Publications

Ngā Haeata Mātauranga - The Annual Report on Māori Education, 2008/09

Publication Details

Ngā Haeata Mātauranga is a series of annual reports that monitor the achievement of government’s key priorities for the education success of Māori learners.

Author(s): Education Information and Analysis Group / Group Māori [Ministry of Education]

Date Published: May 2010

Māori Language in Education

Ngā Haeata Mātauranga 2008/09 focuses on monitoring progress in achieving the goals of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success: The Māori Education Strategy 2008–2012  from July 2008 to December 2009.

This section reports on progress in 2008/09 in the Māori Language in Education focus area of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success.

To achieve ‘Māori enjoying education success as Māori’, students must have access to high-quality Māori language in education options.

Supporting a strong Māori-language education sector sits at the centre of the Ministry’s ability to deliver on its responsibilities to Māori as citizens and as the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand.

Contents

This section includes:

How to achieve change?

Summary of progress against the Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success targets and actions.

Discussion for each goal including:

  • Why is this goal important?
  • What do the data say?
  • What progress has been made?

Overarching strategic intent

Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success: The Māori Education Strategy 2008–2012 sets out the Ministry of Education’s approach to achieving educational success for and with Māori through to 2012. The overarching strategic intent of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success is:

‘Māori enjoying education success as Māori’.

The six goals for the Māori Language in Education focus area are:

Goal  1Kura are established so that they are viable and sustainable and have quality teaching and learning environments, and the supply/network of kura and wharekura matches demand over the long term
Goal 2Increase effective teaching and learning of, and through, te reo Māori
Goal 3 Increase the number of quality Māori teachers proficient in te reo Māori
Goal 4Develop a strategic Māori-language Education Outcomes Framework that supports a strategic investment approach
Goal 5Increase visibility of te reo Māori in nationwide media and schools to promote the currency and relevance of te reo Māori
Goal 6Strengthen Māori-language education research.
 

Introduction

Māori Language in Education is a defining feature of Aotearoa New Zealand’s education system. No other country in the world has national curricula in two languages that are not direct translations of one another.

Te reo Māori provides the vehicle for developing new knowledge and different perspectives. The creative potential of Māori knowledge and perspectives adds a rich dimension to educational activities and outcomes.

The vision of Government’s Māori Language Strategy is that:

By 2028, the Māori language will be widely spoken by Māori. In particular, the Māori language will be in common use within whānau Māori, homes and communities. All New Zealanders will appreciate the value of the Māori language to Aotearoa New Zealand society.

The goals from Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success for the Māori Language in Education focus area will directly contribute to the Government’s wider strategy for Māori language.

To achieve ‘Māori enjoying education success as Māori’, students must have access to high-quality Māori language in education options.

Supporting a strong Māori-language education sector sits at the centre of the Ministry’s ability to deliver on its responsibilities to Māori as citizens and as the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand.

Māori Language in Education: Definitions

The original title of this focus area, Māori Language Education, has been changed better to reflect the two distinct types of Māori language in education:

Māori-language classes, where students learn the Māori language in English-medium early childhood education services and schools, and through tertiary education providers.

Māori-medium education, which involves students being taught either all or some curriculum subjects in the Māori language. This can be in immersion (Māori language only) or bilingual (Māori and English) programmes.

Māori-medium education takes place from early childhood to tertiary education, in various settings, including: 

  • kōhanga reo in the early childhood sector
  • other bilingual and immersion programmes in early childhood education centres
  • kura kaupapa Māori, kura teina,
  • kura-a iwi (covering years 1–8) and wharekura (covering years 1–13)
  • immersion and bilingual programmes or units in English-medium schools
  • wānanga in the tertiary sector
  • other tertiary education providers including Private Training Establishments (PTEs).
  •  

How to achieve change

Government’s actions to achieve the Māori Language in Education goals of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success have been focused on:

  • strengthening the infrastructure of the Māori-medium part of the education sector and its responsiveness to local iwi requirements
  • increasing the capability of teachers and professional leaders.

These two factors have the potential to make the most difference for Māori students.

The most effective ways to achieve system change in Māori Language in Education are:

Increasing professional learning and capability of teachers:

  • high-quality teaching makes the most difference to student achievement across the sector
  • research has identified the characteristics of teaching and professional development that improve Māori student outcomes.

Focusing on responsive and accountable professional leadership,

  • principals and senior leaders who focus on teaching and learning as the major part of their leadership role improve outcomes for students.

Increasing whānau and iwi authority and involvement in education:

  • parents, families and whānau play a critical role in supporting their children’s learning right from the start
  • learning is more effective when whānau and iwi are valued partners in the education process and when educators, whānau and iwi are open to learning from and with one another.

Ministry of Education Statement of Intent 2009–14

The Chief Executives of all six government education agencies are committed to collective strategic leadership to ensure that Government’s priority outcomes for education are achieved.

The priority outcomes inform the operating intentions of each agency.

‘Māori enjoying education success as Māori’ is one of the Government’s key strategic priorities as set out in the Ministry of Education’s Statement of Intent 2009–14

The Ministry will measure its success by:

  • Māori students achieving their potential through education
  • developing policy implementation tailored to Māori needs and approaches
  • increasing numbers of high-quality te reo teachers entering the teaching profession.

The Ministry’s key actions will be:

  • supporting high-quality teaching for Māori
  • increasing accountability for Māori achievement
  • supporting the Māori-medium network
  • ensuring informed decision-making.
  •  

Summary

This section summarises progress in achieving the goals of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success.

It reports on achievement of the

  • targets
  • actions

of the Māori Language in Education focus area.

Targets

Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success sets out targets to monitor the achievement of its goals for Māori Language in Education:

Figure 17: Percentage of school leavers from Māori-immersion and bilingual schools qualified to attend university

Image of Figure 17: Percentage of school leavers from Māori-immersion and bilingual schools qualified to attend university.

Figure 18: Percentage of year 11 te reo students studying te reo Rangatira

Image of Figure 18: Percentage of year 11 te reo students studying te reo Rangatira.

Figure 19: Percentage of school students engaged in Māori-language education

Image of Figure 19: Percentage of school students engaged in Māori-language education.

Māori Language in  Education Summary:

Actions


Table 26: Outlining the goals and actions of the Māori Language in Education focus area.
GoalActionProgress
   July  2008–December 2009
Goal 1
Kura are established so that they are viable, sustainable, and have quality teaching and learning environments and the supply/network of kura and wharekura  matches demand over the long term
Review processes for establishment of kura to ensure funding, teaching, learning  resources and support provide the best conditions for teaching and learningKura establishment processes have been  reviewed and a new process is being introduced in 2010.
A research project examining successful kura is due for completion in  mid 2010. The research will investigate what success means for kura and how  they go about achieving success.
Strengthen  the processes to enable whānau, hapū, and iwi involvement in the  establishment of kura and wharekuraWork is being done with clusters of kura to  strengthen governance  and management capability. The training provided to these clusters  in 2008/09 has been aimed at meeting the needs of kura that are preparing for  establishment or have recently been established.
Goal 2
Increase effective  teaching and learning of, and through, te reo Māori
Develop  and implement a strand within the Kiwi Leadership for Principals programme to  support principals in Māori-medium education to lead the learning in their  kuraThe Tū Rangatira Māori leadership  project began in 2009 to  support the growth, strength and sustainability of Māori leadership within  the Māori-medium sector. It is based on a kaupapa Māori leadership model.
Support  the implementation of Te Marautanga o  Aotearoa and the development of relevant resourcesIn 2009, professional support was provided for  Māori-medium schools and settings to help them develop and trial their  Marautanga a kura based on Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. This support will continue to 2010.
In 2008/09 the Ministry of Education developed  supplementary professional support materials to assist teachers to understand  and deepen their pedagogical content knowledge of the learning areas of Te Marautanga o Aotearoa.
A review of all  curriculum-related standards for NCEA is also underway to ensure that they  are aligned to The New  Zealand Curriculum or Te Marautanga o Aotearoa.
Support  decision-making by whānau with information about quality provision in Māori-language  education optionsIn 2009, the Ministry of Education has been developing Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori, the Māori-medium standards, for all children from years 1–8 in Māori-medium  schooling.
Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori will provide information for parents, families and whānau to inform their discussions with teachers about their children’s progress and their decisions about their schooling.
They will be consulted in 2010.
Strengthen  professional development approaches and the range of assessment tools to lift  the quality of teaching and assessment in Māori-medium educationIn 2008/09 the Ministry continued to support a  range of professional development programmes to build the capability of  teachers in Māori-medium schooling. For example, in  2008–09 the Ministry of Education has been working collaboratively to pilot Tatari, Tautoko, Tauawhi (TTT), an effective phonological awareness programme, in three Rotorua kura. The Ministry is currently working with Waikato University to develop a model to  deliver Tatari, Tautoko, Tauawhi (TTT) to schools in Manurewa as part of the Manurewa Literacy Project to support the teaching of literacy in te reo Māori.
In early 2009, the Ministry  began developing the National Standards for Māori-medium schooling, Ngā Whanaketanga  Rumaki Māori to support  effective teaching and learning in Kōrero, Pānui, Tuhituhi and Pāngarau (oral language, reading, writing and maths) for students in years 1–8.
Consolidate and  build evidence around second language teaching to enhance the effectiveness of professional development programmes and lift the quality of teaching te  reo Māori as a second languageTe Whakapiki i te Reo is a programme to  strengthen the language proficiency of teachers and teaching effectiveness  for Māori medium classrooms. It  is being provided in a range of Māori-medium schools throughout 2009–12.
The Te Reo Māori in English-medium Schools Advisory Group was  established in 2009 to provide feedback and advice on the Ministry’s work to  support the teaching and learning of Māori language in English-medium schools.
The Ministry of  Education’s Schooling Group is conducting a literature review of effective teaching and assessment practices for linguistically diverse  learners in bilingual/immersion education settings.
Support Māori-medium providers to develop local resources for local needsIn 2009, professional support was provided to  Māori-medium schools and settings to help them develop and trial their marautanga ā kura. This support will continue to 2010.
Community-based language initiatives (CBLI) have been developed to enhance parent and caregiver Māori language skills and provide for the development of localised Māori language teaching and learning  resources. CBLI funding supports  iwi to develop education resources for use in both whānau and kura learning  settings that enable students to access quality and appropriate iwi based  learning. This provision will continue in 2010.
Explore using ICT  to support Māori-language teaching and learningThe Learning Activities Management System (LAMS)  is a new  information technology resource that enables teachers and school leaders in  Māori-medium settings to share knowledge, resources and teaching ideas on a  daily basis.
Goal 3
Increase the number  of quality Māori teachers proficient in te reo Māori
Work with the New  Zealand Teachers Council to set standards to improve the quality of initial  Māori-medium teacher educationThe New Zealand  Teachers Council has been carrying out a review of the approvals  and requirements for initial teacher education for the last two years. The  Māori-medium teacher education sector is an important aspect of that review  process.
The Council is also undertaking  a three-phased te reo Māori research project with the principal aim to  enhance the proficiency levels of graduates from initial Māori-medium teacher  education programmes.
Work with the  Tertiary Education Commission to increase access and options available for  teacher training in immersion educationThis is part of ongoing work of the Tertiary  Education Commission.
Revise incentives  and scholarships to attract and retain quality teachers in Māori-medium  settingsTeachNZ has a range of  scholarships to support Māori-medium teacher education as well as the Māori Immersion Teacher  Allowance for teachers who use te reo Māori as the  language of communication and instruction.
Support schools  to develop a five-year plan for teachers, linked to Te Taura Whiri i te Reo  Māori proficiency levels, to meet the graduating standards for te reo Māori  set by the New Zealand Teachers CouncilNot actioned yet.
Strengthen the  range of programmes and incentives for schools so teachers can engage in high  quality professional development to improve their proficiency in te reo MāoriTe Whakapiki i te Reo is a new programme to  strengthen the language proficiency of teachers and teaching effectiveness  for Māori-medium classrooms. Te Whakapiki i te Reo is being provided in a range of Māori-medium schools throughout  2009–12.
The Te Reo Māori in English-medium  Schools Advisory Group also  supports the teaching and learning of Māori language in English-medium  schools and contributing to the development of a professional development  framework for te reo Māori.
In 2010, six primary  teachers/principals, six secondary teachers and two area teachers were  awarded TeachNZ study awards to  complete te reo Māori and other qualifications related to te reo me ona tikanga Māori.
Goal 4
Develop a strategic  Māori-language Education Outcomes Framework that supports a strategic  investment approach
Develop and  implement a policy framework to inform investment priorities for Māori-language  education over the next 10 yearsThe Māori-language Education Framework has been finalised  and sets out areas for investment that are based on what research and  experience show make the greatest difference to raising learner achievement.  A set of strategic policy principles are now being developed to guide the  direction for the provision and delivery of Māori Language in Education.
Goal 5
Increase visibility  of te reo Māori in nationwide media and schools to promote the currency and  relevance of te reo Māori.
Increase the  visibility of te reo Māori across children’s television programmes on week  nights by partnering with Te Taura Whiri I te reo Māori and working with  Television New Zealand through its State CharterIn 2008/09, the Ministry initiated scoping the action from Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success to increase  the visibility of te reo Māori across children’s television programmes. This  work is now on hold due to the removal of the State Charter.
Support state  schools to look for more opportunities for te reo Māori to be visibleSeveral resources  have been published to support schools make te reo Māori more visible. Te Aho Arataki Marau mō te Ako  I Te Reo Māori – Kura Auraki/Curriculum Guidelines for Teaching and Learning  Te Reo Māori in English-medium Schools was particularly significant in highlighting the status of te reo Māori as an  official language of Aotearoa New Zealand. It provides guidance to teachers of te reo Māori as a second language  in English-medium schools.
Goal 6
Strengthen Māori-language  education research
Ensure that a  Māori-language education focus is integral to developing a Ministry of  Education research and development strategyIn 2009, the Ministry initiated new research projects to increase the knowledge base around  Māori-language education. These focus on:
  • Successful Kura
  • Transitions between education  settings
  • Marautanga ā kura
  • Language learning  progressions
In addition, a large number of research  reports were published that provide evidence about effective teaching and  learning for Māori students.
The development of language proficiency  progressions in Māori-medium education is a research project designed to make  explicit the progress students could be expected to make at the different  ages and stages of their reo Māori development and how this can be measured.
Strengthen links  with other research agencies and tertiary institutions to build knowledge of  mātauranga Māori furtherThe Tertiary Education Strategy 2010–2015 promotes the role of tertiary sector research, particularly by wānanga, in  supporting the development of the knowledge base needed to manage cultural  and economic assets and to maintain strong and prospering whānau, hapū and  iwi. This provides a strong basis for tertiary education organisations to  allocate funding to support research to build mātauranga Māori.
Facilitate and  support iwi to continue research and development of mātauranga MāoriAll iwi/Ministry relationships, whether  long-established or new, contain projects that enable iwi to revitalise and  re-connect with their own tribal knowledge. The development of a local curriculum  based on Te Marautanga o  Aotearoa provides another opportunity to revitalise local  knowledge.

Discussion

Opportunities to learn in and through te reo Māori across the education sector began from the aspirations of iwi and Māori communities. Iwi and Māori communities maintain a critical role as guardians of language in all Māori Language in Education options.

Equally, the Government has a critical role to play in setting the policy conditions that will enable those involved in Māori Language in Education to build on the gains already made for Māori learners. 

For each Goal from the Māori Language in Education focus area, this section discusses:

  • Why is this goal important?
  • What do the data say?
  • What progress has been made?
  • Conclusion

Definitions

Kaupapa Māori Education Māori education that incorporates a Māori world view and ways of teaching in a range of settings including bilingual and immersion settings.

Kōhanga Reo Māori language settings (early childhood education services) affiliated with Te Kōhanga Reo National Trust.

Kura-a-iwi Kura established under section 156 of the Education Act, as a special character school delivering Māori medium education and aligned to a particular iwi

Kura kaupapa Maori Kura established under section 155 of the Education Act, as a kura supported by Te Rūnanganui o Ngā Kura Kaupapa Māori o Aotearoa with the learning programmes based on Te Aho Matua -Māori philosophies.

Kura Māori Kura established under section 156 of the Education Act, as a special character school delivering Māori medium education

Kura Motuhake Generic term used when referring to all kura established under section 156 whether they are attached to an iwi or not

Kura teina Not fully an independent school established under section155 of the Education Act, development/establishment stage, aligned to a kura Tuakana

Māori language education All education that teaches Māori language skills and delivers education in and through te reo Māori.

Māori-medium Teaching that includes use of te reo Māori. Learners are taught curriculum subjects in either both te reo Māori and English or in te reo Māori only.

Wharekura Māori medium secondary education provision.


Looking ahead

The Te Reo Māori in English-medium Schools Advisory Group will continue in 2010 to provide feedback and advice on the Ministry’s work to support the teaching and learning of Māori language in English-medium schools. The ministry is looking at ways to include iwi and whānau representation within the advisory group in 2010.

A critical piece of work in 2010 is the development of an implementation plan for the Māori Language in Education Outcomes Framework, which will include refining the outcomes framework and ten-year investment plan. This work is important for helping the Ministry of Education to allocate resources to achieve the best results for students, whānau and schools. In 2010, the Community-based Language Initiatives (CBLI) will provide funding for the Ministry’s iwi partners to develop ways to revitalise te reo Māori through parents and for students. In the future, funding will be made available to iwi when it is mutually agreed that they are ready to enter into CBLI rather than waiting until the next intake of groups is due to occur. In addition, the Ministry is identifying exemplars of good practice that will be transferable to other iwi.

Iwi relationships
will also be spread into the rest of the Ministry from their current focus in Group Māori. This will require internal capability building to ensure staff are able to work effectively in partnership with iwi.

Māori-medium schools

A key focus for Māori-medium schools in 2010 will be the development, trialling and implementation of Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori, the Māori-medium standards, to support the teaching and learning of literacy and numeracy within Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. In 2010 all Māori-medium schools will work with Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori with full implementation beginning from 2011.

During 2010–12 the Ministry of Education will refocus its investments on the implementation of Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori, the Māori-medium standards. This will include:

  • programmes that support engagement with parents and whānau
  • professional development programmes.

To further support professional leaders, the Kaupapa Māori Leadership project will develop a Professional Leaders Plan that aligns to the finalised Tū Rangatira, Māori-medium Educational Leadership.

In 2010, a pilot professional development programme for teachers of te reo Māori is being offered to two clusters (one in the North Island and one in the South Island) utilising the Virtual Learning Network.

Key challenges ahead

The key challenges ahead for the Ministry of Education in Māori Language in Education will include:

  • the successful development and implementation of Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori, the Māori-medium standards – this work has the potential to greatly increase the assessment resources and knowledge of teachers in Māori-medium settings
  • increasing the supply of capable teachers and professional leaders, and supporting them to remain in education
  • putting into place the new kura establishment processes and supporting the evolution of kura motuhake in ways that ensure the quality of education as well as iwi aspirations
  • bringing responsibility for engaging with iwi and working together to achieve shared goals into the wider Ministry (rather than just Group Māori).


