Ngā Haeata Mātauranga - The Annual Report on Māori Education, 2007/08
Ngā Haeata Mātauranga – The Annual Report on Māori Education, 2007/08 is the ministry’s one-stop-shop for data, evidence and information about Māori education.
Author(s): Education Information and Analysis Group / Group Māori [Ministry of Education]
Date Published: February 2009
Chapter 4: Māori Language Education
This chapter looks at what has been achieved in 2007/08 to make progress towards the Māori Language Education goals of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success.
Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success focuses on all learners being able to access quality Māori language education97 options. Any learners that access Māori language education must be assured that they have the necessary support structure and resources available to enjoy and achieve a quality education.
The ministry must also be able to assure the learners that they have access to both quality provision through supplying high-quality teachers, and a strong network of providers available to deliver in and through te reo Māori.
Iwi and Māori are the repositories of expertise and excellence in Māori language. They have a key role to play in informing, designing, developing, implementing and evaluating initiatives to advance Māori educational outcomes. This will happen through the contribution they make to strengthening the identity, language and culture of Māori learners throughout the education system.
Evidence clearly identifies that language is the essence of culture. Te reo Māori is the vehicle through which Māori culture, spirituality and thought are expressed. It is through this vehicle that speakers can access and journey into te Ao Māori.
Research indicates that Māori learners are more likely to succeed when they have been given the opportunity to develop a sense of ‘self’ and their place in the world. There is also evidence demonstrating that where identity, language and culture count in education, life choices and opportunities are maximised and personal responsibility and economic independence are achieved.
The Māori-medium education sector has made a major contribution to the education system as a whole by giving learners a new means through which to achieve education success, and has enhanced the ability of the system to deliver for and with Māori. This has been further enhanced by the release of the curriculum for Māori-medium schools Te Marautanga o Aotearoa in 2008. Te Marautanga brings together the wisdom and experience of a number of leading Māori educationalists who have integrated philosophical approaches with mātauranga Māori, including Māori pedagogy and Māori development goals. It is intended that kura kaupapa Māori use Te Marautanga to develop their learning programmes, in partnership with boards, teachers, whānau and local communities.
Whānau have a critical role in the future of the Māori language. Evidence also supports the importance of te reo i te kainga (use of Māori language in the home) and whānau in Māori language education. Learners achieve better when some Māori language is spoken in the home.
A key challenge of the Māori language education sector is ensuring there is a sufficient supply of high-quality teachers to meet demand for Māori language education in the future. System sustainability will be an important goal in developing other policies and investment decisions for Māori language education.
The primary, if not sole, source of Māori language teachers is the Māori language education system itself. Unlike the English-medium system, the Māori language education workforce cannot be supplemented with overseas-trained teachers. Therefore the Māori language education system needs to be able to produce high-quality graduates that meet current and future demand for teachers in Māori language education.
These teachers must have language proficiency and knowledge of effective second-language teaching, high expectations and knowledge of their learners, up-to-date knowledge of their subject and the strategies and resources to teach and assess for optimum learning.
Schools and communities need responsive and accountable leadership ensuring equitable access to high-quality Māori language education, school-wide embedding of te reo Māori and tikanga, and comprehensive planning based on identified learner needs.
4.2: Statistical highlights
2007/08 figures show:
- in July 2007, there were 28,490 school students involved in Māori-medium education, where Māori language made up at least 12% of teaching and learning. This is a decrease of 2.9% since July 2006. This compares with an increase of 1.5% in the previous year
- 15.8% of Māori learners are in Māori-medium education
- 8.1% of Māori learners in schools are learning te reo Māori for more than three hours per week
- 17.7% of Māori learners are learning te reo Māori for less than three hours per week
- in 2007 there were 6272 learners in kura kaupapa Māori and kura teina. This is an increase of 2.1% from 2006
- the number of kura kaupapa Māori has grown from 13 in 1992 to 68 in 2007
- there were increases in Māori language learners at universities (10%)
- year 11 candidates at Māori-medium schools were more likely to meet both the NCEA literacy and numeracy requirements than other Māori candidates.
4.3: Strategic focus
The Ministry of Education, in its Statement of Intent 2008–2013, prioritises ‘learners [having] access to high-quality Māori language education that delivers positive language and learning outcomes’ as one of the five strategic outcomes over the next five years.
Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success provides the framework for achieving this outcome through its goals to:
- develop a Māori Language Education Outcomes Framework98 that supports a strategic investment approach
- establish kura to be viable and sustainable, with high-quality teaching and learning environments, and the supply of kura and wharekura matching demand over the long term
- increase the number of high-quality, effective Māori teachers proficient in Māori language
- increase effective teaching and learning of and through Māori language
- increase visibility of Māori language in nationwide media and schools to promote the currency and relevance of te reo Māori
- strengthen Māori language education research.
The release of Te Marautanga o Aotearoa99 and its partner document, The New Zealand Curriculum,100 are significant milestones for the ministry. Together, the documents emphasise the importance and value of te reo Māori and culture and acknowledge the vital role that all schools play in helping Māori learners to succeed and realise their potential as Māori.
The government’s Māori Language Strategy, sets out a 25-year vision for te reo Māori and clarifies the ministry’s responsibility for strengthening education opportunities in te reo Māori.
Supporting a strong Māori language education sector sits at the centre of the ministry’s ability to deliver on its responsibilities to the Māori Language Strategy. The strategy aims to ensure that by 2028 most Māori will be able to speak te reo Māori to some extent and the proficiency of people speaking, listening, reading and writing in te reo Māori will have increased.
This aim reflects an understanding of the contribution Māori language and culture make to the country’s national identity. It acknowledges that it is the birthright of young Māori to access Māori language and culture, and it reflects the importance of learning and using Māori language and culture, as taonga under the Treaty of Waitangi.
The Tertiary Education Strategy 2007–2012 recognises the specific responsibility that tertiary education has for contributing to the achievement of Māori aspirations and development. The Tertiary Education Strategy requires all tertiary education organisations to work with Māori to ensure that education and research supports the development of skills and knowledge that Māori require to manage cultural and economic assets. The Tertiary Education Strategy recognises that a key aspiration of Māori is that Māori knowledge, Māori ways of doing and knowing things – in essence Māori ways of being – are validated across the tertiary education sector. The Tertiary Education Strategy will continue to support wānanga and other tertiary education organisations to provide education and research in accordance with kaupapa Māori philosophies.
Research demonstrates the importance of an early start in high-quality Māori language education that is sustained. However, figures show that enrolment in Māori-medium early childhood and school settings is decreasing. While the overall school population has been decreasing since 2004, the decrease in students in Māori-medium education has been greater.
In 2007, approximately 8600 children attended kōhanga reo,101 with more than 300 children attending ngā puna reo and puna kōhungahunga.102 This is down slightly on 2006 when there were approximately 9400 children attending kōhanga reo and approximately 330 attending ngā puna reo and puna kōhungahunga. However, when compared with 2001, the decline is more obvious. In 2001, nearly 32% of Māori children in ECE were in Māori-medium services. In 2007 this proportion had dropped to 25.3% of all Māori children in ECE.
In schools, the drop has been smaller. In 2001, 17.1% of all Māori school learners were enrolled in Māori-medium schooling. In 2007, this was 15.8% of all Māori enrolments.
Although numbers in Māori language education across the system are decreasing, the number of learners at kura kaupapa Māori has been rising steadily since 2001. In 2007, 22% of learners in Māori-medium education were in kura kaupapa Māori, compared to 18% in 2001. Overall, the number of kura kaupapa Māori has increased markedly in recent years from 13 in 1992 to 68 in 2007. Māori pedagogy and mātauranga Māori are integral to the delivery of Te Aho Mātua in kura kaupapa Māori (and wharekura) and te reo Māori is the sole language of teaching and learning.
Many primary and secondary schools where English is the main language of teaching and learning offer opportunities for children of all ethnicities to learn te reo Māori within bilingual classes, total immersion classes and whānau units. Classes and units are typically supported by dedicated teaching staff and whānau committees, with day-to-day management delegated to the principal.
In 2007, there were 25,986 Māori learners in New Zealand schools who were participating in some form of Māori language education, where te reo Māori made up at least 12% of teaching and learning. This is 1.3% less than in 2006. The number of schools offering Māori language education dropped from 421 in 2006 to 408 in 2007.
National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) data continue to show strong patterns of achievement among Māori learners attending Māori-medium secondary schools. In 2006, year 11 learners attending Māori-immersion and bilingual schools achieved higher NCEA attainment rates than their peers attending English-medium schools.103
A 2007 report104 from the Māori language education sector also show promising pockets of success for years 11, 12 and 13:
- candidates at Māori-medium schools were more likely to meet both the literacy and numeracy requirements for NCEA Level 1 by the end of year 11 than their Māori counterparts at English-medium schools.
- year 11–13 candidates at Māori-medium schools were more likely to gain a typical level or higher NCEA qualification than their Māori peers at English-medium schools.105
Māori Language Education Framework
The Māori Language Education Framework sets out areas for investment that are based on what research and experience show make the greatest difference to raising learner achievement and reducing disparity. It also incorporates the key goals and actions for Māori language education within Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success and draws on an internal ministry stocktake of Māori language programmes and initiatives in 2006.
In developing this framework the ministry sought to ensure it had a coherent approach for planning, investing, evaluating and reporting on outcomes, investments and activities within the Māori language education sector. The ministry’s main focus is to strengthen the network of education provision that already exists and over time to make these options available to all learners.
