Publications

State of Education in New Zealand: 2008

Publication Details

The State of Education series is an annual publication. State of Education in New Zealand: 2008 is the third issue in the series, with most of the data relating to the previous year (2007).

Author(s): Strategy and System Performance, Ministry of Education.

Date Published: December 2008

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This report is available as a download (please refer to the 'Downloads/Links' inset box, top right). This inset box also has links to related publications and information that may be of interest. Individual chapters are available as downloads (refer to the 'Download Individual Chapters' section, below right).

Chapter 1: Early Childhood Education

Participation in early childhood education (ECE) contributes to a child’s later development. Quality early childhood education programmes can help narrow the achievement gap between children from lower-income families and more advantaged children.

All families should have access to quality early childhood education services that are responsive to their needs. Current sector-wide activities to achieve this are focused on: assisting early childhood teachers to meet and maintain the same professional standards as school teachers; supporting parents providing early childhood education to deliver quality services; and improving access to early childhood education services that meet family needs. These activities are underpinned by more collaborative relationships between services and programmes for young people.

Areas examined in this chapter are participation, accessibility, sustainability and teaching. Indicators of the quality of early childhood education services are not yet available; instead we have indicators for a subset of structural factors that underpin, but do not guarantee, quality.

1. Participation

What we have found

The number of children attending early childhood education services has been increasing for children of all ages over the past 17 years. The rate of increase has been greatest for children aged one, two, and three years. During this time the labour market has strengthened, which means more parents of young children are likely to be in work.

In 2007, 95 percent of children received some form of early childhood education before starting school. Participation in early childhood education increased for children from all communities and backgrounds since 2002. The increase was greater for children from Maori and Pasifika communities and those from lower socio-economic backgrounds.

Despite this overall trend, participation for Pasifika and children from lower socio-economic backgrounds has fallen slightly in recent years. Overall, children from these communities have lower levels of participation in early childhood education.

In the past decade, the proportion of children attending all-day services compared to the shorter sessional services has increased by 50 percent.


Why this is important

Children who participate in quality early childhood education gain benefits that continue beyond their early school years.1 These children show higher cognitive skills and more advanced social skills than children who do not participate in early childhood education.2 Although the research cannot say how long each day a child should attend to gain these benefits, attending from an early age and on a regular basis is beneficial and children from disadvantaged families often gain more benefit.3


How we are going

Enrolments and time spent in early childhood education

Over the past 17 years, the number of enrolments in early childhood education services has grown for all ages. The data show:

  • between 1990 and 2007 there was an increase in enrolments across all ages, with enrolments growing for each age group over the past year (see Figure 1.1)
  • the growth is most noticeable for children aged one, two, and three years. Four-year-olds already had high participation through New Zealand’s kindergarten system
  • there has been a change in the type of service parents prefer to use: in 1998 enrolments in all-day services made up 42 percent of all enrolments; in 2007 this figure had risen to 63 percent. This change towards all-day services most likely reflects the growing number of employed parents
  • driven by the increase in enrolments at all-day services, the average number of hours children are enrolled in education and care services and home-based services has increased. Education and care services and home-based services have experienced the highest increases since 2000, while the growth in the average number of hours children are enrolled in kindergartens has slowed over the past three years
  • on average, the number of hours per enrolment has increased from 13.5 hours for the four service types shown in Figure 1.2 to 17.6 hours in 2007. The number of hours per child is likely to be higher, as some children are enrolled in more than once service (see Figure 1.2).


Figure 1.1: Enrolment rates in early childhood education by age (1990 to 2007)Figure 1.1: Enrolment rates in early childhood education by age (1990 to 2007)
Notes:
  1. Source: Ministry of Education (2008a).
  2. Children aged five years are excluded.
  3. Children can enrol at more than one service so double counting of enrolments will occur, causing the enrolment rate to be greater than 100 percent for some age groups.


Figure 1.2: Average weekly enrolled hours in early childhood education by service type (2000 to 2007)Figure 1.2: Average weekly enrolled hours in early childhood education by service type (2000 to 2007)
Notes:
  1. Source: Ministry of Education (2008b).
  2. Kohanga reo services are excluded as weekly enrolled hours are not collected (most children are estimated to be attending between 27 and thirty hours a week).