 

Goal 1: Kura are established so that they are viable, sustainable and have quality teaching and learning environments, and the supply/network of kura and wharekura matches demand over the long term

Why is this goal important?

Kōhanga reo, kura kaupapa Māori, kura teina, kura motuhake, and wharekura involve much more than immersion in Māori language. These Māori-medium education providers operate within a specific cultural framework and, in some cases, culture and language specific to a particular iwi. They play a key role in realising community aspirations and supporting the understanding and development of Māori language, culture and knowledge.

All students must be able to access quality Māori-medium education options across the education sector if they so choose. This requires both quality provision and a strong network of providers.

Access to Māori-medium education options is only the beginning. Participation must be sustained and whānau engagement supported if students are to enjoy learning success.

Challenges facing Māori-medium education providers across the sector include the shortage of qualified teachers and relief teachers, limited availability of appropriate initial teacher education, the need for a greater range of relevant teaching and learning resources, and ensuring quality teaching practice across the sector.

Quality teaching in kura kaupapa Māori

In a 2007 report, the Education Review Office (ERO) found that good practice in kura kaupapa Māori means:

  • kura whānau establishing a sound knowledge of Te Aho Matua, and developing a shared understanding of the importance of its practical implication in the kura
  • high expectations of kura whānau for student success in learning, in both the Māori language and English, that guide the future direction of programmes, interactions, experiences and practice
  • kura whānau remaining focused on delivering a high-quality, holistic education that reinforces and acknowledges the importance of establishing a strong sense of identity in each student
  • kura whānau reviewing kura practice and programme effectiveness in light of information on achievement
  • whānau working together and sharing strengths and expertise to enhance learning opportunities and experiences for students
  • kaiako making effective use of assessment information to plan and adapt their teaching, thereby working to address the needs of individual students
  • kaiako sharing assessment information with students so students gain greater understanding of their own learning
  • reflective kaiako actively seeking information on how to improve their teaching, refine learning programmes, and monitor the practices in their kura to enhance student performance, achievement and outcomes.

(Education Review Office, 2007)

What do the data say?

There were 6267 students in kura kaupapa Māori and kura teina in 2009. This is an increase of 9.3% since 2002 when 5428 were enrolled. This compares with an 9.5% increase in the total Māori school student population over the same period.

If the increase in those enrolled in kura kaupapa continues, then there will be a further increase in the demand for teachers who are able to teach the entire curriculum in Māori – an area where there is already a shortage of teachers.

Since 1992 there has been a huge increase in the number of kura kaupapa Māori and kura teina, from 13 such schools in 1992 to 72 in 2009. The most dramatic increase in the number of kura kaupapa Māori and kura teina occurred during the 1990s. Since then the growth rate has slowed with a 2.9% increase in the number of kura kaupapa Māori and kura teina since 2002.

Figure 20: Students in Māori-medium and Māori-language learning 2001–2009

Image of Figure 20: Students in Māori-medium and Māori-language learning by type 2001–2009.

Figure 21: Number of kura kaupapa Māori and designated character schools, 2000-2009

Image of Figure 21: Number of kura kaupapa Māori and kura teina schools 1997–2009.

Source: Education Counts

Figure 22: Number of students in Kura Kaupapa Maori (Section 155) and Designated Character (Section 156) schools, 2000-2009

Image of Figure 22: Highest NCEA qualification gained by year 11 candidates, 2008.

As in English-medium schooling, there are differences in the performance of Māori-medium schooling for their students. In addition, the relatively small numbers of students make it difficult to generalise about the outcomes. However, the data has consistently shown that year 11 students attending Māori-medium schools achieved higher National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) attainment rates than their peers attending English-medium schools

2008 data from the Māori-medium education sector also shows promising pockets of success for years 11–13. Candidates at Māori-medium schools continue to be more likely to meet both the literacy and numeracy requirements (in te reo Māori and/or English) for NCEA Level 1 by the end of Year 11 than their Māori counterparts at English-medium schools (in English).

Years 11–13 candidates at Māori-medium schools were more likely to gain a typical level or higher NCEA qualification than their Māori peers at English-medium schools. The typical levels of NCEA qualifications are Level 1 for year 11 students, Level 2 for year 12 and Level 3 for year 13.

The proportion of students from Māori-medium schools who leave school qualified to attend university is much higher than the number of Māori students in English-medium schools, and comparable with the proportion of non-Māori in English-medium schools.

Figure 23: Highest NCEA qualification gained by year 11 candidates, 2008

Image of Figure 23: Enrolments in Māori-language early childhood education services 2000–2008.



Table 27: Year 11 candidates meeting the literacy and numeracy requirements for NCEA Level 1, 2006–2008
  Met both (%)Met literacy only  (%)Met numeracy only  (%)
2006Candidates at  Māori-medium schools80.813.93.2
Māori at other schools64.95.615.3
Non-Māori at other  schools80.82.79.5
2007Candidates at Māori  medium-schools82.710.42.2
Māori at other schools64.85.515.9
Non-Māori at other  schools82.12.29.0
2008Candidates at  Māori-medium schools84.411.02.0
Māori at other schools64.85.515.9
Non-Māori at other  schools82.12.29.0

In its 2008 report on the quality of teaching in 76 kura kaupapa Māori, the Education Review Office found that:

  • 16 kura (21%) were providing consistently high-quality education (successful kura)
  • 54 (71%) were providing satisfactory quality
  • six (8%) had provided low-quality education over a prolonged period (struggling kura)

(Education Review Office, 2008e)


Table 28: School leavers from Māori-immersion and bilingual schools qualified to attend university 2002–2008
YearPercentage of school  leavers qualified to attend university
Māori-immersion  and bilingual schoolsNon-Māori  from English-medium schools
200221.031.2
200324.533.1
200433.636.9
200526.637.8
200639.341.3
200742.843.8
200841.448.3
 

Quality teaching in kura kaupapa Māori

Features of a successful kura

The kura board has defined objectives for each of the mātāpono or principles of Te Aho Matua and has identified expected student outcomes. The whānau vision reflects a strong commitment to Māori language, and highlights key focus areas and clear expectations for all whānau, staff and students.

Whānau and teachers demonstrate their commitment to providing students with an education that acknowledges and respects their individual and iwi identity, and equips them for future learning and success. A range of traditional and contemporary teaching approaches is used effectively.

Whānau and teachers provide a nurturing and respectful learning environment where students are encouraged to engage with new ideas, take risks, explore concepts and participate actively in all learning. Students are physically, culturally and academically successful at the national level.

Teachers use a range of effective strategies to foster and enhance students’ use of Māori language and integrate these across the curriculum. Whānau and teachers also recognise the importance of providing strong language models for students and attend wānanga to extend their own language abilities.

Teachers use assessment data to identify individual learning abilities and needs and guide teaching and learning. NCEA results in te reo Māori and te reo Rangatira confirm students’ academic success in these areas.

What progress has been made?

Action: Review processes for establishment of kura to ensure funding, teaching, learning resources and support provide the best conditions for teaching and learning

The Ministry has revised the establishment process for kura kaupapa Māori to ensure that newly established kura are viable, capable and empowered to flourish.

The revised process provides for the establishment of new kura kaupapa Māori with expected rolls of 35 or more students on the same basis as English-medium schools. It is proposed that kura kaupapa Māori established on this basis will have the same provisions as English-medium schools, including:

  • the appointment of an establishment board of trustees
  • full establishment resourcing and necessary support in property development
  • the capacity to appoint a principal and staff
  • access to provisions for training in governance and management.

Where there are 18–34 students, the revised process provides for the setting up of satellite units fully operated by established high-performing kura as base schools. The aim is to ensure quality education provision to students by having a high-performing kura directly involved in the development and ongoing operation of the satellite unit.

Satellites will be able to operate indefinitely, or until such time as the number of students in the satellite reaches 35, at which point the satellite may seek to be established as a kura using the new process.

Action: Strengthen the processes to enable whānau, hapū, and iwi involvement in the establishment of kura and wharekura

Work is being done with clusters of kura to strengthen governance and management capability. The training provided to these clusters in 2008/09 has been aimed at meeting the needs of kura that are preparing for establishment or have recently been established. It is planned to extend this training to other established kura where there are risks to governance and/or management performance.

A research project examining successful kura is due for completion in mid 2010. The research will investigate what success means for kura and how they go about achieving success.

Commentary

The new kura kaupapa Māori establishment processes have the potential to strengthen the network of effective kura kaupapa Māori and wharekura and reduce some of the impediments to successful establishment and the sustainability of quality teaching and learning, and professional leadership.  The effectiveness of this change in responding to community demand as well as ensuring quality teaching and learning will be monitored over the next few years.


 

Goal 2: Increase effective teaching and learning of, and through, te reo Māori

Why is this goal important?

As an official language of Aotearoa New Zealand, te reo Māori offers unique academic, cultural, educational, economic, social and linguistic benefits for all New Zealanders.

International research shows speaking more than one language has definite benefits. These benefits include the ability to think more creatively, an appreciation of differing world views, a stronger sense of self and cultural identity, and an enhanced ability to participate in more than one culture.

As with all education provision, the quality of teaching and professional leadership in kura Māori, wharekura and Māori language teaching is critical for the education success of Māori students.

To work effectively, teachers in Māori-medium settings require expertise in Māori language and culture, as well as in teaching and learning across the curriculum.