The framework aims to assist the ministry in:
- clarifying those outcomes being sought through Māori language education
- specifying ways of measuring success in the achievement of the outcomes
- producing a detailed and long-term investment plan to guide Māori language education policy, priorities and resourcing
- ensuring a coordinated approach to current and future activity in Māori language education
- articulating the roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders in Māori language education, including government, education providers, whānau and iwi.
Focusing on learner outcomes, the framework describes the skills and knowledge a learner may gain through Māori language education. These include a mix of language, academic, social and cultural skills and are described as short-term outcomes in the framework, which are consistent with The New Zealand Curriculum and Te Marautanga o Aotearoa.
The ministry is currently testing the Māori Language Education Framework internally. The purpose of the pilot is to support ministry staff in implementing the framework. In particular it is expected that the framework will provide a comprehensive tool for planning, investing, evaluating and reporting on Māori language education outcomes, investments and activities investment in te reo Māori.
Establishment of kura kaupapa
Through Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success the ministry is seeking to ensure that more kura are established that are viable and sustainable. The ministry wants to ensure that kura have the tools to be able to offer quality teaching and learning to their learners.
Kura kaupapa Māori106 and kura-a-iwi are popular schooling choices for Māori whānau. In recent years iwi and hapū have established kura a iwi which cater to local iwi and hapū education needs and usually teach the local Māori dialect and tikanga of the area.
Much of the ministry’s work on the viability and sustainability of kura is focused on the processes for establishing kura and on the support, and further development of established kura. Challenges remain in the provision of Māori language education in some areas of the country, for example, for learners who want to progress from kura to wharekura.
There are inherent risks in the current establishment process. These risks are associated with the small size, partial resourcing, ineffective support in terms of advice and guidance, and the long drawn out establishment process. Once established, there are commonly recurring risks associated with governance capability and management capability.
The establishment process has been revised and redeveloped with a view to reducing risks for establishing new kura. The process involves increasing the number of learners required to establish a kura and then following timelines, processes and resource entitlements that are similar to those used in the establishment of English-medium schools.
Where there are insufficient learners for a kura to be established, the process involves learners being taught in a satellite of an established high-performing kura. The satellites of kura may operate indefinitely if they do not seek establishment as a kura, and the established kura that sets up the satellite is required to ensure quality in the ongoing operation of the satellite.
Work is being done with clusters of kura to strengthen governance and management capability. The training provided to these clusters has been aimed at meeting the needs of kura that are preparing for establishment or have recently been established. It is planned to extend this training to other established kura where there are risks to governance and/or management performance. This is a specific response to the recommendations by the Office of the Auditor General.107
Increase teacher supply
Increasing teacher supply, recruitment, retention and progression were key issues identified in the ministry’s 2006 Māori language education stocktake. Teacher supply was also noted as an ongoing issue across the education sector, but particularly acute for Māori-medium and kura which face challenges with attracting and retaining trained and skilled Māori teachers.
The internal ministry Māori language education stocktake provided valuable insights into where investment may best be targeted to support effective teaching across all Māori language education settings.
The stocktake identified teacher supply as an issue that arises in part due to the skills and knowledge required to teach within these settings. Such skills and knowledge are often additional to those required to be a teacher in general and may include fluency and proficiency in two languages, knowledge of second- language learning and an understanding of appropriate teaching and learning strategies.
The main driver of variation in learning at school is the quality of teachers. One of the key constraints to strengthening Māori language education through Māori-medium education is the availability of quality teachers with the requisite skills and knowledge to teach in these settings. Strengthening the supply of quality Māori-medium teachers is essential for all learners to have access to quality Māori language education options.
The expertise required of Māori-medium teachers is highly specialised. They need to be fluent Māori speakers, understand second-language pedagogy, and be effective teachers of the Māori and the English curricula. The Māori language proficiency of Māori-medium teachers is of concern. A recent review of Resource Teachers: Māori by the Education Review Office found that Resource Teachers: Māori were spending a large amount of their time compensating for a lack of Māori language proficiency among Māori-medium teachers. The New Zealand Teachers Council has research underway, to investigate Māori language proficiency in Māori-medium initial teachers education programmes, which will inform this project.
A ministerial advisory group was established in 2008 due to concerns about the general shortage of Māori-medium teachers, and that current supply is not keeping up with the demand. This working group was made up of Māori educationalists to develop new and fresh thinking regarding the issues that have affected Māori-medium education for some time. It is anticipated that this advisory group will take an approach that fits with the ‘personalising learning’ approach to meet the needs, aspirations and expectations of Māori and the value they expect, want and deserve from the system particularly in the Māori language education sector.
The ministry will need to collaborate with the Teachers Council, the Tertiary Education Commission, the New Zealand Qualifications Authority and tertiary education organisations to develop an approach that is able to attract, train and retain quality teachers proficient in Māori language.
One example of encouragement for Māori-medium teachers is the Māori Immersion Teacher Allowance. The allowance is for teachers employed under the Collective Employment Agreements who use te reo Māori as the language of communication and instruction. To qualify, teachers must be employed full time and teach using Māori language for more than 50% of the time. In 2007, 1159 Māori Immersion Teacher Allowances were paid to Māori-medium teachers at state and state-integrated schools.
The number of teachers working in Māori-medium schools has increased from approximately 730 in 1999 to 1470 in 2008. Of these teachers, 59% are in primary or intermediate schools, 24% in composite schools and 7% in secondary schools. Most of these teachers (89%) are in schools in deciles 1–3 (39% in decile 1, 29% in decile 2 and 20% in decile 3).
A key challenge is the relatively small pool of approximately 29,000 proficient Māori speakers, from which the sector can recruit Māori language education teachers. It is important to note that teacher supply in the Māori language education sector is self-sustaining – the sole source of Māori language education teachers is the Māori language education network itself, located in and supported by iwi, whānau and Māori communities. Therefore, the inter-relationships between teacher supply, recruitment, retention and progression are crucial.
A range of TeachNZ108 initiatives seeks to attract people into teaching, including the Māori-medium Teacher Recruitment Scholarship of $30,000 and the Māori-medium School leaver/Undergraduate Scholarship of $10,000 for fluent Māori speakers. In 2007/08, 69 Māori-medium Scholarships were awarded of which 45 were awarded to Māori-medium career changers and 24 to Māori-medium school leavers/undergraduates.
Given the expected growth in the Māori population, developing specialist workforces to work with Māori children is also becoming increasingly important. The ministry is seeking to increase the number of speech language therapists and sign language interpreters who are Māori and/or fluent in te reo Māori by providing scholarships.
To ensure the recipients of the scholarships receive the support they need to complete the training, the ministry has proposed to enable its key Māori stakeholders, including iwi, to administer and award the scholarships in conjunction with ministry special education regional offices (see chapter 3).
Quality teaching and learning through Māori language
Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success seeks to ensure that there are more quality teachers in Māori language education, and that these teachers are supported by effective leadership. They will only benefit and advance as teachers through a coherent professional development and assessment strategy. They also need relevant resources that support effective teaching and learning.
Enhanced teaching quality sits at the heart of the ministry’s ability to ensure the Māori language education sector performs well for and with Māori learners.
A range of work is underway to increase effective teaching and learning of and through Māori language and culture. A major highlight has been the development of the new curriculum documents (see chapter 3).
The New Zealand Curriculum acknowledges te reo Māori as an official language of New Zealand:
Te reo Māori … is a taonga recognised under the Treaty of Waitangi, a primary source of our nation’s self-knowledge and identity, and an official language.
By learning te reo Māori and becoming increasingly familiar with tikanga, Māori learners strengthen their identities while non-Māori journey towards shared cultural understandings.109
The New Zealand Curriculum sets out the benefits of learning te reo Māori, including enabling learners to:
- participate with understanding and confidence in situations where te reo and tikanga Māori predominate and integrate language and cultural understandings into their lives
- strengthen New Zealand’s identity in the world
- broaden their entrepreneurial and employment options.
Curriculum guidelines for teaching and learning Māori language in English-medium schools in years 1–13 are due for release in early 2009 and will be supported by resources and professional development.
Te Marautanga o Aotearoa, the new curriculum for Māori-medium schools, was launched at Te Ara Whānui Kura Kaupapa in September 2008. Te Marautanga o Aotearoa has been developed and written in Māori language in consultation with the Māori-medium education sector and is not a translation of the English curriculum.
The development of Te Marautanga o Aotearoa began with a stocktake report (in 2000/02) that recommended a revision of the existing Māori-medium curriculum. Te Marautanga o Aotearoa was developed under the guidance of Te Ohu Matua (Reference Group) that included leading academic representatives from Māori organisations with an interest in Māori-medium education.
During the consultation on the draft Te Marautanga o Aotearoa, 413 questionnaires were completed by 1276 individuals, mostly teachers and principals. The feedback identified a high level of support for the draft document and considered it would inform the future direction of the school curriculum and provided sufficient flexibility to design their curriculum for learners. Some 72% of respondents agreed that the English language should be an additional learning area in Māori-medium settings.
Te Marautanga o Aotearoa is founded on the aspiration that learners will be competent, confident learners and communicators and have the skills and knowledge to participate in and contribute to Māori society and the wider world. The focus of Te Marautanga o Aotearoa is on outcomes that allow the curriculum to be evaluated in terms of whether it is helping to meet the expectations that Māori have of education. It gives flexibility for schools to work closely with whānau and iwi to develop a marautanga-ā-kura (school-based curriculum) for their communities.
