Participation in early childhood education
Change in Data Collection Method
A new collection method, the 'Early Learning Information' (ELI) system was introduced in 2014 for some services. In 2014 a combination of two data collections was used; 1,600 (40%) services completed the Annual ECE Census via ELI, while 3,556 (60%) services completed the Census via the paper collection method (RS61).
2014 was a transition year in getting services migrated onto ELI. This transitional year for services means that comparisons between years and between groupings of services should be treated with caution for particular measures. There are breaks in all graphs affected to highlight this transition to the new data collection method, and where previous years' data cannot be compared to 2014 data.
Date Updated: October 2015
What We Have Found
ECE participation has increased steadily between 2000 and 2015. The prior ECE attendance of children starting school rose by 6.2 percentage points, from 90.0% in June 2000 to 96.2% for the year ended June 2015.
Children are spending more hours in ECE. The average number of weekly hours per enrolment rose from 13.5 in 2000 to 20.7 hours in 2014 – a rise of 53.3%.
New Zealand is ranked in the top third of OECD countries for participation in early childhood education.
Three indicators have been used in this report. They are:
Prior participation in ECE, 2000-2015. This shows prior participation in ECE for children starting school. The indicator focuses on changes across ethnic groups between 2000 and 2015.
Enrolment/attendance1 rates in ECE, 2000-2014. This shows the number of enrolments/attendances in ECE over time as a percentage of the population. The indicator focuses on differences between years of age and compares enrolment patterns across different service types and ethnic groups. This section also compares participation in New Zealand with that in other OECD countries.
Average hours per week spent in ECE, 2000-2014. This shows average number of hours per week that children have spent in ECE. The indicator focuses on differences between years of age and service types.
Why This Is Important
Participation in high quality ECE has significant benefits for children and their future learning ability. Some studies have found that engagement in ECE helps to develop strong foundations for future learning success (Statistics NZ and Ministry of Pacific Island Affairs, 2010).These effects apply to all children but may be particularly important for building academic achievement in children from poorer communities and socio-economic backgrounds (ibid, and Mitchell, et al, 2008).
ECE has been shown to positively impact literacy, numeracy, and problem-solving skills well into the teenage years, while other studies have shown that high quality ECE encourages the development of cognitive and attitudinal competencies, and leads to higher levels of achievement and better social outcomes (Mitchell, et al, 2008, OECD, 2013, Statistics NZ and Ministry of Pacific Island Affairs, 2010, and Wylie et al, 2009).
International and longitudinal studies have also found that participation in high quality ECE can translate into improved longer-term outcomes. Several studies have identified links between participation in ECE and better social and economic outcomes for children when they reach older ages (Wylie et al, 2009). This link is, again, strong for disadvantaged children. Some studies have also identified positive relationships between ECE participation and the affect on wider societal outcomes; for example, ensuring participation in the labour force and in building labour force capability (Ministry of Women's Affairs, 2004).
ECE Participation has been identified as a key factor in supporting vulnerable children which has led to its inclusion in the Better Public Services targets, launched in 2012. This target aims to increase participation in quality early childhood education to 98% of all new entrants by 2016 (State Services Commission, 2015).
How We Are Going
There have been steady rises in ECE participation between 2000 and 2015 (Figure 1). Overall, participation increased by 6.2 percentage points, rising from 90.0% of all children starting school to 96.2%.
European children were the most likely to attend ECE across the period, with participation rates reaching 98.0%, while Māori and Pasifika children continued to be the least likely to attend.
Figure 1: Prior participation in ECE of children starting school by ethnic group, 2000-2015
However, the rise in participation is greatest for Pasifika and Māori children. These groups' participation rose by 15.4 and 10.9 percentage points respectively, between 2000 and 2015. By 2015, 91.2% of Pasifika and 94.0% of Māori children had participated in ECE before starting school, compared with 75.8% and 83.1% respectively, in 2000.
The ECE Participation Programme was introduced in 2010 to improve participation in ECE, by targeting specific local areas where participation is low. This Programme is made up of various initiatives that aim to support Māori, Pasifika, and low-income families to enrol their children in ECE. In June 2015, 91% of the children in participation initiatives came from target groups: 80% of children were from low socio-economic communities; 41% identified as Māori; 29% identified as Pasifika; and an additional 10% identified as both Māori and Pasifika.
There has been two distinct periods of participation growth over the last 13 years. Children in most ethnic groups maintained steady rises in participation from around 2008. The introduction of 20 Hours ECE in 2007 encouraged higher uptake of ECE across all groups of children, and accounts for much of this trend. Māori and Pasifika rates have also had larger gains since 2012, which may reflect the impact of participation initiatives introduced since 2010.
The other significant period of rise in participation was between 2001 and 2004 which was, again, especially distinct in the increase of Pasifika and Māori participation. Much of the policy that was developed over this period was designed to increase access to and uptake of ECE for families from lower socio-economic backgrounds (Adema, 2006, and McTaggart, 2005). They included
- rises in funding for the Childcare Subsidy in the early-2000s
- the expansion of the Family Start programme in 2001 and
- the initiation of Equity Funding for community-based services in 2002.