Participation in early childhood education by socio-economic background

The extent to which children participate in early childhood education differs between different socio-economic backgrounds. Schools’ deciles4 can be used to identify differences in prior participation in early childhood education by socio-economic background. The data show:

  1. over the past six years, participation in early childhood education has increased across all socio-economic backgrounds (see Figure 1.3)
  2. in 2007, 86 percent of children who attended a school from quintile 1 (deciles 1 and 2) attended an early childhood education service before starting school, compared with 99 percent of children who attended a school from quintile 5 (deciles 9 and 10)
  3. this growth in participation is down slightly from its 2005 high for children attending quintile 1 schools, but well up from its level in 2002 (see Figure 1.3).



Figure 1.3: Prior participation rates in early childhood education for children starting school by quintile (2002 to 2007)
Figure 1.3: Prior participation rates in early childhood education for children starting school by quintile (2002 to 2007)
Notes:

  1. Source: Ministry of Education (2008c).
  2. Correspondence School early childhood education, health camps, students on New Zealand Agency for International Development scholarships and foreign fee-paying students are excluded.
  3. Prior to 2004, the New Zealand Agency for International Development scholarship was known as a Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT) scholarship.
  4. The number of students with unknown attendance has been excluded when calculating participation rates.
  5. Students who attend schools that do not have a decile rating, mostly private schools, are excluded.

Participation in early childhood education by different ethnic groups

The extent to which children participate in early childhood education before starting school differs between the major ethnic groups, but all groups have increased their participation over the past five years, particularly Maori and Pasifika. The data show:

  • in 2007, 95 percent of children had participated in some form of early childhood education before starting school
  • participation has continued to grow, but at a slower rate than earlier this decade (see Table 1.1)
  • Pasifika participation rates have slowed, with a decrease of 0.7 percentage points since 2004.


Table1.1: Prior participation rates in early childhood education for children starting school by ethnic group (2002 to 2007)
Ethnic GroupECE Prior Participation Rate (%)
200220032004200520062007
Maori86.588.489.389.989.990.6
Pasifika79.4 83.4 84.784.584.284.0
Asian 92.192.494.195.196.096.0
Other86.688.989.4 89.991.793.6
European/Pakeha96.6 97.497.697.798.098.2
Total92.393.694.1 94.394.594.7
Notes:
  1. Source: Ministry of Education (2008c).
  2. Correspondence School early childhood education, health camps, students on New Zealand Agency for International Development scholarships and foreign fee-paying students are excluded.
  3. Prior to 2004, the New Zealand Agency for International Development scholarship was known as a Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT) scholarship.
  4. The number of students with unknown attendance has been excluded when calculating participation rates.
  5. European/Pakeha refers to people who affiliate as New Zealand European, other European or European (not further defined). For example this includes and is not limited to people who consider themselves as Australian (not including Australian Aborigines), British and Irish, American, Spanish, Ukrainian and Czech. (See ‘ethnicity’ under technical notes for more information.)
 

Where to find out more about Participation:

Links to: Indicators
 Indicator Icon  Participation in Early Childhood Education

Links to: Publications
Publications Series
 Indicator Icon  Competent Children, Competent Learners
Individual Publications
 Indicator Icon  Quality Teaching Early Foundations - Best Evicence Synthesis (BES)
 Indicator Icon  Early Effects of 20 Hours ECE
 Indicator Icon  Impact of 20 Hours ECE on Playcentres 2008
 Indicator Icon  Outcomes of Early Childhood Education: Literature Review

2. Accessibility

What we have found

Despite rising demand for early childhood education services, most areas have a service that is able to take on new enrolments. However, in 2007, 21 percent of licensed services had waiting times of more than six months for children aged two years or under while 17 percent had waiting times for children aged three years or over.

The price that families pay for early childhood education has fallen considerably since the introduction of the free early childhood education policy (20 Hours ECE). The drop was an average of 34 percent in the year to the June 2008 quarter.


Why this is important

Access to early childhood education services is a precondition for children being able to participate in early childhood education and gain its benefits. Participation in quality early childhood education benefits both children and their families. Various factors must be present for a child to access an early childhood education service, including that the child must be able to get to the service; there must be a place for the child; the service, including its culture and philosophy, must be acceptable to the parents and child; and the service must be affordable.