Te Marautanga o Aotearoa has nine learning areas. Kura must offer the following eight:
- Te Reo Māori (Māori Language and Literature)
- Pāngarau (Mathematics)
- Hauora (Health and Wellbeing)
- Tikanga-ā-iwi (Social Sciences)
- Ngā Toi (The Arts)
- Pūtaiao (Science)
- Hangarau (Technology)
- Te Reo Pākehā (English Language).
Kura can also choose to offer Ngā Reo (Learning Languages).
The implementation of Te Marautanga o Aotearoa will be a focus for Māori-medium settings from now until December 2010.
The ministry’s implementation plan for Te Marautanga o Aotearoa will see regional coordinators working with schools, whānau, iwi, communities and wider in-service teacher education providers to support schools to develop their own school-based curriculum aligned to Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. The ministry has developed supplementary professional support materials to assist teachers to understand and deepen their pedagogical content knowledge of the learning areas of Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. These materials will be distributed with Te Marautanga o Aotearoa over 2008/09.
In 2007 the ministry continued providing professional development and support to teachers who teach Māori language as a subject and who teach all subjects through Māori language. In working towards its goal of increasing the effectiveness of teaching and learning across the sector, much of the ministry’s work seeks to build on and develop the range of existing good practice shown by the evidence to work well for and with Māori learners and gather new evidence about what works best.
Kei Tua o te Pae/ Assessment for learning: Early Childhood Exemplars provided a range of important insights into the effective teaching approaches within early childhood settings where Māori language and culture is the primary vehicle for teaching and learning (see chapter 2).
Additional professional development programmes supporting teachers to improve language proficiency and increase effective pedagogical practices particularly in numeracy and literacy include Te Whakapiki i te Reo Māori, Te RITO, Te Hiringa i te Mahara, Ngā Taumatua and Te Poutama Tau.
Te Whakapiki i te Reo Māori aims to improve the quality of language in kura kaupapa Māori and other immersion schools and classes; and to increase the number of trained teachers to deliver Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. The initiative has a number of immersion programmes for registered practising teachers in Māori-medium settings to increase proficiency and competency in Māori language and improve the quality of teaching. The primary goal of the programme is to raise learners’ literacy achievements and to improve learner outcomes. An evaluation report will be completed in January 2009.
Te RITO (Te Reo Itinerant Teacher of Māori) aims to improve the Māori language speaking and writing skills of teachers and learners in 13 schools in the Far North. It is aimed at giving teachers of te reo Māori as a subject new planning, teaching and assessment practices and at bringing schools and Māori communities closer together. Results110 show that Te RITO is improving learners’ Māori language use, especially their vocabulary, sentence structure, comprehension and pronunciation.
Findings from the Māori Secondary Teachers Workload programme, Te Hiringa i te Mahara, Power of the Mind111 report highlight the important role professional development can and does have on supporting Māori secondary teachers. Te Hiringa i te Mahara, delivered for the past decade through Gardiner and Parata Ltd112, supports teachers with a wide range of professional development. Te Hiringa i te Mahara provides many courses that forge links between professional development and classroom learning, such as the second-language acquisition pedagogy programme, Te Ara Aromatawai (formative assessment programme), the various programmes on the use of ICT113 in the classroom, Whakawhitiwhiti Whakaaro, and He Aratohu – Guidelines for Integrating Kaupapa Māori into Mainstream Secondary School Teaching and Learning Programmes (see chapter 3). The Māori Secondary Teachers Workload programme is being delivered by a new provider, Haemata Ltd, from January 2009.
A successful professional development initiative has been Ngā Taumatua. Kia Ata Mai Educational Trust has been contracted to develop and deliver Ngā Taumatua as a full-time 40-week Māori-medium literacy professional development programme. Since 2002 Ngā Taumatua has provided places for up to 12 Māori-medium teachers and Resource Teachers: Māori each year. The total cost associated with the course includes paying for relief teachers to work in the participants’ permanent positions for the entire 40 weeks of the course. There were 11 participants in 2007.
Ngā Taumatua focuses on providing professional knowledge to teachers and Resource Teachers: Māori to use Māori-medium early-literacy assessment tools, and to increase their specialist literacy and second-language acquisition pedagogy. Māori-medium literacy programmes developed by Poutama Pounamu Research and Development Centre and implemented by Ngā Taumatua have resulted in Māori literacy rates improving and producing world-leading gains for literacy in New Zealand.
The Poutama Pounamu Research and Development Centre has provided strong evidence of the positive impact of whānau and kura interventions or learner achievements in Māori-medium education. Five examples of programmes in relation to the school–whānau literacy context are:
- an intervention to assist parents and tutors to effectively help children with their reading (Tatari, Tautoko, Tauawhi)
- a phonological awareness programme (TATA)
- an intervention involving elders reading in te reo Māori onto tapes used at home and school (RĀPP)
- a 10-week programme where elders in the community correspond with individual children in te reo Māori (Tuhi Atu Tuhi Mai)
- training for parents and whānau to address behavioural and learning difficulties (Hei Āwhina Mātua).
The learning gains from these interventions were the highest for any category of school–home intervention found in a meta-analysis of school–home connections in the Educational Leadership Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration.114 The ministry is working collaboratively to pilot the Tatari, Tautoko, Tauawhi programme in three Rotorua kura in term 4 2008 and in term 1 2009.
The ministry will work to ensure these programmes continue in 2010 as part of developing a wider literacy framework to guide investment.
The professional development project Te Poutama Tau is a ministry programme for Māori-medium education aimed at improving teaching in numeracy. Results showed that year 7 learners from participating schools performed well above the national norms (from asTTle). They performed especially well in basic facts, and in performing mental strategies such as working out fractions. In 2007/08, 21 year 9 and 10 teachers joined Te Poutama Tau, nine of whom participated in an evaluation project specifically for year 9 and 10 called the Wharekura Pāngarau project.
The Wharekura Pāngarau project examined the impact that professional development and support had on those nine teachers of pāngarau (mathematics) working in wharekura in the Hawkes Bay, Taranaki, Waikato, Wellington and Whanganui regions. This evaluation found that the support project had a positive impact on teachers’ content and pedagogical knowledge. The learners involved in the pilot made impressive achievement gains.
The ministry has also been implementing the INSTEP project, aimed at developing evidence-based approaches to improving the practice and learning of in-service teacher educators. As a result of the research and development work of the project, a resource, Ki te Aotūroa: Improving In-service Teacher Educator Learning and Practice,115 provides a theory of improvement for in-service teacher education. The resource also provides six learning cases to support ongoing learning and development for in-service teacher educators. One of the cases is presented in Māori language, with an English translation, and examines key issues and concerns for in-service teacher educators who work in Māori-medium settings. A consolidation project being implemented by Waikato University is seeking to extend and build on the work in Māori-medium settings during 2008.
The ministry began implementing its Quality Teaching Research and Development project in 2007, which aims to improve teaching quality among teachers working in kura and schools. This is done through identifying teaching practice and professional learning and development models that work. An evaluation of the project and publication of teachers’ enquiries are underway.
High-quality teaching and learning resources enable teachers to tailor and adapt their teaching to meet learners’ individual academic, linguistic and general learning needs.
Establishing a high-quality base of teaching and learning materials to support Māori language education across all curriculum areas and specialist subject areas (depth) and all year levels (breadth) will be a key focus of the ministry’s work in this area.
This approach arose out of the ministry’s stocktake that noted the relatively limited supply of resources to support high-quality teaching and learning in Māori language education. The stocktake acknowledged that the issue varied among different education settings and is in part due to available funding, available expertise in specialist areas and the time required to develop specific resources.
The ministry has developed curriculum guidelines for the teaching and learning of Māori language as a subject in schools where English is the primary language of teaching and learning. Resources (currently being updated and due for release in late 2008) to support the curriculum guidelines (across years 1 to 8) include:
- Matariki, a planning handbook and audio, video and gaming resources
- Te Ata Hapara, a resource for teachers wanting to improve their Māori language.
Meanwhile, Ka Mau te Wehi is a multi-media resource to support the Māori language curriculum specifically developed for teachers and learners in years 7 and 8.
Significant teaching and learning resources were also developed for Levels 1 and 2 immersion settings during 2007. A more targeted approach was taken to ensure that resources produced would reflect Te Marautanga o Aotearoa and would support NCEA Levels 1, 2 and 3.
For example, the ministry developed He Ringa Toi Whakaari, He Waewae Toi Kanikani, a multi-media teaching and learning resource that targets the curriculum area of Ngā Toi for wharekura learners.
During 2007 the ministry also produced a Māori language version of Patricia Grace’s novel, Pōtiki, for Māori-medium schools, helping to fill an identified gap in literature for wharekura learners.
The following case study explores the education experience of Dr Lily Fraser (Kāi Tahu) – one of the first Māori graduates of kōhanga reo and kura kaupapa Māori. Dr Lily Fraser reflects on the importance of kōhanga and kura to her personally and to her career aspirations and later success as a general practitioner.
The following case study is published in te reo Māori and English and reflects some of the Māori Language Education goals of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success.