Education has a key role in achieving Government’s goal that by 2028most Māori will be able to speak te reo Māori to some extent and the proficiency of people speaking, listening, reading and writing in te reo Māori will have increased.

A 2006 survey of Māori showed that although older Māori were still most proficient, more young Māori are now able to speak, read and write te reo Māori fluently.

However, since 2006 there has been a small decline in the overall numbers of students involved in Māori-language education across all schools.

Successful outcomes in immersion or bilingual education are supported by:

  • early language teaching (i.e., from early childhood education)
  • participating in bilingual or immersion education for at least four years and ideally six to eight years
  • more intensive immersion education and a different type of pedagogy (second language acquisition) for those coming late to language learning
  • family use of the Māori language in the home environment
  • productive partnerships between whānau, Māori communities, kura, schools and Government
  • quality teaching and programmes involving at least 50% immersion in the target language (Māori), taught by teachers with a high level of competency in the Māori language and in teaching a second language.

(May et al., 2004)

What do the data say?

Early childhood education

Children achieve best in Māori-language education when they have an early start and this is sustained for four to six years. (May et al., 2004)

The proportion of Māori bilingual and immersion early childhood education services throughout Aotearoa New Zealand is an indication of how responsive services are to the cultural and language aspirations of children, parents, whānau and communities, particularly those with Māori heritage.

While the proportion of Māori-immersion centre-based licensed services has fallen steadily over time (from 17.1% in 2002 to 12.5% in 2009), the proportion that are bilingual has increased (from 10.7% to 16.7%). As a combined total, Māori bilingual and immersion services have risen slightly (from 27.7% to 29.2%).

Education and care services have the highest proportion of Māori bilingual services (21.9% in 2009). A lower proportion of kindergartens (14.9%) and playcentres (10.8%) are bilingual. The proportion has risen over time for all three service types, except that playcentres dropped slightly in 2009. All kōhanga reo services are full Māori immersion.

There has been a decreasing trend in the percentage of Māori enrolments in services that use te reo Māori for more than 50% of their time and a consequent increasing trend in services that use te reo less than 50% of their time.

Figure 24: Enrolments in Māori-language early childhood education services 2000–2009

Image of Figure 24: Number of Māori-language early childhood immersion education services by type of service 2002–2008.

Figure 25: Number of Māori-language early childhood immersion education services by type of service 2002–2009

Image of Figure 25: Number of Māori-language early childhood bilingual education services by type of service 2002–2008.

Figure 26: Number of Māori-language early childhood bilingual education services by type of service 2002–2008

Image of Figure 26: Number of Māori students at secondary level taking te reo Māori as a subject for at least three hours per week, 2001–2009.

Schools

Overall there has been a decrease in the number of students participating in some form of Māori Language in Education. In 2003, 21.9% of students were participating in Māori-language education, i.e. learning Māori language or being taught in Māori-medium settings. In 2008, only 19.7% of students were in Māori-language education. This has now turned around a little with an increase to 19.9% in 2009.

At the primary level (years 1–8), enrolments have decreased by 11.7% (16,642 students), whereas at the secondary level (years 9–15), enrolments have increased by 3.4% (851 students).

Schools in which all students are taught in te reo Māori at Levels 1–4a (12% of class time and above) are called bilingual schools. Enrolments at bilingual schools grew by 38.9% (2909 students) between July 2007 and July 2008.

The total number of students involved in Māori-medium education decreased between July 2008 and July 2009 by 2.0% (562 students). This compares with an increase of 0.8% (238 students) between July 2007 and July 2008.


Table 29: Levels definitions
 

 These levels are hierarchical – students are only counted at the highest level they participate in.

 
LevelTime the curriculum is taught in te reo Māori
1For more than 20 and up to 25 hours per week  (81-100%)
2For more than 12.5 and up to 20 hours per  week (51-80%)
3For more than 7.5 and up to 12.5 hours per  week (31-50%)
4aFor more than 3 and up to 7.5 hours per week  (12- 30%)
LevelTime participating in te reo Māori as a  subject
4bAt least three hours per week
5Less than three hours per week

 


Table 30: Students engaged in Māori-language education 2003–2009
YearStudents in  Māori-language educationPercentage of students in  Māori-language education
2003167,10521.9
2004166,04121.7
2005162,63421.3
2006158,60220.8
2007151,13219.9
2008149,40419.7
2009151,31419.9

 


Table 31: Students in Māori-medium education by Level of Learning 2006-2009
Level of learning2006200720082009
Level  1: 81-100%12235119911177411634
Level  2: 51-80%5187542451575161
Level  3: 31-50%5450515447954649
Level  4(a): up to 30%6469592670076727
Total Māori-medium29341284952873328171

 


Table 32: Students in te reo Māori as a subject by Level of Learning 2006-2009
Level of learning2006200720082009
Level  4(b): At least 3hrs19875201921915821128
Level  5: Less than 3 Hours109386102450101513102015
Total Te Reo Māori129261122642120671123143

 


Table 33: Number of schools with students in Māori-medium education by form of education 2006-2009
Form of education2006200720082009
Immersion school83858984
Bilingual school78789282
Immersion classes45434041
Immersion and bilingual  classes50484049
Bilingual classes165154137138
Total schools with students  in Māori Medium Education421408398394
ALL  SCHOOLS2597259125802581

 


Table 34: Number of schools with students participating in te reo Māori as a subject 2006-2009
 200620072008
Level 4b: at least three hours  per week348360345
Level 5: less than three hours  per week665672670
Total Level 4b or Level 5863876865

A key target for Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success is to increase the numbers of students studying te reo Rangatira and te reo Māori in secondary schools.

There was an increase in numbers in 2009, following on from decreases between 2003 and 2008.

In July 2009, excluding those being taught in Maori-medium settings, there were 21,128 school students learning te reo Māori as a separate subject for three or more hours per week. This is an increase of 1970 (10.3%) since July 2008. This compares to a decrease of 1034 students (5.1%) in the previous year.

In 2009, of those learning te reo Māori as a separate subject for three or more hours per week, 13,670 were Maori. This represents 8.2% of all Maori students, up from 7.8% in 2008

Figure 27: Number of Māori students at secondary level taking te reo Māori as a subject for at least three hours per week, 2001–2009

Image of Figure 26: Number of Māori students at secondary level taking te reo Māori as a subject for at least three hours per week, 2001–2009.


Table 35: Year 11 students studying te reo Rangatira and te reo Māori, 2003–2009
YearYear 11  students studying te reo% of  year 11 te reo students studying te reo  Rangatira
Te reo RangatiraTe reo MāoriTotal
20032053,2833,4885.9
20041313,5093,6403.6
20052353,3933,6286.5
20062773,4613,7387.4

 

What progress has been made?

Action: Develop and implement a strand within the Kiwi Leadership for Principals programme to support principals in Māori-medium education to lead the learning in their kura

Te Rūnanga Nui o Ngā Kura Kaupapa Māori is contracted by the Ministry to support kura kaupapa Māori. The organisation continued delivering leadership and governance support to kura throughout 2008/09.

The Tū Rangatira – Māori-medium Educational Leadership project began in 2009, supporting the growth, strength and sustainability of Māori leadership within the Māori-medium sector. The work has been supported by the participation of experienced principals, advisors, researchers and organisations encompassing the diversity of the Māori-medium sector.

Tū Rangatira reflects some of the key leadership roles and practices that contribute to high-quality educational outcomes for learners in kura. The guiding principles that underpin the model support the underpinning principles of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success:

  • Māori potential – all Māori learners have unlimited potential
  • cultural advantage – all Māori learners have cultural advantage because they are Māori;
  • inherent capability – all Māori learners are inherently capable of achieving success as Māori
  • mana motuhake – all Māori learners have the right to live and learn as tangata whenua of Aotearoa.

Consultation on the draft Tū Rangatira document will occur in 2010. The final document will be used to inform future support for the establishment of appropriate professional development initiatives for leaders in Māori medium settings.

The Educational Leaders .

One of the case studies is from Te-Kura-Māori-o-Ngā-Tapuwae

I think that for us it's about having an understanding in our school that learning doesn't happen in just six hours, and learning has to happen at home and flood back to the school and vice versa. What we've been doing is holding reading programmes with our parents to teach them how to read to their children, and that's been really fruitful for our kids.

I think that having a positive Māori learning environment generally within our school has actually empowered quite a few parents who are possibly in their early or mid thirties. Parents see their children are learning in a holistic environment where it's not just about the books and pens; it's about the wholeness of the student. We've found that more of our parents are actually going back into education, leaving their blue-collar jobs, and taking the plunge. That's been quite significant in the last two years.

It's been really neat seeing them come up and say, "Hey, I'm actually going back to university." That's huge for this community and it's neat to see, and we look forward to seeing a bit more of it, too.


Action: Support the implementation of Te Marautanga o Aotearoa and the development of relevant resources

Te Marautanga o Aotearoa was launched in October 2008 as the national curriculum for Māori-medium education. It outlines what students will learn through te reo Māori.

In 2008/09, Resource Teachers: Māori (RTM) focused on supporting schools to implement Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. Resource Teachers: Māori work alongside teachers to develop high-quality Māori-language teaching and learning programmes for students in years 1–8. Currently there are 53 Resource Teachers: Māori positions attached to 47 schools in 12 broad regional groupings throughout Aotearoa New Zealand.

In 2009, 10 regional coordinators worked with Resource Teachers: Māori and Māori-medium advisors to provide professional support to Māori-medium schools and settings to help them develop and trial their marautanga ā kura, their local school curriculum based on Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. This support will continue to 2010.