How we are going

Physical access

For a child to have physical access to a service, it has to be sufficiently close to the child’s home or some other convenient location for the family, such as a parent’s place of work or a sibling’s school. If the family relies on public transport, then bus and train services need to be close to both their home and the service. Children who require additional support to access early childhood education, such as those who use wheelchairs, have to be catered for if they are to access the service. The data show:

  • while the estimated number of children aged zero to four years grew 4.0 percent between 2001 and 2007, the number of licensed services grew 8.7 percent
  • of the national population aged zero to four years, 97.9 percent have at least one licensed early childhood education service within 10 kilometres of their home. Only 10.7 percent have three or fewer services within 10 kilometres of their home
  • of this national population, 99.6 percent had at least one licensed early childhood education service within 25 kilometres of their home, with only 2.6 percent having fewer than four services within that distance
  • most territorial authorities have less than five percent of their children with fewer than four services within 25 kilometres of their home. The exceptions are the rural territorial authorities, particularly those in the more isolated areas of the South Island. More than 40 percent of zero- to four-year-olds living in the Southland, Clutha, Waimate, Hurunui and Mackenzie districts had fewer than four early childhood education services within 25 kilometres of their home. These children represent 1.4 percent of zero- to four-year-olds in New Zealand (see Figure 2.1)
  • of those children who attended licensed early childhood education services in 2007, an estimated 75 percent lived 3.5 kilometres or less from the service they attended.
  • in urban areas, 75 percent of children lived within 2.8 kilometres from the service they attended. In rural areas, 75 percent of children lived within 12.1 kilometres.


Figure 2.1: Percentage of zero- to four-year-olds with fewer than four licensed early childhood education services within 25 kilometres of their home by territorial authority (2007)
Figure 2.1: Percentage of zero- to four-year-olds with fewer than four licensed early childhood education services within 25 kilometres of their home by territorial authority (2007)
Note:
  1. Source: Ministry of Education.


Families unable to attend licensed services are able to use distance learning through the Correspondence School. They can also attend licence-exempt early childhood groups.


Availability of places

For a service to be accessible there must be an available place at a suitable time for the child to be enrolled. If children have to wait for a place, the wait should be short.

Most areas with early childhood education services have sufficient space to take on new enrolments. The data show:

  • 89 percent of licensed early childhood education services’ catchment areas have adequate capacity, with adequate capacity being defined as having at least five percent of the hours on offer in the area unused and hence available for children to enrol5
  • the upwards trend in average occupancy rates mentioned in Chapter 3 suggests increased pressure on capacity
  • 21 percent and 17 percent of licensed early childhood education services have waiting times longer than six months for children aged two years or under and three years or over respectively. For both age groups, the proportions have increased over time, especially over the past year. These rises are a reflection of increasing demand for early childhood education, as also indicated by rising participation rates (see Figure 2.2).


Figure 2.2: Percentage of licensed early childhood education services with a waiting time of six months or longer by age (2002 to 2007)
Figure 2.2: Percentage of licensed early childhood education services with a waiting time of six months or longer by age (2002 to 2007)

Notes:
  1. Source: Ministry of Education.
  2. Casual education and care services have been excluded as these services have casual rolls and therefore waiting times are not collected.
  3. Playcentres and kohanga reo are excluded as waiting times are not collected.
  4. The one- to two-year-old age group excludes kindergartens, as few kindergartens offer services for children aged one to two years.

Affordability

Families must be able to afford an early childhood education service. Whether a family considers early childhood education to be affordable is dependent on three factors: the cost of the service, the family’s income, and the importance the family attaches to early childhood education relative to other ways their income can be spent.

The Ministry of Education provides financial assistance directly to early childhood education services as a per-hour subsidy for each child who attends. The rates depend on the age of the child, whether the service is all day or sessional, the proportion of qualified teachers, and the type and quality of the service. Since 1 July 2007, the government has provided up to 20 hours a week of free early childhood education (20 Hours ECE) to children aged three and four years old who attend teacher-led services. Assistance with fees is also provided by the Ministry of Social Development to those eligible for the Childcare Subsidy.


Information on fees and other charges for early childhood education services is collected as part of Statistics New Zealand’s Consumer Price Index (CPI). The data show:

  • the financial cost of early childhood education services to families fell 34 percent in the year to June 2008
  • changes in fees vary according to the service type, with the price falling 57 percent for kindergartens and 23 percent for education and care services and home-based services. The difference between service types mainly reflects the take-up rate of Free ECE and the extent that services’ rolls are made up of three- and four-year-olds
  • over the same period, hourly earnings6 rose five percent, so fees relative to average income fell by 37 percent (see Figure 2.3).


