they are 25. It also has a key focus on more Māori students enjoying success at higher levels.

To achieve this, the Tertiary Education Strategy expects tertiary providers and Industry Training Organisations (ITOs) to focus on improving their pastoral and academic support, the learning environment, and must adopt teaching practices that are culturally responsive to Māori students. Particular emphasis is needed to improve progression to, and achievement at, higher levels of study.

 

Effective PTEs

A recent study of effective teaching for Māori and Pasifika students in private training establishments (PTEs) found that three key areas are particularly important:

  • the use of an holistic approach;
  • meeting learners where they are at; and
  • the use of celebration, fun, and humour

For more information read Te Rau Awhina: The Guiding Leaf

Adult literacy and numeracy

What do the data say?

Literacy and numeracy skills are essential to enable people to participate fully in New Zealand society and economy.

Improving New Zealand’s relatively low levels of literacy, language and numeracy will be a key factor in increasing life opportunities for people and improving New Zealand’s productivity .

Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success focuses on improving these skills as early as possible to increase Māori learner’s access to secondary and higher-level education.

The International Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (ALLs) measures adults’ skills in prose literacy, document literacy, numeracy and problem solving.

The 2006 ALL survey found that for all three areas of literacy and numeracy that they measured:

  • more than half of Māori adults in 2006 had low skills – Level 1 or 2 skills in all age groups
  • Māori adults aged 25–44 in 2006 had substantially higher skills than both younger and older Māori adults
  • employed Māori adults in 2006 had substantially higher skills than Māori adults not working
  • skill levels are strongly related to education levels. A majority of Māori adults with tertiary education had prose and document literacy skills at Level 3 or above.

Between 1996 and 2006, the proportion of Māori women with very low literacy skills decreased substantially. This was much less marked for Māori men. This may be associated with the higher participation rate, in recent years, of Māori women in tertiary education compared to Māori men. (Satherley et al., 2008)

The finding that16–24-year-olds had lower prose and document literacy and numeracy than 25–34-year-olds is worrying. This suggests a strong need for the current school system to step up its performance in relation to literacy and numeracy.

What progress has been made?

In 2008, Cabinet approved the Literacy, Language and Numeracy Action Plan 2008-2012which sets out key actions to increase the number of adults with the literacy and numeracy skills required to meet the changing demands of modern society and workplaces. This includes a Tertiary Education Research Strategy for Adult Literacy, Numeracy and Language which will provide new evidence about effective teaching and learning for adults.

The Tertiary Education Commission is leading the work and working closely with employers, unions, tertiary education providers, as well as other government agencies, including Te Puni Kōkiri.

To support the strategy, Budget 2008 provided new funding for development and implementation of a range of initiatives that aim to increase the number of adults who have essential literacy and numeracy skills.

The Plan is focused on two key actions:

  1. raising workforce and employer awareness of the benefits of literacy and numeracy skills
  2. increasing the number, quality and relevance of literacy and numeracy learning opportunities.

 

Commentary

The rate of Māori school students transitioning directly into tertiary education is far too low, as is the number eligible to enter higher level study. This reflects both the achievement of students in secondary schools (and previously in primary schools), and the choices that students are making (or the opportunities that are made available to them by teachers).

While Māori students are participating in Modern Apprenticeships, their completion rates are lower than for other groups. This needs further examination.

The retention of young Māori students in diploma and degree level programmes is improving steadily.

While the Tertiary Education Strategy 2010-2015 clearly prioritises activities to ensure Māori students gain higher level tertiary education qualifications, further work is required at both institutional and system levels to realise this. 

Students’ achievement at school will remain a critical contributor to their success in tertiary education.



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