In 2008/09 the Ministry of Education developed supplementary professional support materials to assist teachers to understand and deepen their pedagogical content knowledge of the learning areas of Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. These materials were distributed with Te Marautanga o Aotearoa over 2008/09.

The Ministry has also focused on developing a range of other materials to align with and support Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. These will cover learning areas and levels where there are specific shortages. The range will include journals, readers, novels, plays, poetry anthologies, dictionaries, videos, CDs, picture packs, magazines and online materials on Te Kete Ipurangi .

Four case studies of whānau and iwi involvement in the development of their marautanga ā kura (school-based curriculum) with Māori-medium schools are underway. The case studies are being conducted by Victoria  University with whānau and iwi from the Kahungunu, Tairāwhiti and Waikato/Waiariki regions.

Aligning the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) with the new curriculum

A review is underway to ensure that all curriculum-related standards for NCEA are aligned to The New Zealand Curriculum or Te Marautanga o Aotearoa.

This review is also looking at possible duplication between standards and ensuring that all standards are similar in level and requirements. The reviewed standards will be implemented over three years with Level 1 to be introduced in 2011, Level 2 in 2012, and Level 3 in 2013.

Level 1 standards were consulted on in June 2009, An example of a revised Level 1 te reo Māori standard is:

  • ka mārama te akonga ki ngā kōrero i te reo mai i tōna ao mōhio.
  • the student understands spoken language from familiar contexts.

Te Poutama Tau was a professional development project to improve teaching and learning of pāngarau (mathematics) within Māori-language schools. Approximately 81 schools took part in the project in 2008. Pāngarau facilitators worked with around 282 teachers. Wharekura teachers working in pāngarau reported student gains on the numeracy strategy framework as a result of the Numeracy Professional Development Project.

The programme concluded in 2009. Funding from Te Poutama Tau will be used to support the implementation of Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori pāngarau in 2010.

Te Reo Pūtaiao – A Māori Language Dictionary of Science

In 2008/09 the Ministry developed and distributed Te Reo Pūtaiao. This dictionary follows a similar format to Te Reo PāngarauA Māori Language Dictionary of Mathematics (published in 2004 – a second edition of this dictionary is currently underway and will be distributed to kura during 2010).

Te Reo Pūtaiao is designed to support teachers and learners working at Levels 1–5 of the pūtaiao Learning area of Te Marautanga o Aotearoa (the Māori-medium curriculum). It not only includes word lists – both English to Māori and Māori to English –, but also a glossary explaining the derivation of key words, scientific applications and examples of extended classroom discussions around key scientific topics. It was distributed to kura during September 2009 along with a set of related posters. It will also be available online through www.tki.govt.nz in 2010.

The New Zealand Curriculum continued to be implemented in 2008/09 with professional learning available to support schools to develop their own local curriculum. A DVD of key content from the national Te Reo Curriculum Guidelines Workshops will be distributed to all schools in term 1, 2010. This will support internal professional development for teaching te reo Māori in all English-medium schools.

Te Aho Arataki Marau mō te Ako i Te Reo Māori – Kura Auraki provides guidelines for teaching te reo Māori in English-medium schools in years 1–13. Work towards the guidelines began at a planning hui at Taurua Marae 25 years ago.

Resources to support Te Aho Arataki Marau mō te Ako I Te Reo Māori – Kura Auraki include:

The Te Reo Māori in English-medium Schools Advisory Group was established in 2009 to provide feedback and advice on the Ministry’s work to support the teaching and learning of Māori language in English-medium schools. Previous advisory and sector groups provided advice and guidance about the development of Te Aho Arataki Marau mō te Ako i te Reo Māori – Kura Auraki. This group is focused on implementation and professional support and resourcing for delivery. It consists of representatives from schools (teachers, principals), teacher unions, education agencies, principals’ groups and the Ministry of Education.

Hon. Anne Tolley launches Te Aho Arataki Marau mō te Ako i te reo Māori – Kura Auraki

Education Minister Anne Tolley marked the fruition of 25 years’ work when she launched the Te Reo Curriculum Guidelines on 19 March 2009 at Taurua Marae in Rotorua.

“Many teachers want to teach te reo Māori, and many families and whānau want their children to get high-quality te reo Māori teaching,” Mrs Tolley said.

Te reo Māori is one of our country’s official languages. It is a taonga… schools and teachers can now be supported to achieve a greater fluency in te reo, a greater understanding of tikanga Māori, and a greater confidence in working with families, whānau and community”, Mrs Tolley said.

The advisory group:

  • provides feedback, critique and advice on the implementation progress, issues, and risks.
  • contributes to the development of a professional development framework for te reo Māori.
  • identifies success and risk factors for future professional development for te reo Māori with teachers in English medium schools.
  • ensures appropriate links across the Ministry of Education, including relevance of other work programmes.
  • ensures the advisory group’s respective organisations are aware of and aligned to the Ministry of Education’s vital outcomes for te reo Māori in English-medium schools.
  • ensures the sector has the opportunity to provide advice and guidance to the Ministry.

The Ministry is looking at ways to include iwi and whānau representation within the advisory group in 2010.

Action: Support decision-making by whānau with information about quality provision in Māori-language education options

In 2009, the Ministry of Education began developing Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori – the Māori-medium standards in kōrero (oral language), pānui (writing), tuhituhi (reading) and pāngarau (mathematics) for all children from years 18 in Māori-medium schooling.

Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori will be consulted on in 2010. The standards will set out explicit expectations about what children in Māori-medium education need to learn, and by when, to support their teachers better identify the learning requirements of their students.

Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori will also provide information for parents, families and whānau to inform their discussions with teachers about their children’s progress and their decisions about their schooling.

All schools are required to report to parents on how well their children are doing in relation to the standards twice each year. These written reports will show whether their child is above the standard, at the standard, below the standard or well below the standard expected for their age and year level. These reports will also include the next steps for the child, and how parents can help at home.

Community-based Language Initiatives (CBLI) focus on supporting children learning te reo Māori in a Māori-medium setting through enhancing parent and caregiver te reo Māori skills. CBLI also provide high-quality te reo Māori teaching and learning material.

A stocktake of the Community-based Language Initiatives published in 2008 looked at the broad range of initiatives by iwi. A review of CBLI has now been completed and CBLI revised to ensure that more iwi can access initiatives to support them to revitalise and sustain their language dialect, while also supporting whānau to increase their knowledge of the language, and increasing the material resources available to assist students learning the language.

Community-based Language Initiatives (CBLI) started in 2000. They demonstrate how iwi and whānau can foster Māori language, culture and knowledge in partnership with, yet outside, the formal education system.

Its primary focus is to support children learning te reo Māori in a Māori-medium setting through enhancing parent and caregiver Māori-language skills at home. CBLI also provides for the development of high-quality te reo Māori teaching and learning material.

CBLI funding is available to iwi organisations that have an established relationship with the Ministry of Education. Over the last nine years there have been three phases of CBLI and 15 iwi organisation participants.

Indepth professional development for teachers of reo Māori in 2008 and 2009 was offered to primary teachers with a priority for those teaching in years 7 and 8. The focus of the programme was second-language learning pedagogy, improving te reo Māori fluency and confidence with te reo Māori teaching. 40 teachers participated in the programme over the two years.

Ongoing professional development is available through the School Support Services Reo Māori advisors who will be focusing on years 1–10 in 2010. There are eleven advisors (equivalent to 6.0 full-time staff) nationwide and one full-time National Coordinator for Māori language in English-medium Schools. 

Online resources and a DVD are available for schools (years 1–13) to facilitate their own internal discussions about te reo Māori programme development and delivery. Secondary teachers who are Māori and te reo Māori teachers of years 9–13 receive support through the Ministry funded Ako Panuku programme. Ongoing support is available through Te reo Māori in English-medium schools website which includes resources, information and professional learning support.

Te Reo Matatini: The Māori-medium Literacy Strategy was released in 2007. The strategy aims to ensure students in Māori-medium education develop the literacy, knowledge and skills they need to succeed. The strategy provides the basis for literacy interventions, materials, research and professional development.

Action: Strengthen professional development approaches and the range of assessment tools to lift the quality of teaching and assessment in Māori-medium education

Ngā Taumatua is a professional development programme that aims to improve the assessment of junior literacy teaching in Māori-medium education. It provides training for Resource Teachers: Māori and teachers working in contexts where te reo Māori is spoken for more than half the time. Kia Ata Mai Educational Trust has continued to deliver Ngā Taumatua as a full-time 40-week Māori-medium literacy professional development programme throughout 2008 and 2009. Since 2002 Ngā Taumatua has provided places for up to 12 Māori-medium teachers and Resource Teachers: Māori every year.

Tatari, Tautoko, Tauawhi (TTT) is a phonological awareness programme to support the teaching of literacy in te reo Māori. In 2008/09 the Ministry of Education worked collaboratively to pilot the programme in three Rotorua kura. The Ministry is currently working with Waikato  University to develop a model to deliver Tatari, Tautoko, Tauawhi (TTT) to schools in Manurewa as part of the Manurewa Literacy Project.

Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori – the Māori-medium standards supports effective teaching and learning in kōrero, pānui, tuhituhi and pāngarau for students in Years 1–8. Development of this teaching and learning tool began in early 2009.Throughout 2010 the Ministry will be consulting and gathering information to inform the finalisation of it by the end of the year.  All Māori-medium schools and settings will implement the whanaketanga in 2011 with boards of trustees setting their annual targets against the National Curriculum using Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori by 2012.