Figure 2.3: Index of childcare fees relative to income by quarter (March 2005 to June 2008)Figure 2.3: Index of childcare fees relative to income by quarter (March 2005 to June 2008)
Notes:
  1. Source: Statistics New Zealand with graph by Ministry of Education.
  2. Index = Consumer Price Index (CPI) components divided by the Quarterly Employment Survey (QES) hourly ordinary-time earnings.
  3. Product re-based in March 2005 to equal 1,000.


Where to find out more about Accessibility:

Publication Links
 Indicator Icon  Quality Teaching Early Foundations - Best Evidence Synthesis (BES)
 Indicator Icon  Locality-based Evaluation of Pathways to the Future: Ngā Huarahi Arataki - Stage 1 Baseline Report
 Indicator Icon  Locality-based Evaluation of Pathways to the Future: Ngā Huarahi Arataki - Stage 1 Report

3. Sustainability

What we have found

Sustainability, that is, the ability of early childhood education service to cover their costs on an ongoing basis, has improved within the sector.

Occupancy rates have increased, so fewer services are likely to be exposed to the financial risk of having an insufficient number of children.

Profitability has improved compared with a few years ago, and the proportion of services with a persistent deficit has fallen.

While the rate of teacher loss from the sector has declined, the level of teacher turnover within services has increased since 2004.

A lower proportion of services are now closing.


Why this is important

Participation in early childhood education brings important benefits to children. If children are to continue participating, then early childhood education services must remain sustainable. This does not mean that individual services should not open or close in response to population changes and the changing requirements of families. However, the sector as a whole needs to remain viable enough to continue providing quality services for children into the future.


How we are going

Occupancy rates

Occupancy rates give an indication of how full a service is in terms of the number of children or child-hours it can accommodate. Services operating well below capacity are likely to have difficulty sustaining their operations. Analysis shows that in the year before they closed, closed services tended to have lower occupancy rates than open services. The data show:

  • occupancy rates7 have increased since 2001. The average rate was 75.7 percent in 2007, up from 73.9 percent in 2001
  • occupancy rates vary considerably by service type, with different service types able to operate at different levels of capacity. Most service types have had stable or rising rates over the last few years (see Figure 3.1)
  • the proportion of services deemed to have low occupancy rates has fallen from 11.5 percent in 2001 to 9.9 percent in 2007.

Rising occupancy rates and falling rates of low occupancy suggest that sustainability within the sector has been improving. These changes are consistent with an increasing number of children participating in early childhood education.

Figure 3.1: Average occupancy rate of early childhood education services by service type (2001 to 2007)Figure 3.1: Average occupancy rate of early childhood education services by service type (2001 to 2007)

Note:
  1. Source: Ministry of Education.

Operating balance

Over time, income must more than cover expenses if services are to remain financially viable. Services with a higher level of expenses than income are said to have an operating deficit. The data show:

  • the proportion of community-based services with an operating deficit has fallen from 40 percent in 2001 to 36 percent in 2006
  • the proportion of community-based services with an operating deficit greater than 10 percent of their operating income has fallen from 16 percent in 2001 to 15 percent in 2006
  • six percent of community-based services in 2003 had an operating deficit for three consecutive years, but by 2006 this figure had fallen to four percent (see Table 3.1).


Although operating balances fluctuate from year to year, the data suggest no deterioration in financial sustainability. If anything, sustainability has improved.


Table 3.1: Proportion of community-based kindergartens, education and care services and playcentres by extent of operating deficit (2001 to 2006)
Year
Operating deficitOperating deficit over 10 percent Operating deficit for three consecutive years
2001 40.1>16.0 
2002 39.114.7 
2003 39.013.7 6.0
200439.816.65.2
200534.513.94.8
200635.615.0 4.2
Notes:
  1. Source: Ministry of Education.
  2. Data was first collected in 2001; therefore the proportion of community-based services having an operating deficit for three consecutive years starts in 2003.


Teacher turnover

Services with a higher turnover of teachers tend to be more likely to close. One reason is that they risk jeopardising their licence by having fewer than the required number of registered teachers. Higher turnover may also reflect fundamental problems in the service that result in teachers leaving and may also make the service less attractive to parents, resulting in declining rolls and reduced sustainability. The data show:

  • after falling between 2002 and 2004, teacher turnover in teacher-led services has been back at its 2002 level of 20 percent for the past two years
  • in 2007, 4.9 percent of services had higher than two-thirds teacher turnover and 19.1 percent had a turnover greater than one-third. This compares with rates of 4.6 percent and 19.3 percent respectively in 2002
  • the proportion of teachers leaving the sector has fallen over the last few years. In 2007, 7.7 percent of teachers left their jobs without getting employment in other early childhood education jobs in New Zealand, down from 10.4 percent in 2002.