Case study 5
Lily Fraser – Rata Taiohi o kāi tahu
Ngā kōrero mō te whakaahua: Rata Lily Fraser (Kāi Tahu, Kāti Māmoe, Waitaha)
He kupu whakataki
KA KŌRERO a Ngā Haeata Mātauranga ki a Lily Fraser, tētahi rata tamariki nei o Kāi Tahu, e whakangungua ana hei rata ā-iwi, mō tana whai i te mātauranga i ngā kura kaupapa Māori me te whakawhiti atu ki te whare wānanga. Ka kimihia e Ngā Haeata Mātauranga ko ngā kōrero mō ngā āhuatanga tautoko i a ia kia ekea ngā pae o te mātauranga, kia tau hoki ia ki te marae o te iwi. Ka kōrerotia hoki ko ōna ake whakaaro mō te ako kore mutu, mō te whai mātauranga hoki a te Māori hei Māori. I whai tohu mai a Lily i te kura rata, ā, kei te Whare Hauora o Aurora o Otepoti mō te ono marama e whakamātautauria ana hei kairēhita i tēnei wā, ā, ka kōrero ki a ia mō tōna hiahia ki te mahi tahi me te Māori.
NHM: Tēnā koe Lily, tēnā he aha ētahi kōrero mōhou anō?
Ko Aoraki te mauka
Ko Waitaki te awa
Ko Takitimu te waka
Ko Tahu Pōtiki te takata
Ko Kāi Tahu, ko Kāti Māmoe, ko Waitaha kā iwi
Ko Kāti Ruahikihiki te hapū
Ko Ōtākou te kāika
Kia ora, ko Lily Fraser tōku ingoa, nō Ōtākou ahau. I whānau tonu au i konei, i tō mātou marae, i Ōtākou. Ko au tētahi o ngā pēpi i takangōki haere nei i te kāinga nā, te wahawaha a tēnā, te poipoi a tēnā.
NHM: Ko koe tētahi tamaiti o te kōhanga reo i te tau 1982, te wā tuatahi i kaupapa Māori ai te whai mātauranga. I ahatia koe, i pēhea hoki ki a koe?
Lily: Rua tau taku pakeke, ka heke mai taku māmā ki Tāmaki Makaurau, ā, ka rongo hoki ia i te tīmata tētahi kōhanga reo, ka kaha tōna hiahia kia haere atu ahau. Ko te take ko te ngaro o tō mātou reo i Ōtākou. He rite tonu te haere a Māmā ki te marae, kāore i rangona te reo Māori, kāore i te kōrerotia.
Ko te tikanga, ka haere katoa atu ngā mātua ki te kōhanga reo me ā rātou tamariki i runga i te whakaaro kia hoki anō te reo ki te whānau. Tino kaikaha nei a Māmā me tōna kore reo, ki te tautoko, kia whiwhi ko māua tahi, ka rua, ka rua.
Ko Waiatarau te ingoa o taku kōhanga, i Freeman’s Bay. E rua ngā rūma nui, ki taku mahara he moenga i roto i tētahi, kāore ā mātou rauemi i ērā rā. Engari anō te ngahau, te koa, te tākaro, te waiata, reo Māori atu, reo Māori mai.
NHM: Kua tae atu koe ki ngā momo kura (kura tuatahi, kura waenga, kura reo rua, kura kaupapa hoki), tēnā kōrerotia mai tō nohonga ki ngā kura nei hei ākonga Māori.
Lily: Nō taku tau tuatahi i te kura tuatahi, i roto ahau i te wāhanga matua o te Kura Tuatahi o Grey Lynn. Kotahi anō te wā i ia wiki ka ako mātou i te reo Māori, ko te hekeretari o te kura te kaiako i te mea, he Māori ia, kōrero Māori hoki a ia. Pārekareka ki a au! Ka mau te wehi o te kura!
Nā, ka ono aku tau, ka puta tētahi kaiako Māori, he kaikōrero Māori, ki te kura, ā, nāna i whakarite mai he akoranga reo Māori. Ka huri haere i te kura ki te tangotango i ngā tamariki Māori i ngā akomanga. Rerekē katoa ō mātou pakeke.
Nō muri mai ka haere au ki te kura waenga o Pasadena, ka noho anō ki te wāhanga matua. Ka hoki aku mahara ki tētahi wā i tū ai ahau ki te kōrero mōku anō me taku pepeha, tē aro i a wai rā, kāore i mihia, kāore i ahatia. He rawe taku kaiako engari kāore i aro mai ki te mātauranga Māori.
Kātahi ka haere au ki Te Wharekura o Te Marae o Hoani Waititi – i Glen Eden. Waimarie ahau ko au tētahi o ngā ākonga tuatahi o te kura nei. Whakahïhï pai ana mātou ki ngā whakapaunga kaha o ō mātou mātua ki te tohetohe kia tū tēnei kura, ka kïa ai, ‘kāore mā te waewae tūtuki, engari mā te ūpoko pakaru kē.’ Koinā te tikanga.
NHM: E hika, te āhua nei he atua kē te kura o Hoani Waititi! Tēnā he aha ētahi o ngā āhuatanga i noho pērā ai te kura nei?
Lily: Ki tōku whakaaro, ko te mea nui kē, nā te Māori i whakatū, i kawe te kaupapa, ā, ko te nuinga o ngā kaiako he Māori. Mōku nei, ko te horopaki o te ako, he rerekē rawa te kura ki ērā o ngā kura matua. Nā, ki te whakaarohia ngā tāngata i roto i taku akomanga, te mutunga kē mai o te kura ko tēnei, kei whea mai te rawe o te ako, o te whai mātauranga. Nāna, ka tae atu ko tēnā ki tōna taumata, ko tēnā anō ki tōna.
Ka rangatira te whakaaro o ngā kaiako, ka rangatira hoki ko mātou hei ākonga ki te whare wānanga. Pau ana te whakaaro ki te wānanga, ehara i te mea ka rangitūhāhā te mahara engari ka whai haere i ngā tikanga waiwai noa nei pēnei i te puta ki te kura i ia rā, i ia rā. Ka mate hoki tō mātou tumuaki ki te kohikohi i ngā ākonga i ō rātou kāinga mēnā kāore i puta mai. He kura pakupaku noa mātou i taua wā, heoi mōhio katoa ia ko wai mā i puta mai, ko wai hoki kāore i puta mai.
Mōhio katoa mātou i te wehi o tā mātou mahi. I te mea i tae kē atu au ki ētahi momo kura kē atu, ka tino kite au i te pai o Hoani Waititi. Me whakamihi rā ka tika.
NHM: Kia ora mō tēnā kōrero Lily. Tēnā, he aha i haere atu ai koe ki te kura rata mai i te kura kaupapa, ā, he aha ngā āhuatanga āwhina i a koe i tēnei whakawhitinga āu?
Lily: I pānuitia e taku māmā tētahi kōrero i te niupepa mō te kaupapa whakauru Māori ki te kura rata i te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki Makaurau. Ka mea mai ia, ‘Pānuitia, ka taea pea e koe?’ Tino whakapono mai a Māmā kia pakupaku noa ngā akoranga, pēnei i te kura rata, 100 ngā ākonga, ka piri tahi, ka noho tahi, ka ako tahi mō te ono tau te roa, mau tonu ai.
Ko au tētahi o ngā ‘māmā’ i te kura, arā, ka mate au ki te tiaki tamariki nā reira ka tika pea kia whāia e au tēnei huarahi. He uaua kē te wānanga o te hinengaro, engari he pai ki a au, i te mea ko tāku e whakapae atu nei, ahakoa he aha tō hiahia, ka taea e koe mehemea ka takea mai i te mātauranga Māori, kei pōhēhētia he kūare kē te Māori, ehara!
Ko au tētahi o te kaupapa Whakauru Māori me Ngā Iwi o Te Moananui ā Kiwa (MAPAS) i tïmata i te kura rata i te tau 1999. He huarahi tēnei ki te kura rata. Ka pāpaku kē ngā taiapa hei piki engari nō te houtanga atu ki roto, kua tangata whenua me te katoa, te ako, te aromatawai hoki. Ko te mea pai ki a au o te kaupapa nei ko te tautoko mai a ngā rata Māori me ngā ākonga rata Māori hoki.
NHM: I kī mai tō māmā i tino whakapono atu ia ki te pai o te noho torutoru o ngā rōpū whai mātauranga. I eke anō ki tēnei, i tautokona rānei ko ngā ākonga rata Māori ake?
Lily: He tari hauora Māori kei te kura rata. He rangahau, he whakaako, he mahi hoki te mahi a te hunga kaimahi. I a au i reira, nā ngā ākonga tuākana mātou i tiaki, i tohutohu, i āwhina – anō nei he whānau tonu. He pai hoki te tautoko mai a ngā kaiako. Ka whakamōhiotia atu ō mātou ngoikoretanga kātahi ka āwhinatia mai.
He nui ngā āhuatanga i tïmataria e ngā ākonga. I whakaritea e mātou ā mātou hākari MAPAS mō ngā hui whakawhiwhi tohu, kia puta katoa mai ō mātou whānau. Ka haere hoki ki ngā nohoanga marae ki te taha o ngā ākonga tuākana, rata rānei ki te whakawhanaunga haere. Tino whai hoa mātou. Nā ōku hoa ākonga anō ahau i tino tautoko mai.
Kāore i roa, kua mōhio katoa au ki ngā rata. Haere katoa ai mātou ki te hui ā-tau, ki te Wānanga Pūtaiao hoki mō Te Ohu Rata o Aotearoa, te rōpū o ngā rata Māori. I tēnei wā ko au tētahi o ngā mema poari o Te Ohu Rata nei. Ko tā mātou he whakawhanaunga i ngā rata Māori ki a rātou anō kia whai wāhi rātou ki te tautoko tētahi i tētahi, ā-hapori nei, ā-motu anō hoki. Ko tōna 300 pea ngā rata Māori i Aotearoa.