Enrolment/attendance rates by age
Children aged 3 and 4 are the most likely to participate in ECE. Collectively they made up between 60.7% and 66.9% of the total number of children enrolled/attending between 2000 and 2014.
Figure 2 shows enrolment/attendance rates (the number of enrolments/attendances as a percentage of population for each year of age). In June 2014, the rates varied from 15.8% for under-ones to 97.1% for four year-olds. At 93.1%, the rates of three year-olds are close to those of four year-olds.
The overall enrolment/attendance rate for 0-4 year-olds (weighted by their population share in 2014) has risen consistently over time. It increased by 5.6 percentage points in the ten years to 2014, rising from 57.4% to 63.0%. The rates rose gradually for all age groups in the early 2000's, but have ramped up for those aged under one, one and two years old in recent years.
Figure 2: Enrolment/attendance rates in licensed ECE services, by year of age, 2000-2014
Population is one of the main influences on ECE enrolments. Between 2000 and 2007, the population of those aged 2 years and under grew by 5.5% compared with 0.3% for children aged 3 and 4. This partially accounts for this groups' markedly higher rise in enrolments, up 27.0% compared with 3.9% for older children over this period. Enrolment rates for younger children also rose at a faster rate than for older children between 2000 and 2007 (5.9% compared with 3.2%).
Because children are counted more than once if they attend more than one service, enrolment rates tend to overstate true population participation rates, and in fact can go over 100%.
However, between 2007 and 2014, the population of children aged 3 and 4 grew faster than that of children aged under 3 (11.5% compared with 1.4%), Despite this growth, enrolment numbers of younger children grew much faster than those of older children (21.3% compared with 13.4%).This period of population growth also coincided with the introduction of 20 Hours ECE, which introduced a higher government subsidy rate up to 20 hours a week for children aged 3 and 4. This saw the enrolment rate for 3 year-olds jump from 89.6% to 92.5% between 2007 and 2008.
Figure 3 shows how changes in population (in this case, for children aged 3) are reflected in changes in enrolment numbers. Both population and funding changes led to noticeable increases in enrolments for children aged 3 and 4 from 2007.
Figure 3: Population, enrolments and enrolment rates for 3 year-olds, 2000-2014
Participation by type of service
Most children are enrolled in education & care services, as can be seen in Figure 4. These services took 63% of the number of enrolments/attendances in licensed ECE services in 2014. Kindergartens had the next largest share (16%), followed by home-based services (10%), playcentres (6%), and kōhanga reo (5%).
In 2014, only two service types had a greater number of enrolments/attendances compared with 2004. In education and care services, enrolments/attendances have grown 56% over the last ten years, while in home-based services they have grown by 93%.
Overall, the growth in enrolment rates between 2000 and 2014 has been highest for children aged one, two and three years. There was a 17 percentage point increase in the proportion of 2 year-olds enrolled from 48% to 65%. Similarly the proportion of 1 year-olds enrolled increased from 29% to 44% and the proportion of 3 year-olds enrolled rose from 85% to 96% over the same period.
Figure 4: Number of enrolments/attendances by service type, 2000-20142
This is consistent with the rapid growth in the number of these services. By contrast, enrolments fell in kindergartens (by 22%), kōhanga reo (by 11%), and playcentres (by 11%).
The fall in kindergarten enrolments was due to the change from being mostly sessional services to mostly all-day services, with their number of enrolments consequently falling and their average hours per enrolment rising.
Children of different ages use ECE in different ways. Figure 5 shows how each age group is spread across the service types. A greater proportion of younger children use playcentres and home-based services, while a greater percentage of older children use kindergartens. As a consequence, use of education & care services is highest for the mid-age children (two year-olds) than for any other age group.
ECE use also varies across the ethnic groups (Figure 6 below). For Māori, 18.5% of enrolments are in kōhanga reo, with fewer being in education & care services as a consequence. Playcentres and home-based services are more likely to be used by European/Pākehā children than by other ethnic groups. Kindergartens are the only service type where use across the ethnic groups is most consistent, with it ranging from 15.3% to 16.9%.
Figure 5: Percentage of enrolments/attendances in each service type, by year of age 20142
Figure 6: Percentage of enrolments/attendances in each service type, by ethnic group 20142
Internationally, New Zealand has comparatively high ECE participation
An international comparison of enrolment rates for children aged 3-4 years shows that New Zealand ranked 12th highest across OECD countries in 2012 (Figure 7). This is the latest year of comparative data currently available.
Overall, the average enrolment rate for 3-4 year-olds in early childhood and primary education across the OECD was 76.2% while the enrolment rate for New Zealand 3-4 year-olds was 90.7%.