The lower loss of teachers from the sector is positive for sector sustainability, but turnover within services has increased in the past few years.


Service closures

The number of closures is an indication of how well the sector is sustaining its operations. The lower rate of closures suggests that sustainability in the sector has improved (see Figure 3.2). The data show:

  1. in 2007, 54 services closed and 136 services opened
  2. 1.5 percent of services closed in 2007, down on its rate earlier in the decade (2.3 percent in 2000) and close to recent lows (1.4 percent in 2005)
  3. the rate of services opening was 3.7 percent in 2007, which is down on the highs earlier this decade (4.4 percent in 2000) but up from the recent lows (2.7 percent in 2005)
  4. in 2007 the total number of services rose by 2.2 percent.



Figure 3.2: Proportion of licensed services opening and closing each year, and the proportion opened less the proportion closed (2000 to 2007)
Figure 3.2: Proportion of licensed services opening and closing each year, and the proportion opened less the proportion closed (2000 to 2007)
Note:

  1. Source: Ministry of Education.

Where to find out more about Sustainability:

Publication Link
 Indicator Icon  Evaluation of the Sustainability of ECE Services during the Implementation of Pathways to the Future:
         Ngā Huarahi Arataki

4. Teaching 

What we have found 

Since the early childhood education strategic plan was first implemented in 2002, the proportion of teachers in early childhood education who are qualified and registered has increased. Sixty percent of early childhood teachers were registered or qualified in 2007. 

Forty-nine percent of all unqualified teachers employed in the early childhood education sector in 2007 were enrolled in tertiary education courses leading to teacher registration. 

This means that 80 percent of teachers are either qualified or in the process of gaining appropriate qualifications. 


Why this is important 

Children benefit from participation in quality early childhood education services. That quality is achieved through a number of interacting factors. Teaching is just one aspect of quality and is the result of factors such as the proportion of qualified teachers, the number of children (or group size), and the qualification levels of teachers.8 

One of the ways to improve the quality of early childhood education is to increase the number of qualified and registered early childhood education teachers. Teacher registration ensures the quality of teachers because it shows that newly graduated teachers have completed suitable teacher education programmes and are supervised and supported through an advice and guidance programme. 

Gaining full registration and maintaining practice certificates helps to ensure currency of professional knowledge and practice. The early childhood strategic plan has the target that, by 2012, all regulated staff9 in teacher-led early childhood education services must be registered or enrolled in approved early childhood teacher education programmes. 


How we are going 

Registered and qualified teachers 

Before teachers can become registered with the New Zealand Teachers’ Council (NZTC), they must hold a qualification approved by the Council. Once qualified, teachers can then apply for provisional registration with the Council, as long as they are of good character and are fit to be teachers. 

The proportion of early childhood teachers who are qualified and registered with the NZTC has increased since 2002. The data show: 

  • 60 percent of early childhood teachers held a qualification that met NZTC teacher registration requirements in 2007. This has increased from 49 percent in 2002 (see Figure 4.1)
  • 54 percent of early childhood teachers in education and care services held qualifications that met NZTC registration requirements in 2007. This has increased from 39 percent in 2002. As kindergarten teachers have been required to be registered teachers for some time, most of the unqualified teachers are in education and care services
  • the gap between the number of qualified teachers and the number of registered teachers that existed in 2002 has disappeared. This is because “person(s) responsible” regulations and changes to the funding of services provided incentives for existing qualified teachers to become registered in 2005. As such, there was a large one-off increase in the percentage of teachers registered in 2005 (52 percent), compared to 2004 (37 percent)
  • in 2007, the percentages of Asian (48 percent) and Maori (49 percent) qualified teachers were lower than for European/Pakeha (64 percent) (see Figure 4.2). Pasifika teachers, currently 53 percent qualified, are becoming qualified twice as fast as non-Pasifika teachers
  • at the regional level, West Coast (47 percent), Auckland (54 percent), Waikato (55 percent) and the Bay of Plenty (55 percent) had the lowest proportion of qualified teachers. These regions employ over half of the early childhood education service teachers in New Zealand. Tasman (79 percent) and Nelson (74 percent) have the highest proportion of registered teachers. 