There are approximately 40 Resource Teachers Learning and Behaviour: Māori (RTLB: Māori) working across the country to assist teachers in providing appropriate support for children with special learning or behavioural requirements. There are approximately 780 RTLB in total. Concerns have been raised regarding equity of access to RTLB services for children in Māori-medium settings. During 2008/09 the Ministry of Education established a working group to look at how best to ensure that these children receive equitable and appropriate support to address learning and behaviour challenges. The group is expected to conclude its work during 2010.

Evaluation of Resource Teachers: Māori

In 2008, the Education Review Office (ERO) found that although many Resource Teachers: Māori (RTM) have a positive influence on student outcomes through the work they do with teachers, whānau and iwi, the quality and consistency of RTM practice varies.

ERO found four things that would improve the effectiveness of the service:

  • clarifying what is expected of RTMs, particularly their role in supporting Māori-language teachers in immersion settings
  • ensuring that RTMs receive personnel entitlements especially in the areas of performance management and induction
  • improving the governance and management arrangements
  • providing national coordination for the service.

Action: Consolidate and build evidence around second-language teaching to enhance the effectiveness of professional development programmes and lift the quality of teaching te reo Māori as a second language

Te Whakapiki i te Reo is a programme that focuses on strengthening the language proficiency of teachers and teaching effectiveness for Māori-medium classrooms. Providers work in schools alongside teachers supporting them to use their new knowledge on an ongoing basis while increasing their language proficiency alongside their students. Te Whakapiki i te Reo is being provided in a range of Māori-medium schools throughout 2009–2012.

The Te Reo Māori in English-medium Schools Advisory Group was established in 2009 to provide feedback and advice on the Ministry’s work to support the teaching and learning of Māori language in English-medium schools.

The Ministry of Education’s Schooling Group is conducting a review of the current literature on effective teaching and assessment practices for linguistically-diverse learners in bilingual/immersion education settings. This review will inform further research in the future and will identify areas for professional development for teachers of te reo Māori in bilingual/immersion education settings.

Case study - He Waka Eke Noa: Sharing best practice

“Lessons learned at He Waka Eke Noa are benefiting teachers and pupils already,” says Jan Tinetti, Merivale School Principal from Tauranga.

He Waka Eke Noa or ‘HWEN’– a wānanga for Māori educators from early childhood to tertiary – was held in Rotorua in July 2008. Jan Tinetti, who has three Māori-medium classrooms in her school, spoke positively of the benefits for her and her staff. “He Waka Eke Noa is absolutely stunning. It is cutting-edge Māori-medium pedagogy, and looking at it through a Māori-medium lens. For my teachers that is great because they are not able to do that anywhere else.”

Programme Organiser Hēmi Waerea said the national wānanga was a great opportunity to bring Māori educators together under the one roof for professional learning and support around Te Marautanga o Aotearoa, the new curriculum for Māori-medium schooling. “Māori educators and leaders were able to bounce ideas off each other, listen to great speakers, hear views from the Government and talk about how other schools are implementing Te Marautanga o Aotearoa and The New Zealand Curriculum.”

Minister of Māori Affairs and Associate Minister of Education Pita Sharples – the keynote speaker – told Māori educators HWEN was a canoe everyone could embark on. Dr Sharples urged attendees to seize the opportunity to promote information and communications technology, or ‘ICT’, to Māori communities. “It is a time to celebrate all of the amazing initiatives that Māori-medium education is demonstrating in its mastery of ICT.”

HWEN was attended by representatives from right across the Māori-medium education sector including principals, teachers and in-service teacher educators.

Photos to come

Action: Support Māori-medium providers to develop local resources for local needs.

Te Marautanga o Aotearoa was launched in October 2008 as the curriculum for Māori-medium education. In 2008/09 the Ministry developed supplementary professional support materials to assist teachers to understand and deepen their knowledge of the learning areas of Te Marautanga o Aotearoa.

As with The New Zealand Curriculum, Te Marautanga o Aotearoa provides schools with the scope, flexibility and authority they need to design their own curriculum in response to local requirements and contexts.

In 2009, 10 regional coordinators along with Resource Teachers: Māori and Māori-medium advisors have been providing professional support to Māori-medium schools and settings to help them develop and trial their Marautanga ā kura. This support will continue to 2010.

Action: Explore using ICT to support Māori-language teaching and learning.

The Learning Activities Management System (LAMS) is an information technology resource that enables teachers and school leaders in Māori-medium settings to share knowledge, resources and teaching ideas on a daily basis.

LAMS allows teachers of year 1–8 students to create lessons and monitor students’ progress online. It has been implemented in five kura kaupapa Māori from the Whanganui, Ruapehu, Taranaki and Wellington regions.

Case study: LAMS – increasing learning opportunities in kura Māori 

Professional isolation can be a problem for kura kaupapa Māori and other Māori-medium schools. Now schools from diverse regions can bridge that gap through a bilingual online tool.

Learning Activities Management System, (LAMS) is a system operated internationally by the LAMS Foundation that enables teachers and school leaders to share knowledge, resources and teaching ideas on a daily basis.

In 2005 the Ministry of Education funded the launch of LAMS in Aotearoa New Zealand. Available 24/7, the Aotearoa New Zealand LAMS is aimed at years 1–8 and designed specifically for Māori-medium settings. It allows teachers to create lessons and monitor students’ progress online, and students to learn individually and collectively.

Project Leader Robin Ohia says it’s a great professional development tool for teachers learning to manage an online learning environment within their kura. “The project enhances outcomes by teachers becoming more aware of how to construct learning for their students. This is particularly efficient when systems are incorporated into the students’ existing environments.”

Robin notes the benefits of integrating an online environment into students’ learning – one that mirrors the kind of online experiences they have in their personal lives. He cites a student with attention problems spending 35–40 minutes on a LAMS activity, and students accessing LAMS voluntarily from home. “The feedback from teachers pertaining to motivation can only be described, in their words, as ‘unbelievable’.”

For the future, Robin hopes to encourage a more coordinated effort among teachers, Resource Teachers: Māori and developers to create digital resources that support student learning outcomes within kura. “The scary part,” he says, “is whether those responsible for Māori education, with their heavy workloads, can sustain the momentum the project needs.”

LAMS currently involves five geographically distant kura kaupapa Māori from the Whanganui, Ruapehu, Taranaki and Wellington regions. Robin hopes LAMS will extend to another five kura within the next two years.

Other activities

In 2009 the Ministry reviewed its support for Gifted and Talented education in the context of a wider examination of the effectiveness of professional development. A more collaborative approach to supporting gifted and talented students' education is being developed through the Gifted and Talented Ministerial Advisory Group. In 2010, the Ministry will purchase a range of gifted and talented professional services for year 1–13 students within Māori-medium and English-medium schools. This will be provided through a range of activities from direct student support programmes to whole-school capability building.

Commentary

The range of professional support and resources for Māori-medium education has increased over 2008/09 to support the implementation of Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. However, the resources are still very limited compared with the English-medium part of the sector. 

There have been pockets of innovation such as the LAMS project.  However, many of these projects do not currently provide information on effectiveness in enhancing learner outcomes. This makes it hard to evaluate their effectiveness for and with Māori students.

Robust assessment tools to support the implementation of the new Ngā Whanaketanga Rumaki Māori – the Māori-medium national standards in literacy and numeracy, as well as support for teachers and professional leaders to use assessment tools to enhance teaching and learning are important to achieve further improvement.

 


 

Goal 3: Increase the number of quality Māori teachers proficient in te reo Māori

Why is this goal important?

The international research on bilingual and immersion education clearly indicates that a high level of immersion is beneficial for revitalising the Māori language. Māori-medium providers facilitate such intensive learning.

Complex ideas and critical thinking needed in higher-level school education require sophisticated and complex language. Similarly, the revitalisation of te reo Māori requires a high level of proficiency by its speakers. In addition, the new focus on local culture and language dialects places even greater pressure on the sector to ensure a supply of appropriate teachers.

The primary, if not sole, source of te reo Māori teachers is the Māori-language education system itself. Unlike the English-medium system, the Māori-language education workforce cannot be supplemented with overseas-trained teachers. Therefore the Māori-language education system needs to be able to produce high-quality graduates that meet current and future demand for teachers in Māori-language education.

These teachers must have te reo Māori proficiency and knowledge of effective second-language teaching, high expectations and knowledge of their learners, up-to-date knowledge of their subject, and the strategies and resources to teach and assess for optimum learning.

Discussion

What do the data say?

The numbers of Māori-language teachers has grown over recent years, but ensuring a sufficient supply of Māori teachers fluent in te reo Māori is an ongoing challenge.

In 2009, there were 1088 teachers receiving the Māori immersion teacher allowance, compared with 1035 in 2008 and 1026 in 2006. Of the teachers in 2009, 528 taught in kura kaupapa Māori.

A 2006 survey of Māori showed that although older Māori were still most proficient, more young Māori are now able to speak, read and write the Māori language fluently. This provides a stronger base for future teacher supply in Māori language in education.