NHM: E hia tō roa i Te Ohu Rata, he aha hoki ō rātou whāinga?
Lily: Nō te tau 1999 i uru atu ai au, kua tata 10 tau ināianei. Inā te kaupapa Matakite 2020 a te Kura Rata o Tāmaki Makaurau, e mea ana kia Māori te 20% o ngā rata katoa i mua i te tau 2020. Ki te rite te wāhanga o ngā rata Māori ki tērā o te tokomaha o ngāi Māori, ka 1500 kē ngā rata.
NHM: Āta! Kia kaha koutou! Nōnahea koe i mōhio ai ka hiahia noho koe hei rata? He aha ai?
Lily: Nō taku kaingākautanga ki te rongoā, ko taku whai kia noho ai au hei rata. Ka aua atu nei au e hiahia ana ki te mahi tahi, ki te āwhina i te Māori, ā, ki te mahi au ki rō hōhipera ka tino kite au i ngā tāngata kua māuiui kē. Mēnā ka noho hei rata ā-iwi, ka mahi au mō tētahi hauora Māori, tērā ka nui atu āku pāpātanga ki te tūroro Māori. Ka pērā anō taku mahi tahitanga ki te Māori – i pēnā ano ahau – i ngā kāinga pērā i Te Kaha i te Tairāwhiti.
He rawe kē ngā tūroro o te Tairāwhiti. He Māori katoa! Ka mea atu ngā nēhi ki a rātou, he rata kōrero Māori ahau, kātahi ka whiti mai te rā ki runga i ētahi. Te mutunga kē mai o te pai.
Ki tōku whakaaro, he waimarie rātou i te Tairāwhiti i te mea ka manaakitia ngā take hauora i raro i Te Hauora o Ngāti Porou. Ka whaimana rātou ki ō rātou nā hauora, ā, he Māori anō te nuinga o ngā kaimahi. Mōku nei, ka noho noa hei tangata, ā, nā te pēnei ka pērā mai anō ngā tūroro, ka kore pea ētahi e mārama ki tēnei āhuatanga – ko ngā rata pakeke tonu i te hōhipera – e kore rawa. He āhuatanga hoki tēnei nō ngā whakatipuranga.
NHM: Nā, ki ō whakaaro kei te huri rānei te ao rata?
Lily: Āe, kei te huri te ao rata i te mea he rerekē te whakatipuranga e mahi ana i taua ao ki te whakatipuranga o mua atu. Nō te tihi 2% o te mātauranga o te motu ngā kaimahi o te ao rata i mua, he matatau, engari mō te kōrero ki te tangata, ki te Māori rawa, auare ake!
He rite tonu te pātai mai ki a au, ‘E ahatia ana kia pai kē atu au mō ngā tūroro Māori, tē aro atu ki te rata Pākehā?’ He uaua te whakautu. Kei te mahi noa ahau, hei Māori. Nā, mā te kōrero, mā te whakawhanaunga atu ka whai tikanga anō mō te tūroro. He tikanga noa nei nōku te whai mātauranga, te noho. Waihoki taku mahi hei rata.
I ēnei rā, ka tino whai tikanga te whakarata tangata. Inā ngā kaupapa nui hei whai, ko ngā pūkenga whakawhiti kōrero, ko te whakarongo ki te tangata, ko te whakamauritau i a rātou kia ngāwari ai te whakaputa kōrero. Ko te tikanga ko te whakapuaki i ngā whakaaro, ko te pērā hoki ō te tūroro. Kei te tūroro anō ngā kōrero e hiahiatia ana. Otirā, me tohunga tonu koe hei rata.
NHM: Inā whakaarohia ai ngā pūkenga e mau nei i a koe me te mōhio hoki he mana anō ō te tikanga ā-iwi, kei te āwhina rānei koe i ētahi, kei te tuku kōrero hoki koe mō te hauora Māori?
Lily: Kua tïmata au ki te āwhina i ngā ākonga rata o te tau tuarua o Te Whare Wānanga o Ōtākou i te marautanga hauora Māori. Haere atu ai rātou ki ngā marae o konei ki te ako i ngā tikanga, ki te whakahuahua i te reo, ki te noho ā-iwi a te Māori, ā, ki te ako hoki i ngā kōrero mō ngā tikanga pākino ki te Māori, arā, te takahi tangata, te kaikiri, te whakamāori anō i te Māori i runga i te pōhēhē he Māori. Nā, ka kōrero hoki mātou mō ngā kaupapa hauora Māori.
Kia kaua tātou e Māori nei te Pākehā. Ka mōhio pea rātou he mea whai take ngā rerekētanga tikanga ā-iwi. Me mōhio mātou ki ō mātou ake whakaaro, me mārama hoki ki ō mātou pānga ki te tiaki tūroro. Ka noho tonu te Pākehā hei rata mō te Māori, ka tiaki tonu i a ia. Engari ehara anake i te pērā. Tōna tikanga kē, ‘Tērā pea he hiahia kē atu anō ō taku tūroro Māori kāore i a au.’
NHM: Tēnā koe Lily; mō āu kōrero mai, mō āu whakaaro nui, mō āu mahi me tō aroha ki te Māori, otirā mō te noho mai hei kaupapa kōrero mō Ngā Haeata Mātauranga 2007/08. Kia ora!
Case study 5
Young Kāi Tahu doctor - Lily Fraser
Above photo of Dr Lily Fraser (Kāi Tahu, Kāti Māmoe, Waitaha)
Ngā Haeata Mātauranga talks with young Kāi Tahu doctor and trainee GP Lily Fraser, about her experiences within Māori-medium education and making the transition to university. Ngā Haeata Mātaurangafinds out more about the things that have helped her succeed academically and culturally. We also reflect on her personal view of lifelong learning and having an education that enables Māori to succeed as Māori. Lily Fraser has graduated from medical school and is part way through a six-month registrar placement with Dunedin’s Aurora Health Centre, and we talk about her desire to work with and help Māori.
NHM: Tena koe Lily, could you please tell us a little about yourself?
Ko Aoraki te mauka
Ko Waitaki te awa
Ko Takitimu te waka
Ko Tahu Pōtiki te takata
Ko Kāi Tahu, ko Kāti Māmoe, ko Waitaha kā iwi
Ko Kāti Ruahikihiki te hapū
Ko Ōtākou te kāika
Kia ora, my name is Lily Fraser and I am from Ōtākou. I was actually born here, out at our marae Ōtākou. I was one of those babies at the marae that used to crawl around the entire place and get picked up by everybody.
NHM: In 1982 you were part of the kohanga reo movement, the first time education had a Māori focus. How did this come about, and what was it like?
Lily: My Mum moved to Auckland when I was two, and when she heard there was a kohanga reo starting she was keen for me to go. She wanted me to go because of the loss of reo we’d suffered in Ōtākou. Mum was at the marae all the time and people just didn’t speak Māori.
All parents had to attend kohanga reo with their kids because it was about getting reo back to the whānau. Mum, a non-speaker, was really keen and supported the idea. She saw it as an opportunity for both of us.
My kōhanga was called Waiatarau, in Freeman’s Bay. There were two big rooms and I can remember having mattresses in one – there weren’t any Māori resources in those days. But we still had heaps of fun, playing and singing, and were exposed to te reo Māori.
NHM: You have attended a number of different kinds of schooling (primary, intermediate, bilingual units and kura kuapapa). Tell us about them and your experiences there as a Māori student.
Lily: My first year of primary school, at Grey Lynn Primary, I was in a mainstream class. We had Māori lessons once a week with the secretary because she was Māori and spoke Māori. I loved it, school was just awesome.
Then when I was six, there was a Māori teacher, a Māori speaker, at the school, and she decided to open a Māori language class. She just went around the school plucking all the Māori kids out of every class. We were all different ages.
Then I went to Pasadena Intermediate and was part of a mainstream class again. I remember standing up and doing a little pepeha, a speech about myself, and there was no kind of acknowledgement of that or support to do that. My teacher was a fantastic teacher, but she wasn’t prepared to engage in Māori education.
After intermediate I went to Te Wharekura o Hoani Waititi Marae, in Glen Eden. I feel lucky to be one of the founding students. We were so proud to go there because our parents had fought for it. Some had been fighting for it their whole lives.
NHM: Wow, it sounds like Hoani Waititi was something special. What were some of the things that made it so special?
Lily: The fact that the kura was driven by Māori and employed teachers who were mostly Māori, I think that’s significant. To me, it’s about the environment; it’s about the kura environment being so different from what you encountered in mainstream. And, looking at the people from my class, you can see it was an amazing place and a great learning opportunity. Everyone went on to bigger things, and is doing so well.
Our teachers had high expectations that we would attend university and so there was a strong academic focus, which included really basic things like attending school every day. Our principal would even go and pick people up from home if they didn’t turn up. It was such a small school that he would know who was there and who wasn’t.
We all knew and felt that what we were doing was awesome. And because I’d been to lots of schools, I feel I had a better appreciation of how good it really was at Hoani Waititi.
NHM: Kia ora for that Lily. So how did you end up heading to medical school from a Māori-medium school, and what helped you with this transition?