Figure 4.1: Qualification and registration status of early childhood teachers in teacher-led services by service type (2002 to 2007)
Figure 4.1: Qualification and registration status of early childhood teachers in teacher-led services by service type (2002 to 2007)
Notes:

  1. Source: Ministry of Education.
  2. Caregivers in home-based networks are excluded.


Figure 4.2: Qualification and registration status of early childhood teachers by ethnic group (2007) Figure 4.2: Qualification and registration status of early childhood teachers by ethnic group (2007)
Notes:
  1. Source: Ministry of Education.
  2. Caregivers in home-based networks are excluded.



Enrolments and graduates from NZTC-approved early childhood education tertiary courses 

The number of enrolments in tertiary courses leading to qualifications that meet NZTC registration requirements and the number of completed qualifications from these courses have both increased since 2002. The data show: 

  • the number of enrolments in tertiary courses that can lead to teacher registration increased by 45 percent between 2002 and 2006
  • the number of completions increased by 44 percent between 2002 and 2006 (see Table 4.1)
  • the growth in enrolments of Maori students since 2002 (81 percent) is greater than that of non-Maori students (42 percent). The growth in enrolments of Pasifika students since 2002 (93 percent) is greater than that of non-Pasifika students (41 percent). 
 
Table 4.1: Enrolments and completions from tertiary early childhood education courses leading to teacher registration (2002 to 2006)
 20022003200420052006
Enrolments4,9405,4505,970 6,450 7,160
Completions1,070 1,1501,3201,4701,540
Notes:
  1. Source: Ministry of Education.
  2. Data may differ from that published previously owing to changes in methodology.


Teachers in study 

In order to meet the goal of all regulated staff in teacher-led early childhood education services being qualified and registered or enrolled in an approved early childhood teacher education programme by 2012, existing unqualified teachers need to be in study for NZTC-approved qualifications. The data show: 

  • more than 2,950 unqualified teachers (49 percent of all unqualified teachers) were in study in 2007 for qualifications approved by the NZTC (see Table 4.2).
   

Table 4.2: Number of unqualified early childhood teachers in study for a qualification approved by the NZTC by service type and expected year of graduation (2007)
Service Type200720082009 2010 Total
Free kindergartens725014
Education and care 7601,0307963552,941
Total767 1,0328013552,955
Notes:
  1. Source: Ministry of Education.
  2. Education and care services include casual-education and care services.
  


Where to find out more about Teaching:

Links to: Publications
Publications Series
 Indicator Icon  COI (Centres of Innovation)
 Indicator Icon  ECE Teacher-led Workforce Survey 2003
Individual Publications
 Indicator Icon  Quality Teaching Early Foundations - Best Evicence Synthesis (BES)
 Indicator Icon  Perceptions of Teachers and Teaching: A Focus on ECE

Footnotes

  1. Wylie, C., Hodgen, E., Ferral, H., & Thompson, J. (2006).
  2. NICHD Early Childcare Research Network. (2006).
  3. Leseman, P. P. M. (2002).
  4. A school’s decile indicates the extent to which the school draws its students from low socio-economic communities. Quintile 1 schools (deciles 1 and 2) are the 20 percent of schools with the highest proportion of students from low socio-economic communities, whereas quintile 5 schools (deciles 9 and 10) are the 20 percent of schools with the lowest proportion of these students. A school’s decile represents a proxy of the overall socio-economic mix of the students in the school.
  5. The ‘hours on offer’ figure takes account of the fact that services tend to operate below their maximum capacities.
  6. Average hourly ordinary-time earnings (from Statistics New Zealand’s Quarterly Employment Survey) are used as a proxy for income.
  7. Occupancy rate, as calculated here, refers to funded child hours or maximum funded child hours. Funded child hours are the number of hours that children are enrolled to attend and that Ministry of Education provides funding for. Maximum funded child hours are the maximum number of enrolled hours the Ministry of Education will provide funding for. Not included in the calculation are hours beyond the hours funded by the Ministry of Education. In the period covered, the maximum number of funded hours per day was six hours per licensed place and the maximum per week was 30 hours per licensed place.
  8. Farquhar, S. (2003b).
  9. ‘Regulated staff’ means those staff required to meet the adult-to-child ratios prescribed in the Education (Early Childhood Centres) Regulations 1998.

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