Table 36: Number of teachers receiving Māori Immersion Teacher Allowance by ethnicity as at beginning of April, 2005–2009
Ethnic  group20052006200720082009
NZ  European5066535149
NZ  Māori 9811024905917973
Pasifika1822191617
Other46868
Unknown/No  response5752414541
Total11101170102610351088

                        

Table 37: Percentage of Māori adults with te reo Maori proficiency level of well or very well by age group, 2001 and 2006

NA = the listening question was not asked in the 2006 survey
Source: Te Puni Kōkiri, 2006

GroupsSpeakingListeningReading Writing
20012006200120062001200620012006
15–246.112.810.5NA10.320.59.916.4
25–343.411.16.8NA6.525.64.614.9
35–445.310.211.1NA8.415.8813
45–5412.210.322NA14.718.413.212.6
55+29.829.341.2NA33.336.827.829.7
Total  15+9.214.115.3NA12.621.61116.9
Total  15+ (age -standardised) 9.81416.2NA13.222.811.616.8

 

What progress has been made?

Action: Work with the New Zealand Teachers Council to set standards to improve the quality of initial Māori-medium teacher education

The New Zealand Teachers Council has initiated a series of projects focused on three key entry points to the teaching profession that support the goals of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success. The aim is to influence and enhance the quality of pouako/teachers throughout their careers and, through that, enhance the learning outcomes of students.

Council projects around the first entry point, selection for Initial Teacher Education (ITE), include:

  • the revision of ITE programme approval processes and programme requirements
  • research into the issues of developing and assessing te reo Māori proficiency of graduates from Māori-medium ITE programmes
  • alignment of ITE programmes to the Graduating Teacher Standards, which include the requirement for graduating teachers to demonstrate knowledge, values and practice appropriate to the bicultural context of New Zealand.

The second entry point is on graduation, when graduates are provisionally registered and entitled to be employed as a teacher. Council action here focuses on supporting quality teaching in Māori-medium settings. This involves:

  • a series of workshops throughout the country on Ngā Tikanga Matatika mō Ngā Pouako kua Rēhitatia, the Code of Ethics for Registered Teachers specifically tailored for pouako Māori
  • developing and implementing a kaupapa Māori - based induction and mentoring programme for all provisionally registered teachers, and training and support for mentor teachers in Māori-medium settings.

Upon successfully completing the required induction process, teachers can be endorsed to move from provisional to full registration, the third entry point in the career path. Council work around this involves:

  • the revision of standards and assurance processes for granting full registration and renewal of practising certificates. The new standards (Registered Teacher Criteria) include the requirement that all teachers are able to demonstrate knowledge, values and practice appropriate to the bicultural context of Aotearoa New Zealand.

These criteria also apply to teachers when they renew their practicing certificate every three years.

Action: Work with the Tertiary Education Commission to increase access and options available for teacher training in immersion education

This is part of the ongoing work of the Tertiary Education Commission

Action: Revise incentives and scholarships to attract and retain quality teachers in Māori-medium settings

TeachNZ scholarships seek to attract people into teaching. Some are designed specifically to support teacher supply in Māori-medium schooling, including the Māori-medium Teacher Recruitment Scholarship of $30,000 and the Māori-medium School Leaver/Undergraduate Scholarship of $10,000 for fluent Māori speakers. In 2008, 815 TeachNZ scholarships were awarded for early childhood education, 125 of which were allocated to Māori.

TeachNZ scholarships are designed to encourage New Zealander's to study for a teaching qualification. A range of scholarships are available annually to students at different stages of tertiary study:

  • school leavers and undergraduates
  • graduate students
  • mature students who study to achieve a change in career.

Each category of scholarship includes a number offered specifically for Māori-medium education (years 1–8) and for te reo Māori (fluent Māori speakers teaching years 9–13). In addition to student scholarships, TeachNZ also offers scholarships for teachers who are currently working in early childhood education. All TeachNZ scholarships include the payment of study fees together with an annual allowance.

In 2008/09, 115 Māori-medium scholarships were awarded, 51 were career changers and 64 to school leavers/undergraduates.

In 2009/2010 the number of Māori-medium and te reo Māori scholarships available was lifted to 165, an increase of 20 places overall. 117 Māori-medium scholarships were awarded, 51 to career changers and 66 to undergraduates or school leavers. 35 te reo Māori scholarships were awarded, 15 to career change students, 10 to graduate students and 13 to undergraduate students.

In 2009, 699 scholarships were awarded to early childhood education teachers, 97 of which were allocated to Māori recipients.

Māori-medium Bilingual Study Awards

Māori-medium Bilingual Study Awards are designed for teachers and principals who work in designated Level 1 and Level 2 te reo Māori settings in state or state-integrated schools and early childhood education centres. The awards aim to increase the supply of quality teachers, and encourage teachers to increase their proficiency and skills in te reo Māori me ona tikanga Māori as bilingual and immersion teachers.

The award provides paid leave to study, a contribution of up to $2000 towards course fees and a contribution towards accommodation and travel or removal expenses of up to $3500. In 2009, 37 Māori-medium Bilingual Study Awards were allocated for study in the 2010 academic year, one of those recipients was an early childhood education teacher.

Teacher Study Awards

Study Awards are one of the professional learning opportunities available to teachers through the respective collective agreements. The awards provide a teacher or principal with paid leave at full salary for the duration of their study. These awards enable teachers and principals to:

  • complete a qualification or improve an existing qualification
  • undertake study to obtain qualifications in a new or different curriculum or subject area
  • undertake research or other study of relevance and value to secondary education
  • obtain practical knowledge and skill-related experience in their subject area.

Each year there are 75 full-time-equivalent study leave positions available to principals and teachers at primary and secondary levels, and seven available to area teachers or principals. In 2009, four primary, four secondary and two area teachers received study awards to complete qualifications in te reo Māori in the 2010 academic year.

Māori-medium study awards for early childhood education teaching courses are being reviewed.

The Māori Immersion Teacher Allowance is for teachers employed under the Collective Employment Contract who use te reo Māori as the language of communication and instruction. To qualify, teachers must be employed full time and teach using te reo Māori for more than 50% of the time.

As at April 2009, there were 1088 teachers receiving the allowance, compared with 1035 in 2008 and 1026 in 2007.  This is 82 (7.0%) less than 2006 when the number of teachers receiving this allowance was at its highest level. In April 2006 there were 1170 teachers receiving this allowance.

Bilingual study awards are available for registered early childhood education teachers and school teachers who are te reo Māori speakers and who want to study Māori-language learning. In 2009 there were 45 applications for study in 2010, however there were only 31 scholarships available. The Ministry of Education is currently investigating how to enable more applicants to get the scholarship.

Selection criteria for all specialist study awards administered by Special Education have been changed to include criteria weighting for people with fluency in te reo Māori and Māori sign language.

Action: Support schools to develop a five-year plan for teachers, linked to Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori proficiency levels, to meet the graduating standards for te reo Māori set by the New Zealand Teachers Council

Yet to be actioned.

Action: Strengthen the range of programmes and incentives for schools so teachers can engage in high-quality professional development to improve their proficiency in te reo Māori

Te Whakapiki i te Reo is a programme that focuses on strengthening the language proficiency of teachers and teaching effectiveness for Māori medium classrooms. Providers work in schools alongside teachers supporting them to use their new knowledge on an ongoing basis while increasing their language proficiency alongside their students. Te Whakapiki i te Reo is being provided in a range of Māori-medium schools throughout 2009–2012.

The Te Reo Māori in English-medium Schools Advisory Group also supports the teaching and learning of Māori language in English-medium schools and contributing to the development of a professional development framework for te reo Māori.
In 2010, six primary teachers/principals, six secondary teachers and two area teachers were awarded TeachNZ study awards to complete te reo Māori and other qualifications related to te reo me ona tikanga Māori.

Other activities

In response to concerns about the future of kōhanga reo, an interagency working group was established in September 2008 with members from Te Kōhanga Reo National Trust, the Ministry of Education and Te Puni Kōkiri. The working group is focused on how to support the future sustainability, quality and funding of kōhanga reo. The working group is expected to deliver a report for further consideration in 2010.
 In the school sector, a Ministerial advisory group was established in 2008 due to concerns about the general shortage of Māori-medium teachers, and that current supply is not keeping up with demand. This working group was made up of Māori educationalists. The proposals of the group are currently under consideration.

Commentary

It is encouraging to see that the number of Māori language teachers has grown again from 2007 to 2009, after a significant drop in 2006.

In addition, although older Māori are still the most proficient speakers of te reo Māori, more younger Māori are now able to speak, read and write the Māori language fluently. This provides a stronger base for future teacher supply in Māori language in education.

Despite the increase in younger speakers, increasing the supply of teachers proficient in te reo Māori will continue to be a challenge due to the failure of the education system to enable many Māori learners to achieve their potential in school.

Initial teacher training is now degree-level study. A relatively small proportion of Māori students achieve the requirements to enter university from their NCEA study at school.


 

 

Goal 4: Develop a strategic Māori-language Education Outcomes Framework that supports a strategic investment approach

Why is this goal important?

While the number of students in Maori medium schooling fluctuated slightly over the previous few years, there is still a strong demand for Māori-medium schooling. This places significant pressure on the Māori-medium part of the education sector, and on resourcing.

The limited resources in the Māori-medium education sector mean that Government’s investment decisions must be made carefully to achieve the best outcomes for Māori. Until now, however, there have been no overarching policy principles to guide investment in Māori-medium education.

Wānanga performance for students

In 2008, Government priorities for the wānanga were to increase participation and achievement in programmes at Level 4 [diploma level] and above, particularly for younger adults and with a continued focus on educational achievement for Māori.

In their plans wānanga collectively anticipated modest improvement in participation and completion rates for students under the age of 25 studying at Level 4 and above. In their plans they also committed to decreased attrition rates and improved course and qualification completions for students over the age of 25 – the majority of students studying at wānanga.

In the first year of the 2008–2010 investment plans, the wānanga overall had approximately 10% lower successful course completion rates on average than universities. However, many individual programmes had similar or better rates than the average for universities and overall there was a noticeable improvement in successful course completion rates.