Lily: My mum read an article in the newspaper about the Māori admission programme they’ve got at Auckland University for med school. She said: ‘Why don’t you read it, maybe you could do that?’ Mum is a great believer in being in a small education environment, like med school, where you’ve got your 100 students who move through the whole six years together and so you’re always in that group.
At school I was one of the ‘mummy’ people who were always looking after kids, so it kind of all made sense and I thought it was something I could do. It was academically hard, which really appealed to me, because I wanted to prove that you could do whatever you wanted coming through Māori education because there is often a misconception that you are somehow academically inferior to mainstream.
I was part of the university’s Māori and Pacific Admission Scheme (MAPAS) and started med school in 1999. The scheme is a way of getting into med school. There are lower entry criteria but, once you are in, you are in with the rest of the medical students, sitting the same assessments. The main advantage of the scheme for me was the support you get from other Māori doctors and medical students.
NHM: Your mother mentioned how she was a believer in small educational groups. Was this successful and was there support specifically for Māori medical students?
Lily: The med school has a Māori health department. Staff there do research, lectures and work on site. When I was there, there were older students who basically looked after us, giving us advice and help – like a whānau. We had good support from tutors. We had to identify our weaknesses and then tutors would help us.
A lot of things were initiated by students. We had our own MAPAS graduation dinners, so all our whānau could come. We’d also go away on marae trips with senior students or doctors to develop our networks. I’ve made the most fantastic friends. I think most of the support I’ve had has come from my peers.
Before long, I knew all the doctors. We’d all go to the AGM and Scientific Conference for Te Ohu Rata o Aotearoa, which is the Māori Doctors’ Association. I’m currently a board member for the Association. We try to connect Māori doctors so they’ve got that support, that community support, and on a national level. There are probably about 300 Māori doctors in New Zealand.
NHM: How long have you been with the Māori Doctors’ Association, and what are they trying to achieve?
Lily: I’ve been involved since 1999, almost 10 years. Auckland Medical School has something called Vision 2020, which aims for 20% of all doctors to be Māori by the year 2020. If we were to have the same proportion of Māori doctors as there are Māori in the population, we would need another 1500 doctors.
NHM: Wow! Kia kaha koutou! When did you know you wanted to be a GP? And why?
Lily: I’ve been interested in being a GP for as long as I’ve been interested in medicine. I always wanted to work directly with and help Māori, and if you’re working in a hospital you are really seeing people once they’re already sick. Also, as a GP, if I work for a Māori health provider then the odds are higher that I will have Māori patients. I’m also likely to be working with Māori if I work – like I have been – in communities like Te Kaha on the East Coast.
The patients were awesome up on the East Coast. Everybody’s Māori! The nurses would tell people I could speak Māori and it made such a difference to some patients. They loved it.
I think on the East Coast they’re quite lucky because all the health services are provided by Ngāti Porou Hauora. I think there’s actually a lot of ownership of healthcare, and most staff are Māori too. I found I could just be myself and that allowed the patients to be themselves, which I think others – particularly some of the older consultants in the hospital – don’t seem to understand and they never will. I think it’s also a generational thing.
NHM: So do you believe the medical system is changing?
Lily: I think the system is changing because the new generation of people working in the system is different from the last one. Staff within the medical system used to be the top two per cent of the country and they tended to be people who were clever but who didn’t always have communication skills, especially with Māori.
People ask me all the time, ‘what is it that you do that makes you more successful with Māori patients, than a Pākehā doctor would have been’? It’s so hard to answer. I’m just being me, being Māori. And having that ability to communicate and connect gives me another avenue with the patient. My education, my experiences have been normal. So, too is my approach as a doctor.
Today, there is a lot more emphasis on being personable. There’s a huge emphasis on communication skills and recognition of the importance of listening to people and making them feel comfortable talking. It’s all about opening up and enabling a patient to do that too. Patients have the answers and all the information you need to know. Of course, you have to be clinically competent as well.
NHM: With these valuable skills of yours and knowing that culture counts, are you helping others and passing on this knowledge about Māori health?
Lily: I’m starting to get involved in the Māori health curriculum with the second year med students in Otago University. They go out to marae and learn about tikanga, pronunciation, the Māori structure of society and the impact of stereotyping, racism and putting people into this little niche of what being Māori is. And we also talk about Māori health concepts.
We can’t expect Pākehā to be Māori. I think they can acknowledge that cultural difference can be an issue. We need to be aware of our own thoughts and understand we are making an impact on this person’s treatment. Pākehā can still be doctors for Māori, still provide medical care. But it’s not just about that, it’s about acknowledging that ‘Maybe my Māori patient has other needs which I can’t provide for’.
NHM: Tena koe Lily; for sharing with us, for all your important whakaaro, your mahi and aroha for tangata Māori, and being a part of this year’s Ngā Haeata Mātauranga 2007/08. Kia ora!
The ministry provides a range of programmes and tools to focus on responsive and accountable professional leadership as a way to ensure the education system performs better for and with Māori young people. Kiwi Leadership for Principals is the ministry’s major work programme supporting principals and tumuaki to meet the challenges of their profession. It has a particular emphasis on improving Māori learner presence, engagement and achievement.
Principals and tumuaki have indicated the need to develop a companion work programme within Kiwi Leadership for Principals, which identifies and explores the unique features of leadership within Māori-medium settings. The common elements and unique requirements of leadership within the schooling sector have been further identified in the Educational Leadership (Schooling): Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration.116 Studies have emphasised that the key to being an effective leader is having a vision that is coherent with the wider environment and school policies, managing and organising, leading the professional learning community, and developing the leadership among others to ensure that effective teaching is taking place.
As a result the ministry undertook the Kaupapa Māori Leadership project in 2008. This has included the establishment of a roopu matua group of principals from kura and Māori immersion and bilingual units, educationalists, academics and union representatives. This project will develop a kaupapa Māori leadership document to contribute to the vision and the development of the three- to five-year Professional Leadership Strategy that will support and strengthen Māori-medium, middle and senior management in the schooling sector. This group will assure the development of the ministry’s document is consistent with Māori expectations and is based on Māori perspectives, values and pedagogies. A draft document will be ready for consultation in late 2009.
In 2007/08, principals from Paerangi-Māori secondary boarding schools participated in the Principals’ Development Planning Centre programme. This Centre is for principals from all regions, sectors and school types, with five or more years’ experience. Participants receive intensive one-to-one support from trained facilitators, many of whom are ex-principals.
Leadership and Management Advisors work regionally as part of school support services providing leadership and management support across all regions, sectors and school types.
Increasing effective iwi and whānau relationships
The numbers of families and whānau choosing to enrol their children in Māori-medium education is declining. The number of enrolments in Māori-medium early childhood education has been declining since 2004 when some 31.4% of Māori enrolled in ECE were in Māori-medium services. By 2007 the figures had dropped to 25.3%. There has been a similar decline in the number of Māori enrolled in Māori-medium schools, from 16.9% in 2004 to 15.8% in 2007. However, there has been an increase in enrolments in kura kaupapa Māori.
The engagement of whānau and communities in the child’s learning is a powerful influence over that child’s education success. Parents, whānau, iwi and Māori organisations play a significant role in Māori language education, influencing a child’s education pathway and their learning, development and success.
The ministry has relationships with 20 iwi that assist whānau and iwi to participate in and determine effective education provision for their children. The ministry’s relationships with iwi aim for a shared approach to achieving high-quality outcomes in Māori language education. In addition to these 20 iwi relationships, the ministry has agreements with four national Māori education organisations. These partnership relationships are now focused specifically on supporting iwi and whānau to support Māori learner achievement.
The partnership relationships facilitate opportunities for iwi to be full participants in the education system alongside learners, parents, schools and the ministry. When all these parties work together much more can be achieved.
Examples of the work done through iwi partnership relationships include the development of curriculum content that supports and reflects the unique language and customs of each iwi, supporting and enabling schools over time to better reflect their local communities.
Working with one iwi the ministry developed a joint education plan that includes access to quality programmes for learners, and will provide a strategic focus on improving the presence, engagement and achievement of Māori learners across the tribal region. It also supports hapu to work more closely with schools to develop programmes that are culturally responsive and build and realise the potential of Māori learners.
Iwi and whānau also carry the responsibility for creating, protecting and transmitting Māori language and culture. Having whānau who reinforce and speak Māori language and being taught by teachers who use high-quality, effective teaching practices and understand second language acquisition is also important.117
The Community-based Language Initiatives (CBLI) programme demonstrates how iwi and whānau can foster Māori language, customs and knowledge in partnership with, yet outside, the formal education system.
The CBLI programme was established in 2000 across five regions. The initiatives promote iwi-specific language and culture, support learners’ Māori language skills and aim to revitalise Māori language by encouraging different generations to hand down language knowledge. Iwi organisations taking part in the initiatives, work collaboratively to build their own capacity to support and play a role in language revitalisation within their communities. The initiatives are primarily for iwi, whānau and children involved in Māori language education.
Community-based Language Initiatives include:
- developing iwi-specific Māori language strategies
- raising the awareness and status of te reo Māori
- collecting iwi-specific oral histories for school and iwi-based resources
- clubs for speakers and developing speakers of te reo Māori
- whānau, marae and kura language plans to help transmit language between generations.
A stocktake of the Community-based Language Initiatives, published in 2008, looked at the broad range of initiatives by iwi. It notes that Ngāi Tuhoe (an iwi with an estimated population of between 33,000 and 45,000, of whom some 40% speak Māori language) has six key language goals. They are:
- strengthen Tūhoetanga
- strengthen organisation efficiency and effectiveness in schools
- strengthen school governance and management
- strengthen the professional capability of boards and staff
- implement assessment systems for learners
- strengthen curriculum development and delivery.