Figure 7: Enrolment rates of 3-4 year olds in early childhood or primary education by OECD country, 2012.
Children are spending more time in ECE per week
The time that children spend in ECE per week has been increasing. Figure 8 (below) shows that the average number of hours per enrolment per week rose from 13.5 hours in 2000 to 21.7 hours in 2013 (up 69.9%).
While historically, younger children, on average, have spent one or two more hours in ECE per week than their older counterparts, this gap has been narrowing since the introduction of 20 Hours ECE in 2007. In 2012, average hours spent in ECE for older children overtook those of younger children.
Certain types of services tend to be used by children of particular ages which, in turn, affect the number of hours children attend each week. Kindergartens and playcentres are more likely than other services to provide shorter, sessional services which may lower the number of hours children will attend ECE, in particular where those children do not also enrol in other forms of ECE.
The shorter average hours for all age groups in 2014 are likely due to the change in data collection in that we are now collecting different data. Prior to 2014 we collected data on the enrolled hours of children, whilst in 2014 data was collected on the actual attendances of children.
Figure 8: Average hours spent per week in ECE per enrolment/attendance by age group, 2000-2014
Figure 9 shows that kindergartens and playcentres tend to have longer hours of attendance for older children while home-based services have longer hours for younger children. In some cases, there has been some notable cross-over in the ages of children that will use certain types of ECE services. For instance, hours spent at kindergarten services increased over the period. This may be because of changes to funding criteria in the mid-2000s which led many kindergartens to incorporate all-day rather than sessional formats.
Hours spent at education and care services also increased over the period and most significantly for older-aged children, up 61% for 3 year-olds and 51% for 4 year-olds on 2000. Average hours spent in education and care services for 4 year-olds is now at a similar level with time spent for 1 year-olds which suggests a possible change in preference for service types for the older age groups.
There have been visible changes in ECE service preference over time. These changes may be linked to how parents have been participating in the labour market, and have meant that factors like cost, flexibility in the length of sessions provided, and levels of parental involvement have become prominent in how families assess what services they use (Adema, 2006).
For instance, in the mid-1990s, session-based kindergartens that catered for older children and that had a high level of parental involvement also had higher enrolments (ibid). Today, services that offer higher levels of flexibility in the length and regularity of their services, cater for younger children, and do not require parental involvement (such as education and care, 'full day' kindergarteners and home-based services) are most popular (Ministry of Women's Affairs, 2004, Ministry of Education, 2012, Adema, 2006).
Figure 9: Average number of hours spent per week in ECE per enrolment/attendance by year of age and service type between 2000 and 2014
- The term enrolments/attendances refers to 2014 data, when there was a change in data collection method, and 2014 has been a transition year. Prior to 2014, data was collected on the count of children enrolled in each service, whereas in 2014 data was collected on combination of the count of children enrolled in a service, as well as the count of the number of children attending in a service.
- Figures 4-6 exclude The Correspondence School, hospital-based, casual education and care services and playgroups.
- Adema, W. (2006). Towards coherent care and education support policies for New Zealand families. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, Issue 28, p46-76. Retrieved from http://www.msd.govt.nz/about-msd-and-our-work/publications-resources/journals-and-magazines/social-policy-journal/spj28/28-towards-coherent-care-and-education-support-policies-for-new-zealand-families-p46-76.html on 28 October 2015.
- McTaggart, S. (2005). Monitoring the impact of social policy, 1980-2001: Report on significant policy events. Wellington: Social Policy Evaluation & Research Committee.
- Ministry of Education (2012). Provision of ECE services
- Ministry of Women's Affairs (2004). Influences of maternal employment and early childhood education on young children's cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20061008212034/http://www.mwa.govt.nz/news-and-pubs/publications/az-publications/index.html on 28 October 2015
- Mitchell, L. Wylie, C. & Carr, M. (2008). Outcomes of early childhood education: Literature review. A report by the New Zealand Council for Educational Research for the Ministry of Education. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
- OECD (2013). PISA 2012 Results: Excellence Through Equity: Giving Every Student the Chance to Succeed (Volume II), PISA, OECD Publishing. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264201132-en on 28 October 2015.
- OECD (2013). Education at a glance 2013: OECD indicators. OECD Publishing. Table C1.1a Enrolment rates by age (2011).
- State Services Commission (2013). Better public services: Supporting vulnerable children. Retrieved from http://www.ssc.govt.nz/bps-supporting-vulnerable-children on 28 October 2015.
- Statistics New Zealand and Ministry of Pacific Island Affairs (2010). Education and Pacific peoples in New Zealand. Wellington: Author. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/people_and_communities/pacific_peoples/pacific-progress-education.aspx on 28 October 2015.
- Wylie, C., Hodgen, E., Hipkins, R., & Vaughan K. (2009). Competent learners on the edge of adulthood: A summary of key findings from the Competent Learners @ 16 project. Wellington: Ministry of Education and New Zealand Centre for Education Research.
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