During 2008 the largest wānanga reduced its Level 4 and above provision as part of refocusing its mix of provision. This coupled with the two smaller wānanga under-delivering against their original plans resulted in a drop in the proportion of students studying at Level 4 and above in 2008.

(Tertiary Education Commission, 2009)

What progress has been made?

Action: Develop and implement a policy framework to inform investment priorities for Māori-language education over the next 10 years

The Māori-language Education Framework was finalised in 2009 and sets out areas for investment that are based on what research and experience show make the greatest difference to raising learner achievement.

It incorporates the key goals and actions for Māori-language education from Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success and draws on an internal Ministry of Education stocktake of Māori-language programmes and initiatives in 2006.

In 2009, a review of the framework was undertaken to ascertain the level of congruence that would exist between the framework and the wider work of the Ministry.

The Ministry has identified the need to ensure a more deliberate and planned approach is applied across the system for Māori-language policy design, development and implementation. Work has therefore begun on developing a draft set of strategic policy principles to guide the Ministry’s design, investment and implementation of all Māori Language in Education policy.

The initial phase of this work is currently underway and focuses on the establishment of strategic policy principles to provide a framework for policy decision-making.

Commentary

The finalisation of the Māori-language Education Framework along with the development of strategic policy principles will provide a useful basis for making decisions about Government investment in Māori-language education. The inclusion of a monitoring framework should provide information over the next few years about the effectiveness of investments.

 


 

 

Goal 5: Increase visibility of te reo Māori in nationwide media and schools to promote the currency and relevance of te reo Māori

Why is this goal important?

Using Māori language within all education settings affirms its value for children and young people from all cultural backgrounds. Both Te Whāriki: He Whāriki Mātauranga mō ngā Mokopuna o Aotearoa – Early Childhood Curriculum and The New Zealand Curriculum emphasise the importance of the Māori language and culture for all learners. In early childhood education, a new curriculum framework is now compulsory for all government-funded services. This framework is drawn directly from Te Whāriki as a bicultural curriculum.

The New Zealand Curriculum states that learning te reo Māori enables learners to participate with understanding and confidence in situations where te reo Māori and tikanga are predominant and to integrate language and cultural understandings into their lives. It also strengthens Aotearoa New Zealand’s identity in the world. The New Zealand Curriculum acknowledges the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi and the bicultural foundations of Aotearoa New Zealand. It states that all students have the opportunity to acquire knowledge of te reo Māori me ōna tikanga.

What progress has been made?

Action: Increase the visibility of te reo Māori across children’s television programmes on week nights by partnering with Te Taura Whiri I te reo Māori and working with Television New Zealand through its State Charter

In 2008/09, the Ministry scoped work to increase the visibility of te reo Māori across children’s television programmes. This work is now on hold due to the removal of the State Charter. This work will be further progressed as part of the Māori Language in Education strategic policy principles.

Action: Support state schools to look for more opportunities for te reo Māori to be visible.

The 2009 publication of Te Aho Arataki Marau mō te Ako I Te Reo Māori – Kura Auraki/Curriculum Guidelines for Teaching and Learning Te Reo Māori in English-medium Schools was particularly significant in highlighting to all schools the status of te reo Māori as an official language of Aotearoa New Zealand.

Similarly, the publication of Te Marautanga o Aotearoa demonstrated the important position of Māori language and culture within the Aotearoa New Zealand education system.

Te Aho Arataki Marau mō te Ako I Te Reo Māori – Kura Auraki/Curriculum Guidelines for Teaching and Learning Te Reo Māori in English-medium Schools: were launched in 2009. These are the first ever curriculum guidelines for te reo Māori in English-medium schools and provide eight levels of progress for schools to consider when planning te reo Māori programmes and assessment.

Following the launch, national workshops were held throughout Aotearoa New Zealand to support schools and whānau to become familiar with the curriculum guidelines. Ongoing professional support is available from te reo Māori School Support Services advisors and a national te reo Māori professional development coordinator.

In 2009 an additional 18 teachers participated in the second year of the Year 7 and 8 Reo Māori Professional Development Programme facilitated by Haemata Ltd. Teachers in this intake were from Waikato, Auckland and Northland.

A number of resources are being distributed to English-medium schools in 2009 and 2010 to support implementation of the curriculum guidelines.

Commentary

With the removal of the State Charter for Television New Zealand, ensuring the visibility of te reo Māori has not been a high priority and has largely been given effect indirectly through the implementation of other initiatives.

 


 

Goal 6: Strengthen Māori language education research

Why is this goal important?

To teach effectively in any context, teachers and school leaders need to know what works. They therefore need strong evidence on which to base their teaching and leadership practices.

This is a particular challenge in Māori-medium education, and one that is only slowly being filled as Aotearoa New Zealand teachers, researchers and government agencies explore the opportunities to build the knowledge base.

It is therefore important that people in education recognise opportunities to use current evidence and research projects as a way to enhance outcomes in Māori-medium education.

Research on Virtual Learning Environments and e-Learning

A draft Literature Review on Virtual Learning Environments and e-Learning has found that the following factors are important in Māori-language and Māori-medium education:

The importance of the learning environment

  • access to good-quality resources, professional development and support as well as a positive and appropriate physical learning environment, which includes support in pedagogical understanding of e-learning in kaupapa Māori settings

Quality relationships

  • quality relationships between teachers and their students is as important as the creation of an appropriate physical environment

Cultural understandings

  • the ability for new technologies to appropriately incorporate Māori language and Māori ways of knowing and doing are important for engaging Māori students in their learning – this includes, for example, incorporating cultural practices of face-to-face learning or whakawhānaungatanga into e-learning practice

Challenges to pedagogical practices

  • teachers in kaupapa Māori settings use e-learning more in their teaching as they become more confident and familiar with how to use the tools and resources. It is important that teachers reflect or evaluate the effectiveness of their e-teaching practice
  •  

(Tiakiwai & Tiakiwai, 2009)

What progress has been made?

Action: Ensure that a Māori-language education focus is integral to developing a Ministry of Education research and development strategy

In 2009, new research projects were initiated designed to increase the knowledge base around Māori-language education.

Successful Kura, a case-study-based research project that examines the practices the kura are undertaking to make them successful, how they are doing it and why it is that the practices are working. Initial results are expected in 2010.

Transition from ECE to primary to secondary and from Māori-medium settings to secondary school for Māori students: Indicators of good practice

The purpose of this project is to deepen the Ministry of Education’s understanding of characteristics of successful Māori learners who transition between different educational settings and to identify good practice and develop exemplars of this practice as it relates to Māori learners.

Marautanga ā kura, a research project looking at case studies of good practice regarding how whānau and schools work together to develop school-based curricula that will meet the needs of their students. Initial results will be available from 2010.

The development of language-proficiency progressions in Māori-medium education is a research project designed to make explicit the progress students could be expected to make at the different ages and stages of their reo Māori development and how this can be measured.

The Ministry of Education’s Schooling Group is conducting a literature review of effective teaching and assessment practices for linguistically-diverse learners in bilingual/immersion education settings. This review will inform further research in the future and will identify areas for professional development for teachers of te reo Māori in bilingual/immersion education settings.

Some areas of research are small scale and designed to better understand a local issue. In 2008/09, Special Education undertook a literature review and small research project to provide more information about Māori-language learning in younger children. The project found that those kura students who had attended kōhanga reo had relatively good listening skills and language knowledge in Māori language. This was primarily due to them having more exposure to Māori language at kōhanga reo at an early age and the benefit of having more practice in speaking the Māori language. Those students with no previous kōhanga reo experience performed less well in the areas of listening, concepts, vocabulary, sentences and phrases and had difficulty with repeating sentences. This suggests that children benefit from early structured experience in the Māori language provided by kōhanga reo.

Another small-scale project was the modification by local Special Education staff of the Speech and Language Therapy Te Reo assessment from 2003. This was in response to a request to undertake a relevant speech/language assessment of a child in the Māori-immersion unit at a local school.

Action: Strengthen links with other research agencies and tertiary institutions to build knowledge of mātauranga Māori further

The Tertiary Education Strategy 2010–2015 was developed in 2009 to set out Government’s priorities for tertiary education organisations. One of the four key components of Government's vision for tertiary education is:

‘Enable Māori to enjoy education success as Māori.’

The Strategy states that tertiary education has a particular responsibility to maintain and develop Māori language and culture to support Māori living as Māori in both te Ao Māori and in wider society.

The strategy promotes the role of tertiary sector research, particularly by wānanga, in supporting the development of the knowledge base needed to manage cultural and economic assets and to maintain strong and prospering whānau, hapū and iwi. This endorsement provides a strong basis for tertiary education organisations to allocate funding to support research to build mātauranga Māori.

Action: Facilitate and support iwi to continue research and development of mātauranga Māori

All the Ministryiwi relationships, whether long-established or new, contain elements that enable iwi to revitalise and reconnect with their own tribal knowledge. For new relationships this takes the form of ‘environmental scans’ that assist iwi to take stock of their own identity language, strengths and weaknesses, as well as the education system in their tribal rohe.

In established relationships where iwi are undertaking educational projects, iwi knowledge, identity, language and culture are always at the heart of efforts to improve outcomes for Māori learners. The projects create a formal process for iwi to research and revitalise tribal knowledge.

Commentary

Research about and with Māori-language education provision has increased during 2008/09.

The new research projects underway will provide valuable information to support the ongoing enhancement of quality in Māori language in education.



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