Meanwhile, the Raukawa Trust Board (established in 1987 to manage the social, cultural and economic affairs of the whānau, marae and hapu of the Raukawa iwi) has had several key initiatives to promote Māori language. For example, the board has developed the Whakareia te Kakara o te Hinu Raukawa language strategy, as well as several resources including the Raukawa language website.118
Initiatives such as this and the role of parents, whānau, hapu, iwi and Māori organisations more generally are central to maintaining the integrity and evolution of Māori language and cultural practices and to the modelling and transmission of Māori identity.
The following case study explores how a Northland primary school principal and her committed teaching team are ensuring the success of Māori learners by emphasising the importance of Māori language and culture within the school.
It looks at what has been achieved in 2007/08 to make progress towards the Māori Language Education goals of Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success.
Case study 6
Talented and inspired leadership the key to education success
Above photo of Te Kopuru School principal Lee Anderson and teachers Pere Tahere (Ngapuhi) and Karen Matich.
Talk to staff at Te Kopuru School in Northland and they’ll emphatically agree that the country’s English-medium schools are ideal places to foster Māori education success – just look at their example.
For the past eight years, under the leadership of Pākehā principal Lee Anderson, the small rural school of 130 children has undergone a process of slow but steady change.
The aim: to respond to the community’s call to improve the education, social and cultural outcomes of the school’s Māori learners who make up around 65% of the learner population.
Lee has introduced a new vision centred around the Māori principles of tika (things that are right), pono (the truth) and aroha (loving openness). Everyday school practices now comprise kapa haka, hïmene, mihi and waiata – and involve everyone in leadership roles regardless of ethnicity.
Teachers continue to participate in training to improve the way literacy, numeracy and te reo Māori are taught and to improve their use of information communication technology (ICT).
Involving whānau in the life of the school is now commonplace. The school’s bilingual unit, Poutama, has extended the proficiency levels taught in the last few years, too.
In 2008, Te Kopuru became the lead school in the four-year Extending High Standards Across Schools programme, which recognises and aims to share effective practice.
Today, there is more opportunity than ever at Te Kopuru School to learn te reo Māori and through te reo Māori and to grow up with a sense of being Māori.
Teacher Pere Tahere explains: “This school, like the education system overall, is changing for the better. And, when you see what’s happening for Māori, the change is bigger and better still. We’ve enabled children to feel happy and comfortable being Māori here.
“When I grew up, my identity and culture were compromised. I knew the reo but I was distanced from it. I can remember being told to go outside when our mums, dads and aunties communicated in te reo Māori. We used to sit under the windows just to hear it.
“Nowadays our juniors are first in line to do karakia in the morning – they’re just so proud. They love standing up there and performing. They do it so beautifully to the great credit of their teachers,” says Pere.
Lee says the changes at Te Kopuru School reflect the wants of her community as well as the education sector’s growing understanding about the importance of language, culture and identity and the impact both can have on learner achievement.
She says the correlation between culture and achievement is clearly visible at her school.
Assessment data for 2007 shows 77% of the school’s Māori learners are spelling at or above the expected level for their age, with 80% the figure for Māori learners in Poutama, the school’s bilingual unit. Reading data for 2007 show similar results.
Data show a 24% jump in the number of Māori learners spelling at or above the expected level for their age since 2006. They also show Poutama students are achieving at rates that are 12% higher than their non-Māori peers.
Writing data for 2007 also shows good progress across all student groups, particularly the Poutama students, 62% of whom are writing at or above the expected level for their age. Meanwhile, numeracy data shows 61% of Māori learners are achieving at or above their expected level.
Lee says that the overall achievement trends are heartening when she thinks back to 2000, the year she started at Te Kopuru and began to step up the school’s focus on Māori learners.
“Yet,” she says, “the past eight years haven’t been easy. Losing talented and skilled staff to greener pastures is an ongoing challenge. Over the past few years some teachers have left rather than change. At times, members of the community have been resistant, too.”
Teacher Karen Matich agrees: “A lot of our non-Māori parents felt worried their kids would miss out – that we were becoming a Māori-only school. But they’ve come to see that’s not the case. They can see what we’re doing is raising the achievement of all our students,” says Karen.
“In fact, now we’re finding our parents are educating the wider community about what we’re doing – they’re saying: ‘Look
Karen says in many ways the last eight years have been about continuing to improve teaching practice across the board – something that’s beneficial to all students.
Setting up five-year-olds with a strong foundation in literacy and numeracy skills has been a major focus. Helping learners transition from early childhood education to primary school and from primary to secondary school is another important focus area.
Thinking about the major influence over the past few years, Pere and Karen are quick to say: “Leadership – talented and inspired leadership.”
Te reo and mātauranga Māori in tertiary education
Māori language education provision
In recent years the three public wananga have taken the lead in providing Māori language and culture programmes throughout the country, with a focus on Māori language courses only and the use of Māori language and culture in a range of situations.
Institutes of technology and polytechnics have made Māori language courses more widely available through community
education. The tertiary education sector also supports the language development, skills and practice of pre-service and in-service teachers, and carries out relevant research and knowledge development.
Despite this, between 2003 and 2007 the number of people participating in Māori language courses has dropped by over one half, from 36,356 students in 2003 to 16,934 in 2007.
The He Tini Manu Reo – Learning Te Reo Māori in Tertiary Education119 study found tertiary education courses teaching te reo Māori were not enough on their own to build conversational proficiency in Māori language and culture. Learners also needed access to a range of contexts where the language was used and supported.
About half of the learners studied Māori language and culture for only one year and most studied at the equivalent of senior secondary school level, suggesting more could be done to encourage learners to continue with language learning.
The study also found high levels of tertiary education participation in Māori language courses among women, particularly those aged 25 to 44. Many women were likely to be mothers, suggesting that tertiary education courses could have a positive role in strengthening Māori language and culture within the whānau and home environments.
According to the study the low male participation in courses was a concern, particularly given that young Māori men had lower proficiency than Māori women in the same age group and the possible future implications for maintaining aspects of tikanga Māori designated to men.
Noted were particular points where learners appeared to drop out of their tertiary study because they were unable to pass the course assessments. He Tini Manu Reo – Learning Te Reo Māori in Tertiary Education recommended further analysis to find out what support learners required to remain learning and engaged.
Tertiary education contributes to Māori cultural development by sharing and developing mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge). This has a significant role in strengthening the cultural uniqueness of New Zealand as a nation and on the world stage.
Support for the development of mātauranga Māori is a priority through programmes such as Massey University’s Te Mata o Te Tau, the Academy for Māori Research and Scholarship. The academy is interdisciplinary and intersectoral and brings together Māori scholars from a diverse range of academic backgrounds to collaborate and share information.
The Tertiary Education Strategy 2007–2012 acknowledges the vital role of the tertiary education sector in fostering and developing mātauranga Māori and Māori through teaching and research. The Tertiary Education Commission (TEC) will look for evidence in tertiary education organisations’ investment plans120 that tertiary education organisations are:
- working with Māori communities and taking responsibility for providing the skills and knowledge Māori need to develop and use their resources to contribute to the economy for Māori and New Zealand
- working with Māori to ensure that tertiary research creates knowledge and develops mātauranga Māori that meets and supports the achievement of Māori development aspirations, and the appropriate use of Māori resource bases to benefit Māori and New Zealand.
The Tertiary Education Strategy acknowledges that Te Wānanga o Aotearoa, Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiarangi, and Te Wānanga o Raukawa make a special contribution to New Zealand’s overall tertiary education through the way they operate, through the areas they work in, and through the groups they work with. Inherent within the distinctive contributions of wananga is the premise that the iwi providing support to each wananga, particularly the respective founding iwi, are well placed for helping to ensure ahuatanga Māori and tikanga Māori are appropriately upheld within a wananga context.
The Tertiary Education Strategy sets out the key shifts government is seeking to advance the role of wānanga:
- focusing capability-building efforts to achieve increased quality and performance against new benchmarks within the tertiary education reforms
- strengthening the engagement of iwi and Māori within the tertiary education sector to assist in guiding and supporting the delivery of wananga provision
- strengthening of provision at the diploma and above level within the wananga sector
- strengthening of the wānanga contribution to sector-wide leadership to sustain the continued advancement of mātauranga Māori
- increasing cross-sector collaboration opportunities, and improving staircasing and pathways between wananga and other tertiary education organisations to maximise Māori potential opportunities.
Visibility of Māori language
Building on New Zealanders’ understanding and use of Māori language by making the language more visible is an important priority for the ministry, with a range of work underway in 2007/08.
This year the ministry began scoping work on an action point from Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success. The ministry will investigate stronger ties with Te Taura Whiri i Te Reo Māori to strengthen the use and profile of Māori language and culture in children’s television programmes. The ministry also began scoping work to identify other education agencies and their outputs and goals related to Māori language education.
Te reo Māori use in New Zealand
Research121 from Te Puni Kokiri shows significant gains in proficiency across all language skills and most age groups. Overall, results show more people are actively using their Māori language skills at home and in the community. Overall, between 2001 and 2006, speaking proficiency rose 4.2%, reading proficiency rose 9.6% and writing proficiency rose 5.2%.
The 2006 census122 and Survey on the Health of the Māori Language123 showed that, apart from English, Māori, at 4.1%, is the next most common language spoken by the total population in New Zealand. Other highlights of the 2006 census are listed below:
- a total of 131,613 (23.7%) Māori can hold a conversation about everyday things in Māori language, an increase of 1128 people from the 2001 census
- one-quarter of Māori aged 15 to 64 years can hold a conversation in Māori language (unchanged from 26.4% in 2001)
- just under half (47.7%) of Māori aged 65 years and over can hold a conversation in Māori language (compared to 53.1% in 2001)
- more than one in six Māori (35,148 people) (16.7%) aged under 15 years can hold a conversation in Māori language (compared to 19.7% in 2001)
- 23% of Māori speak more than one language. While most speak Māori and English languages, 204 Māori speak te reo Māori and a language other than English.
Meanwhile, the survey shows significant increases in the number of Māori adults who speak, read, write and understand Māori language. The results show progress in language sharing among generations, with more Māori adults speaking Māori to children at home and within the community. 14% of respondents report being in a course or class learning Māori language in the past 12 months. Most courses or classes run for seven months or more (65%), involve fewer than 20 hours per week (71%) and are free (63%).
Of respondents who had been a learner in a course or class learning Māori language in the previous 12 months, 45% report that courses and classes were part of a community-based programme. Many respondents reported significant effects, including improved understanding of spoken Māori (78%), improved ability to read Māori (67%), improved ability to speak Māori (63%), and an improved ability to write Māori (61%).
Te reo Māori use within the education sector
The importance of incorporating and using Māori language within all early childhood education settings is acknowledged through the early childhood curriculum, Te Whāriki,124 which says settings should promote Māori language and culture, making it visible and affirming its value for children from all cultural backgrounds. It also states that adults working with children should demonstrate an understanding of different iwi and the meaning of whānau and whānaungatanga. Early childhood education service employees should also respect the aspirations of whānau for their children.
Most Māori children attend ECE services where the main language of teaching and learning is English. The stage 1 evaluation of Pathways to the Future: Nga Huarahi Arataki reported that of the 46 services evaluated, those services with over 12% Māori children attending (24 services) were more likely to be rated highly for implementing a bicultural curriculum and meeting cultural and language aspirations of parents.125;
A 2008 evaluation by the Education Review Office of a pilot study of English-medium services found that in just over half of the 16 services, Māori children had opportunities to develop as confident and competent learners through programmes that included aspects of Māori language or culture. There is clearly room for improvement, and the ministry’s ECE professional development will include this as a focus next year.
Like Te Whāriki, The New Zealand Curriculum also emphasises the importance of the Māori language and culture for all learners. It states that learning te reo Māori enables learners to participate with understanding and confidence in situations where te reo Māori and tikanga Māori is predominant and to integrate language and cultural understandings into their lives. It also strengthens New Zealand’s identity in the world.
In 2007, there were 25,986 Māori learners in New Zealand schools who were participating in some form of Māori language education, where Māori language made up at least 12% of teaching and learning. Meanwhile, the number of these learners taking te reo as a subject for at least three hours per week at secondary school increased from 8000 in 2000 to 8550 in 2007 – representing a 7% increase.
4.4: Looking ahead
Over the next five years the ministry is leading the development of a process to ensure a coherent approach to investment in Māori language education. This includes more viable and sustainable kura able to offer high-quality teaching and learning experiences for their learners.
The Māori Language Education Framework will be implemented to support the ministry in making decisions around effective investments in Māori language education.
In 2009, the ongoing review of Pathways to the Future: Ngā Huarahi Arataki and work with Te Kōhanga Reo National Trust on the implementation of the new regulatory framework may shed further light on the reasons for the recent decline in enrolments.
Te Marautanga o Aotearoa will be implemented in Māori-medium schools and settings between now and December 2010. Regional coordinators, support staff, workshops and a whānau engagement project will all support kura to develop and implement their own school-based curriculum.
In addition, the ministry will be focusing on the development of a range of other resources, developed by Māori publishing companies, to align with and support Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. These will be linked to current resources, and will cover learning areas and levels where there are specific shortages. The range will include materials covering different mediums and genres including journals, readers, novels, plays, poetry anthologies, dictionaries, videos, CDs, picture packs, magazines and online materials on Te Kete Ipurangi.126
During the 2008/09 financial year many more teaching and learning resources will be developed by the ministry and distributed to Levels 1 and 2 immersion settings. Ongoing series work including publications such as Te Wharekura, Te Tautoko and He Kohikohinga will continue to be produced.
Research, monitoring and evaluation will be done to inform future resource development. As well as the research that the ministry commissions, research produced by other organisations is used to inform Māori language publishing work and to establish publishing priorities. As an example the four magazine style publications (Tāiki E!, Haumi E!, Toi te Kupu and Eke Panuku) produced by the ministry for Māori-medium education will be evaluated this year.
The ministerial advisory group established in 2008 to investigate the supply of Māori-medium teachers may provide some fresh initiatives that will need to be considered.
The ministry will need to collaborate with the New Zealand Teachers Council, the Tertiary Education Commission, the New Zealand Qualifications Authority and tertiary education organisations to develop an approach that is able to attract, train and retain quality teachers competent in te reo Māori.
The ministry is looking to identify effective schooling improvement initiatives that raise the governance capacity in kura, and seek to replicate these practices with more kura.
This section includes the latest data relevant to Māori language education.
Table 18: Number of Māori enrolments in Māori language early childhood education by type of service, 2001/07
Table 19: Number of learners enrolled in Māori-medium education by form of education, 2001/07
Table 20: Year 11 candidates meeting the literacy and numeracy requirements for NCEA Level 1, 2005/07
Table 21: Top five providers of te reo Māori courses by learner numbers, 2007
Table 22: Tertiary learners in te reo Māori courses by sub-sector
Graph 14: Number of Māori language early childhood education services by type of service, 2001/07
Graph 15: Number of schools providing Māori-medium education by form of education, 2001/07
Graph 16: Highest NCEA qualification gained by year 11 candidates, 2007
Graph 17: Number of Māori learners at secondary level taking te reo Māori as a subject for at least 3 hours per week, 2001/07
Graph 18: Age standardised stand-down and suspension rates per 1000 students, by Māori-medium school type and ethnic group, 2007 (deciles 1–4)
Graph 19: Learners in te reo Māori courses by gender and age group, 2003/07
Graph 17: Number of Māori learners at secondary level taking te reo Māori as a subject for at least 3 hours per week, 2001/07
Graph 18: Age standardised stand-down and suspension rates per 1000 students, by Māori–medium school type and ethnic group, 2007 (Deciles 1–4)
- The ministry uses Māori language education as an umbrella term for the early childhood education, school and tertiary contexts where Māori language and culture comprise some or all of teaching and learning. Māori language education includes Māori-medium education where teaching includes significant use of Māori language within a kaupapa Māori context.
- Now referred to as the Māori Language Education Framework.
- The curriculum document for Māori-medium education where at least half of the classroom programme is delivered in te reo Māori was released in 2008.
- The curriculum document for schools where English is the main language of teaching and learning.
- Early childhood education services for children from birth until school age, where the primary language of teaching and learning is te reo Māori.
- Parent-led early childhood education service or playgroup for children from birth until school age, where the primary language of teaching and learning can be te reo Māori or a combination of English and te reo Māori.
- Wang & Harkess (2007).
- The typical levels of NCEA qualifications are Level 1 for year 11 learners, Level 2 for year 12 and Level 3 for year 13.
- Kura kaupapa Māori are schools established under section 155 of the Education Act (1989) that adhere to a particular philosophy known as Te Aho Matua. Māori pedagogy and mātauranga Māori are integral to the delivery of Te Aho Matua in kura kaupapa Māori (and wharekura) and te reo Mäori is the sole language of teaching and learning. Kura kaupapa Māori can also be established under section 156 of the Education Act (1989), which allows for the establishment of a school with a special designated character.
- Office of the Controller and Auditor General (2008) Recommendation 2: “Strengthen the monitoring and evaluation of the contracts for school board training and support to include a focus on how the support provided by those contracts contributes to improved governance of schools”.
- TeachNZ is the ministry team responsible for promoting teaching as a profession, including the need for Māori, Māori language and Māori-medium teachers. For more information, go to www.teachnz.govt.nz
- Ministry of Education (2008c).
- Education Review Office (2006c).
- Gardiner & Parata Ltd (2008).
- See Gardiner and Parata at www.thm.ac.nz/panui/reports/index.htm
- ICT – Information and Communications Technology.
- Robinson et al. (forthcoming).
- Ministry of Education (2008b).
- Robinson et al. (forthcoming).
- Murray (2007).
- Ministry of Education (2008a); www.raukawa.org.nz
- Ministry of Education (2007c).
- A plan covering all the activities of the provider over the next three years that provides the basis for funding and must be aligned with the Tertiary Education Strategy.
- Te Puni Kōkiri (2006a); Te Puni Kōkiri (2006b); Te Puni Kōkiri (2006c).
- Statistics New Zealand (2006).
- Research New Zealand (2007).
- Ministry of Education (1996).
- Mitchell & Hodgen (2008).
For more publication-related
information, please email the:
Information Officer Mailbox
- Message from the Secretary for Education
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: Foundation Years
- Chapter 3: Young People Engaged in Learning
- Chapter 4: Māori Language Education
- Chapter 5: Organisational Success
- Summary of National and International Assessment Tools and Achievement Data